Japanese National Railways
Japanese National Railways, abbreviated Kokutetsu or "JNR", was the business entity that operated Japan's national railway network from 1949 to 1987. As of June 1, 1949, the date of establishment of JNR, it operated 19,756.8 km of narrow gauge railways in all 46 prefectures of Japan. This figure expanded to 21,421.1 km in 1981, but reduced to 19,633.6 km as of March 31, 1987, the last day of JNR. JNR operated both freight services. Shinkansen, the world's first high-speed railway was debuted by JNR in 1964. By the end of JNR in 1987, four lines were constructed: Tōkaidō Shinkansen 515.4 km, completed in 1964 Sanyō Shinkansen 553.7 km, completed in 1975 Tōhoku Shinkansen 492.9 km, as of 1987 Jōetsu Shinkansen 269.5 km, completed in 1982 JNR operated bus lines as feeders, supplements or substitutions of railways. Unlike railway operation, JNR Bus was not superior to other local bus operators; the JR Bus companies are the successors of the bus operation of JNR. JNR operated ferries to connect railway networks separated by sea or to meet other local demands: Kanmon Ferry Shimonoseki Station – Mojikō Station Miyajima Ferry Miyajimaguchi Station – Miyajima Station Nihori Ferry Nigata Station – Horie Station Ōshima Ferry Ōbatake Station – Komatsukō Station Seikan Ferry Aomori Station – Hakodate Station Ukō Ferry Uno Station – Takamatsu Station Out of three routes assigned to JR companies in 1987, only the Miyajima Ferry remains active as of 2010.
A number of unions represented workers at JNR, including the National Railway Workers' Union, the National Railway Locomotive Engineers' Union, Doro-Chiba, a break-away group from Doro. The term Kokuyū Tetsudō "state-owned railway" referred to a network of railway lines operated by 17 private companies that were nationalized following the Railway Nationalization Act of 1906 and placed under the control of the Railway Institute; the Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Transportation and Communications took over control of the network. The ministries used. During World War II, many JGR lines were dismantled to supply steel for the war effort. On June 1, 1949 by a directive of the U. S. General HQ in Tokyo, JGR was reorganized into Japanese National Railways, a state-owned public corporation. JNR enjoyed many successes, including the October 1, 1964 inauguration of high-speed Shinkansen service along the Tōkaidō Shinkansen line. However, JNR was not a state-run corporation. Rural sections without enough passengers began to press its management, pulling it further and further into debt.
In 1983, JNR started to close its unprofitable 83 local lines. By 1987, JNR's debt was over ¥27 trillion and the company was spending ¥147 for every ¥100 earned. By an act of the Diet of Japan, on April 1, 1987 JNR was privatized and divided into seven railway companies, six passenger and one freight, collectively called the Japan Railways Group or JR Group. Long-term liabilities of JNR were taken over by the JNR Settlement Corporation; that corporation was subsequently disbanded on October 22, 1998, its remaining debts were transferred to the national budget's general accounting. By this time the debt has risen to ¥30 trillion. Many lawsuits and labor commission cases were filed over the decades from the privatization in 1987. Kokuro and the National Railway Locomotive Engineers' Union, both prominent Japanese railway unions, represented a number of the JNR workers. Lists of workers to be employed by the new organizations were drawn up by JNR and given to the JR companies. There was substantial pressure on union members to leave their unions, within a year, the membership of the National Railway Workers' Union fell from 200,000 to 44,000.
Workers who had supported the privatization, or those who left Kokuro, were hired at higher rates than Kokuro members. There was a government pledge that no one would be "thrown out onto the street", so unhired workers were classified as "needing to be employed" and were transferred to the JNR Settlement Corporation, where they could be assigned for up to three years. Around 7,600 workers were transferred in this way, around 2,000 of them were hired by JR firms, 3,000 found work elsewhere. Mitomu Yamaguchi, a former JNR employee from Tosu in Saga prefecture, transferred to the JNR Settlement Corporation stated that their help in finding work consisted of giving him photocopies of recruitment ads from newspapers; this period ended in April 1990, 1,047 were dismissed. This included 966 Kokuro members. Twenty-three years after the original privatization, on June 28, 2010, the Supreme Court settled the dispute between the workers and the Japan Railway Construction and Technology Agency, the successor body to the JNR Settlement Corporation.
The agency said it would pay 20 billion yen 22 million yen per worker, to 904 plaintiffs. However, as the workers were not reinstated, it was not a full
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre 70 kilometres east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of 29 km. The earthquake is referred to in Japan as the Great East Japan Earthquake and is known as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, the Great Sendai Earthquake, the Great Tōhoku Earthquake, the 3.11 earthquake. It was the most powerful earthquake recorded in Japan, the fourth most powerful earthquake in the world since modern record-keeping began in 1900; the earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves that may have reached heights of up to 40.5 metres in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture, which, in the Sendai area, traveled up to 10 km inland. The earthquake moved Honshu 2.4 m east, shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm and 25 cm, increased earth's rotational speed by 1.8 µs per day, generated infrasound waves detected in perturbations of the low-orbiting GOCE satellite.
The earthquake caused sinking of part of Honshu's Pacific coast by up to a metre, but after about three years, the coast rose back and kept on rising to exceed its original height. The tsunami swept the Japanese mainland and killed over ten thousand people through drowning, though blunt trauma caused many deaths; the latest report from the Japanese National Police Agency report confirms 15,897 deaths, 6,157 injured, 2,533 people missing across twenty prefectures, a report from 2015 indicated 228,863 people were still living away from their home in either temporary housing or due to permanent relocation. A report by the National Police Agency of Japan on 10 September 2018 listed 121,778 buildings as "total collapsed", with a further 280,926 buildings "half collapsed", another 699,180 buildings "partially damaged"; the earthquake and tsunami caused extensive and severe structural damage in north-eastern Japan, including heavy damage to roads and railways as well as fires in many areas, a dam collapse.
Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan." Around 4.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water. The tsunami caused nuclear accidents the level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant complex, the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. Many electrical generators were taken down, at least three nuclear reactors suffered explosions due to hydrogen gas that had built up within their outer containment buildings after cooling system failure resulting from the loss of electrical power. Residents within a 20 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and a 10 km radius of the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant were evacuated. Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to $34.6 billion. The Bank of Japan offered ¥15 trillion to the banking system on 14 March in an effort to normalize market conditions.
The World Bank's estimated economic cost was US$235 billion, making it the costliest natural disaster in history. The 9.1-magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 JST in the north-western Pacific Ocean at a shallow depth of 32 km, with its epicenter 72 km east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku, lasting six minutes. The earthquake was reported as 7.9 Mw by the USGS before it was upgraded to 8.8 Mw to 8.9 Mw, finally to 9.0 Mw. On 11 July 2016, the USGS further upgraded the earthquake to 9.1. Sendai was the nearest major city to the earthquake, 130 km from the epicenter; the main earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, with hundreds of aftershocks reported. One of the first major foreshocks was a 7.2 Mw event on 9 March 40 km from the epicenter of 11 March earthquake, with another three on the same day in excess of 6.0 Mw. Following the main earthquake on 11 March, a 7.4 Mw aftershock was reported at 15:08 JST, succeeded by a 7.9 Mw at 15:15 JST and a 7.7 Mw at 15:26 JST.
Over eight hundred aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 Mw or greater have occurred since the initial quake, including one on 26 October 2013 of magnitude 7.1 Mw. Aftershocks follow Omori's law, which states that the rate of aftershocks declines with the reciprocal of the time since the main quake; the aftershocks could continue for years. This megathrust earthquake was a recurrence of the mechanism of the earlier 869 Sanriku earthquake, estimated as having a magnitude of at least 8.4 Mw, which created a large tsunami that inundated the Sendai plain. Three tsunami deposits have been identified within the Holocene sequence of the plain, all formed within the last 3,000 years, suggesting an 800 to 1,100 year recurrence interval for large tsunamigenic earthquakes. In 2001 it was reckoned that there was a high likelihood of a large tsunami hitting the Sendai plain as more than 1,100 years had elapsed. In 2007, the probability of an earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 8.1–8.3 was estimated as 99% within the following 30 years.
This earthquake occurred where the Pacific Plate is subducting under the plate beneath northe
Rikuzen-Inai Station is a railway station in the city of Ishinomaki, Miyagi Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Rikuzen-Inai Station is served by the Ishinomaki Line, is located 30.9 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Kogota Station. The station is served by local trains of the Senseki-Tōhoku Line, which uses the same track. Rikuzen-Inai Station has one side platform, serving traffic a single bi-directional line; the station is unattended. Rikuzen-Inai Station opened on October 7, 1939; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987. Operations of the line and the station were suspended by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. Services were resumed on March 17, 2013 on the Ishinomaki Line, on August 6, 2016 on the Senseki-Tōhoku Line. Former Inai Town Hall Inai Post Office List of railway stations in Japan Official website
Watanoha Station is a railway station in Ishinomaki, Miyagi Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Watanoha Station is served by the Ishinomaki Line, is located 35.9 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Kogota Station. It is the terminus of the 47.2 kilometer Senseki-Tōhoku Line from Sendai. Watanoha Station has two opposed side platforms connected to the station building by a level crossing. Watanoha Station opened on October 7, 1939. Operations of the line and the station were suspended by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. Services were resumed from Ishinomaki Station to Watanoha on March 17, 2012, from Watanoha to Urashuku Station on March 16, 2013. Ishinomaki City Hall Watanoha branch office National Route 398 Mangokuura Port Watanoha Post Office In fiscal 2016, the station was used by an average of 524 passengers daily. List of railway stations in Japan Official website
Sawada Station is a railway station on the Ishinomaki Line in Ishinomaki, Miyagi Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Sawada Station is served by the Ishinomaki Line, is located 38.3 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Kogota Station. Sawada Station has one side platform, serving a single bi-directional track; the station is unattended and there is no station building. Sawada Station opened on October 7, 1939; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987. Operations of the line and the station were suspended by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. Services were resumed on March 16, 2013. National Route 398 Mangokuura Port List of railway stations in Japan Official website
Kanomata Station is a railway station on the Ishinomaki Line in Ishinomaki, Miyagi Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Kanomata Station is served by the Ishinomaki Line, is located 21.2 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Kogota Station. Kanomata Station has two opposed side platforms, connected to the station building by a footbridge; the station is unattended. Kanomata Station opened on October 28, 1912; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987. Operations of the line and the station were suspended by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. Services were resumed on March 17, 2013. National Route 45 Miyagi Prefectural Kannan High School Kanomata Post Office List of railway stations in Japan Official website
Kogota Station is a railway station in the town of Misato, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Kogota Station is served by three lines: the Tōhoku Main Line, the Ishinomaki Line, the Rikuu East Line, it is located 395.0 rail kilometers from the terminus of the Tōhoku Main Line at Tokyo Station. It is the western terminus of the Ishinomaki Line. Most Kesennuma Line trains use Kogota station as their operating terminus, although the line physically ends at Maeyachi Station. Kogota Station has two island platforms serving four tracks; the platforms are connected by a footbridge. The station has a "Midori no Madoguchi" staffed ticket office. Kogota Station opened on April 1890 on what would become the Tōhoku Main Line; the Ishinomaki Line opened on October 28, 1912, the Rikuu Line opened on April 20, 1913. The station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987. In fiscal 2016, the station was used by an average of 2,097 passengers daily. Kogota Post Office National Route 108 List of Railway Stations in Japan Media related to Kogota Station at Wikimedia Commons Official website