Greek ironclad Spetsai
Spetsai was a Greek ironclad battleship of the Hydra class that served in the Royal Hellenic Navy from 1890 until 1920. She was named after the Saronic Gulf island of Spetses, which played a key role in the war at sea during the Greek War of Independence. Spetsai she was ordered in 1885 in response to a crisis in the Balkans and Ottoman naval expansion; the ship was launched in 1889 and delivered to Greece by 1902. She was armed with a main battery of three 10.8 inches guns and five 5.9 inches guns, had a top speed of 17 knots. Spetsai and her sisters saw extensive service with the Greek Navy, they participated in the Greco–Turkish War in 1897 until the Great Powers intervened and prevented the Greek Navy from capitalizing on their superiority over the Ottoman Navy. Psara saw action in the First Balkan War at the Naval Battle of Elli and was present at the Naval Battle of Lemnos, but was too slow to engage the Ottoman forces, she did not see action during World War I, was used as a naval communications school until 1929, when she was sold for scrapping.
Spetsai was 334 feet 8 inches long between perpendiculars and had a beam of 51 ft 10 in and a mean draft of 18 ft. She displaced 4,808 long tons as built, she was powered by a pair of steam engines of unknown type. Coal storage amounted to 500 long tons. Spetsai's main battery consisted of three 10.8-inch guns. Two guns were mounted forward in barbettes on either side of the forward superstructure; the third gun, a L/28 gun, was placed in a turret aft. The secondary battery consisted of four 5.9-inch L/36 guns in casemates were mounted below the forward main battery, a fifth 5.9-inch gun was placed on the centerline on the same deck as the main battery. A number of smaller guns were carried for defense against torpedo boats; these included four 3.4-inch L/22 guns, four 3-pounder guns, four 1-pounder guns, six 1-pounder revolver cannons. The ship was armed with three 14-inch torpedo tubes; the ship was armored with a mix of compound steel. The main belt was 12 in thick and the main battery was protected by up to 14 in of armor.
In 1885, Greece ordered three new ironclads of the Hydra class. Spetsai was ordered from the Société Nouvelle des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée shipyard in Le Havre, France during the premiership of Charilaos Trikoupis; the ship, named for the island of Spetsai, was launched on 26 October 1889, by 1892, she and her sister-ships Hydra and Psara were delivered to the Greek fleet. Spetsai saw limited action in the Greco–Turkish War in 1897, as the Royal Hellenic Navy was unable to make use of its superiority over the Ottoman Navy; the Ottoman Navy had remained in port during the conflict, but a major naval intervention of the Great Powers prevented the Greeks from capitalizing on their superiority. The conflict was centered on the island of Crete, the object of an international naval demonstration in 1897–1898. In 1897–1900, Spetsai and her sister-ships were rearmed, their small-caliber guns were replaced with one 3.9-inch gun forward, eight 65 mm guns, four 3-pounders, ten 1-pounder revolver cannons.
One of the 14-inch torpedo tubes was replaced with a 15-inch weapon. In 1908–1910, the old 5.9 in guns were replaced with new, longer L/45 models. The Balkan League, of which Greece was a member, declared war on the Ottoman Empire in October 1912. Two months the Ottoman fleet attacked the Greek navy, in an attempt to disrupt the naval blockade surrounding the Dardanelles; the Ottoman fleet, which included the pre-dreadnought battleships Turgut Reis, Barbaros Hayreddin, the outdated ironclad battleships Mesudiye and Âsâr-ı Tevfik, nine destroyers, six torpedo boats, sortied from the Dardanelles in the morning, at 09:30. The smaller ships remained at the mouth of the straits while the battleships sailed north, remaining near to the coast; the Greek flotilla, which included the armored cruiser Georgios Averof and Spetsai and her sisters, had been sailing from the island of Imbros to the patrol line outside the straits. When the Ottomans were sighted, the Greeks altered course to the northeast in order to block the advance of their opponents.
In the ensuing Naval Battle of Elli, the Ottoman ships opened fire first, at 09:50, from a range of about 15,000 yards. At 10:04, the Ottoman ships completed a 16-point turn, which reversed their course, steamed for the safety of the straits in a disorganized withdrawal. Within an hour, the routed Ottoman ships had withdrawn into the Dardanelles; the Naval Battle of Lemnos resulted from an Ottoman plan to lure the faster Georgios Averof away from the Dardanelles. The protected cruiser Hamidiye broke out into the Aegean Sea. Despite the threat to Greek lines of communication posed by the cruiser, the Greek commander refused to detach Georgios Averof from her position. Georgios Averof and her two sisters appeared 12 miles from Lemnos, she scored several hits on the fleeing Ottoman ships before
Spanish ironclad Numancia
The Spanish ironclad Numancia was an armored frigate bought from France during the 1860s. The name was derived from the Siege of Numantia, in which Roman expansion in the Iberian Peninsula was resisted, she was the first ironclad to circumnavigate the Earth. She saw service in the Chincha Islands Cantonal Revolution. On 20 October 1873, during the Cantonal Revolution, Numancia collided with the Spanish Navy gunboat Fernando el Católico off the coast of Spain, sinking the gunboat. Brassey, Thomas; the Naval Annual 1887. Portsmouth, England: J. Griffin. OCLC 669097244. Gardiner, Robert, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-8317-0302-4. Pastor y Fernandez de Checa, M.. "The Spanish Ironclads Numancia and Pelayo, Pt. II". F. P. D. S. Newsletter. Akron, Ohio: F. P. D. S. IV: 3–5. de Saint Hubert, Christian. "Early Spanish Steam Warships, Part II". Warship International. Toledo, OH: International Naval Records Organization. XXI: 21–45. ISSN 0043-0374. Silverstone, Paul H..
Directory of the World's Capital Ships. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-88254-979-0. "Spanish Ironclads Numancia and Vitoria". Warship International. Toledo, Ohio: International Naval Records Club. VIII: 287–89. 1970. Media related to Numancia at Wikimedia Commons La Marina Blindada en el Siglo XIX
A barracks ship or barracks barge, or in civilian use accommodation vessel or accommodation ship, is a ship or a non-self-propelled barge containing a superstructure of a type suitable for use as a temporary barracks for sailors or other military personnel. A barracks ship, a military form of a dormitory ship, may be used as a receiving unit for sailors who need temporary residence prior to being assigned to their ship. Barrack ships were common during the era of sailing ships when shore facilities were scarce or non-existent. Barrack ships were hulks. At times, barrack ships were used as prison ships for convicts, prisoners of war or civilian internees. Barracks ships in the combat area provided necessary residence for sailors and merchantmen whose ship had been sunk, or whose ship had been so damaged that on-board berthing was no longer possible, they were used at advanced bases, as mobile barracks for units such as construction battalions. They would be used for other roles such as providing office space.
Non-self-propelled barracks ships were used by the United States Navy in forward areas during World War II in the Pacific Ocean, were designated APL, such as APL-18, commissioned in 1944 and had the following specifications: Displacement 1,300 t. 2,580 t. Length 261 ft Beam 49 ft Draft 11 ft Complement unknown Accommodations 5 Officers, 358 EnlistedTransport ships were used as barracks by other war-time navies, such as the Kriegsmarine's SS General San Martin. One of the two abortive Jade class auxiliary aircraft carriers was converted into a barracks ship; the United Kingdom used barracks ships to help garrison the Falkland Islands after it ousted the Argentinian occupation force in the 1982 Falklands War. The former car ferries MV St Edmund and TEV Rangatira were deployed to Port Stanley in 1982, Rangatira stayed until September 1983. Rangatira is an example of a civilian accommodation ship, she and another former ferry, MV Odysseus, housed workers who built an oil platform in Loch Kishorn in Scotland in 1977–78, Rangatira housed workers who built Sullom Voe Terminal in the Shetland Islands in 1978–81.
This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. NavSource Photo Archives - Barracks Craft
French aircraft carrier Béarn
Béarn was a French aircraft carrier. It served with the Marine nationale in later. Béarn was commissioned in 1927, was the only aircraft carrier France produced until after World War II, the only ship of its class built, she was to be an experimental ship, was slated for replacement in the 1930s by two new ships of the Joffre class. She was comparable to other early carriers developed by the major navies of the world. However, France did not produce a further replacement and as naval aviation lagged in France, Béarn continued to serve past her time of obsolescence. In 1939, she ended her career as an experimental ship, but after the defeat of France in June 1940 she was docked at Martinique, where she remained for the next four years, she was sent to the United States for a refit, which ended in March 1945, allowing her to serve before the end of the war as an aircraft transport. She was dismantled in 1967. Over the course of her long career, Béarn never launched her aircraft in combat, she was named after the historic French province of Béarn.
Béarn was designed as a Normandie-class battleship. The outbreak of World War I in August 1914 interrupted work, halted for the duration of the conflict. By that time, work on Béarn had not progressed: her hull was only 8–10 percent complete and her engines were only 25 percent finished, her boilers were 17 percent assembled, her turrets were at 20 percent completed. The incomplete hull was launched in April 1920 to clear the slipway, though the Navy had not yet decided what to do with it; that year, a French delegation visited the British aircraft carrier HMS Argus, out of this visit came the proposal to convert Béarn into an aircraft carrier, designated Project 171. On 18 April 1922, the Navy determined, her four sisters, which were at further stages of completion, were instead broken up for scrap. Much of the material from breaking up these ships was used to complete Béarn and several cruisers ordered in 1922. Conversion work began in August 1923, lasted until May 1927. Béarn was 170.6 m long between 182.6 m long overall.
She had a draft of 9.3 m. Her standard displacement was 22,146 long tons. A retractable charthouse was installed in the flight deck toward the bow of the ship, she was equipped with two sets of steam turbines that drove the inner pair of propeller shafts and a pair of reciprocating engines that powered the outer shafts. Steam was supplied by six Normand du Temple water-tube boilers that were trunked into a single funnel on the starboard side of the flight deck. A large vented chamber was fitted below the funnel to mix cooler air with the boiler exhaust, intended to reduce air turbulence over the flight deck. Béarn's propulsion system enabled her to steam at a top speed of 21.5 knots. She carried 2,160 long tons of fuel oil. At a cruising speed of 10 kn, the ship could steam for 6,000 nautical miles, she had a crew of 875 men. Béarn was built to accommodate up to 40 aircraft, her initial complement consisted of a squadron of twelve torpedo bombers, twelve reconnaissance aircraft, a squadron of eight fighters.
The ship's aviation facilities consisted of a 180-meter-long flight deck and three electrically powered elevators. She had a pair of hangars. Below the hangar, there were aircraft maintenance facilities and storage for spare parts. Béarn stored up to 3,530 cubic feet of aviation gasoline and 530 cu ft of oil, protected by inert gas; the ship's gun armament comprised eight 6.1 in /55 Mod 21 guns in casemates for defense against surface attack, six 76 mm anti-aircraft guns, eight 37 mm AA guns, sixteen machine guns. In 1944–1945, she was refitted in the United States and equipped with a new anti-aircraft battery that consisted of four 5"/38 dual-purpose guns in single mounts, twenty-four Bofors 40 mm guns in six quadruple mounts, twenty-six Oerlikon 20 mm guns in individual mountings. Before the decision to convert Béarn into an aircraft carrier was made, the French Navy decided to construct a mocked-up flight deck on the unfinished hull after it was launched in April 1920; the aviator Paul Teste conducted a series of landing experiments on the temporary flight deck that concluded in October.
These experiments convinced the Navy to convert Béarn as a semi-experimental ship, which should be replaced by purpose-built aircraft carriers as soon as was practicable. The Joffre class, ordered in the late 1930s, were not completed. In the meantime, Béarn was commissioned for sea trials that began on 1 September 1926, couple with final fitting-out work, lasted to May 1928, when she joined the French fleet on active service. In the late 1920s, André Jubelin, a future admiral and pioneer of the French naval air force, served aboard the ship. In March 1936, a Potez 565 took off from Béarn, the first time a twin-engined aircraft had operated from an aircraft carrier. At the French declaration of war against Germany on 3 September 1939, Béarn was assigned to the Force de Raid, under the command of Admiral Gensoul, along with the battleships Dunkerq
The Char 2C known as the FCM 2C, is a French heavy tank also seen as a super-heavy tank, developed during World War I but not deployed until after the war. It was, in physical dimensions, the largest operational tank made; the origins of the Char 2C have always been shrouded in a certain mystery. In the summer of 1916 in July, General Léon Augustin Jean Marie Mourret, the Subsecretary of Artillery, verbally granted Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée, a shipyard in the south of France near Toulon, the contract for the development of a heavy tank, a char d'assaut de grand modèle. At the time, French industry was active in lobbying for defence orders, using their connections with high-placed officials and officers to obtain commissions; the French Army had no stated requirement for a heavy tank, there was no official policy to procure one, so the decision seems to have been taken on his personal authority. The reason he gave was that the British tanks in development by a naval committee seemed to be better devised as regarded lay-out and fire protection, so a shipyard might improve on existing French designs.
Exact specifications, if they existed, have been lost. FCM largely neglected the project, apart from reaping the financial benefits. At that time all tank projects were secret, thereby shielded from public scrutiny. On 15 September 1916 the British introduced the Mark I tank in the Battle of the Somme, a veritable tank euphoria followed; when the public mood in Britain had been growing darker as the truth of the failure of the Somme Offensive could no longer be suppressed, tanks offered a new hope of final victory. The French people now became curious as to the state of their own national tank projects. French politicians, not having been involved in them and leaving the matter to the military, were no less inquisitive; this sudden attention alarmed Mourret, who promptly investigated the progress, made at FCM and was shocked to find there was none. On 30 September he took control of the project. On 12 October, knowing that the Renault company had some months earlier made several proposals to build a heavy tracked mortar, rejected, he begged Louis Renault to assist FCM in the development of a suitable heavy vehicle.
Before knowing what the exact nature of the project would be, on 20 October Mourret ordered one prototype to be built by FCM. This development coincided with a political demand by Minister of Armament Albert Thomas to produce a tank superior to the British types. On 7 October he had requested Lloyd George to deliver some Mark Is to France but had received no answer. Concluding that no such deliveries would materialise, on 23 January 1917 he ordered that French tanks should be developed that were faster, more powerfully armed and armoured than any British vehicle, he specified a weight of forty tonnes, an immunity against light artillery rounds and a trench-crossing capacity of 3.5 metres. Meanwhile, Renault had consulted his own team, led by Rodolphe Ernst-Metzmaier, which since May 1916 had been in the process of designing the revolutionary Renault FT light tank; this work had not, stopped them from considering other tank types. Renault, always expecting his employees to provide new ideas had by this attitude encouraged the team to take a proactive stance — setting a pattern that would last until 1940 — and to have various kinds of contingency studies ready for the occasion, including a feasibility study for a heavy tank.
This fortunate circumstance allowed a full-size wooden mock-up to be constructed in a remarkably quick time. It was visited by the Subsecretary of State of Inventions Jules-Louis Breton on 13 January 1917, much impressed and developed a keen interest in the project; the design was presented to the Consultative Committee of the Assault Artillery on 16 and 17 January 1917, after the basic concept had been approved on 30 December. This proposed tank was the most advanced design of its time, it featured a 105 mm gun in a turret, had a proposed weight of 35 mm armour. The committee decided to have two prototypes developed, one with an electrical transmission, the other with a hydraulic transmission. In this period both the French and the British military had become aware of severe mobility and steering problems with heavy tracked vehicles. In January 1917, the Ministry of Armament proposed to build three weight classes of tanks: light and heavy tanks, the latter class corresponding to the new project.
However, the FCM tank had made a powerful and influential enemy. Brigadier Jean Baptiste Eugène Estienne, commander of the new tank force, the Assault Artillery cooperated with Renault in the development of the Renault FT, through this connection was kept well informed of the other tank project. Estienne began to fear that the production of the heavy vehicle would use up all available production facilities, making the procurement of the much more practical Renault FT light tank impossible, he was not averse to the production of heavy tanks as such but only in a limited number and on the condition it did not impede the manufacture of light tanks. That his fears were not unfounded became apparent when in November Mourret tried to obstruct further development of
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield manoeuvrability. They are a key part of combined arms combat. Modern tanks are versatile mobile land weapon system platforms, mounting a large-calibre cannon in a rotating gun turret, supplemented by mounted machine guns or other weapons, such as ATGMs, or rockets, they combine this with heavy vehicle armour which provides protection for the crew, the vehicle's weapons, its propulsion systems, operational mobility, due to its use of tracks rather than wheels, which allows the tank to move over rugged terrain and adverse conditions such as mud, be positioned on the battlefield in advantageous locations. These features enable the tank to perform well in a variety of intense combat situations both offensively with fire from their powerful tank gun, defensively due to their near invulnerability to common firearms and good resistance to heavier weapons, all while maintaining the mobility needed to exploit changing tactical situations.
Integrating tanks into modern military forces spawned a new era of combat, armoured warfare. There are classes of tanks, some being larger and heavily armoured, with high calibre guns, while others smaller armoured, equipped with a smaller calibre, lighter gun; these smaller tanks move over terrain with speed and agility and can perform a reconnaissance role in addition to engaging enemy targets. The smaller faster tank would not engage in battle with a larger armoured tank, except during a surprise flanking manoeuvre; the modern tank is the result of a century of development from the first primitive armoured vehicles, due to improvements in technology such as the internal combustion engine, which allowed the rapid movement of heavy armoured vehicles. As a result of these advances, tanks underwent tremendous shifts in capability in the years since their first appearance. Tanks in World War I were developed separately and by Great Britain and France as a means to break the deadlock of trench warfare on the Western Front.
The first British prototype, nicknamed Little Willie, was constructed at William Foster & Co. in Lincoln, England in 1915, with leading roles played by Major Walter Gordon Wilson who designed the gearbox and hull, by William Tritton of William Foster and Co. who designed the track plates. This was a prototype of a new design that would become the British Army's Mark I tank, the first tank used in combat in September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme; the name "tank" was adopted by the British during the early stages of their development, as a security measure to conceal their purpose. While the British and French built thousands of tanks in World War I, Germany was unconvinced of the tank's potential, built only twenty. Tanks of the interwar period evolved into the much larger and more powerful designs of World War II. Important new concepts of armoured warfare were developed. Less than two weeks Germany began their large-scale armoured campaigns that would become known as blitzkrieg – massed concentrations of tanks combined with motorised and mechanised infantry and air power designed to break through the enemy front and collapse enemy resistance.
The widespread introduction of high-explosive anti-tank warheads during the second half of World War II led to lightweight infantry-carried anti-tank weapons such as the Panzerfaust, which could destroy some types of tanks. Tanks in the Cold War were designed with these weapons in mind, led to improved armour types during the 1960s composite armour. Improved engines and suspensions allowed tanks of this period to grow larger. Aspects of gun technology changed as well, with advances in shell design and aiming technology. During the Cold War, the main battle tank concept became a key component of modern armies. In the 21st century, with the increasing role of asymmetrical warfare and the end of the Cold War, that contributed to the increase of cost-effective anti-tank rocket propelled grenades worldwide and its successors, the ability of tanks to operate independently has declined. Modern tanks are more organized into combined arms units which involve the support of infantry, who may accompany the tanks in infantry fighting vehicles, supported by reconnaissance or ground-attack aircraft.
The tank is the 20th century realization of an ancient concept: that of providing troops with mobile protection and firepower. The internal combustion engine, armour plate, continuous track were key innovations leading to the invention of the modern tank. Many sources imply that Leonardo da Vinci and H. G. Wells in some way "invented" the tank. Leonardo's late 15th century drawings of what some describe as a "tank" show a man-powered, wheeled vehicle with cannons all around it; however the human crew would not have enough power to move it over larger distance, usage of animals was problematic in a space so confined. In the 15th century, Jan Žižka built armoured wagons containing cannons and used them in several battles; the continuous "caterpillar" track arose from attempts to improve the mobility of wheeled vehicles by spreading their weight, reducing ground pressure, increasing their traction. Experiments can be traced back as far as the 17th century, by the late nineteenth they existed in various recognizable and practical forms in several countries.
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Russian cruiser Admiral Makarov
Admiral Makarov was the second of the four Bayan-class armoured cruisers built for the Imperial Russian Navy during the mid-1900s. While assigned to the Baltic Fleet, the ship was detached to the Mediterranean several times before the start of World War I in 1914, she was modified to lay mines shortly. Admiral Makarov laid mines herself during the war and provided cover for other ships laying minefields; the ship fought several inconclusive battles with German ships during the war, including the Battle of Åland Islands in mid–1915. She defended Moon Sound during the German invasion of the Estonian islands in late 1917. Admiral Makarov was decommissioned in 1918 and sold for scrap in 1922. Admiral Makarov was 449.6 feet long overall. She displaced 7,750 long tons; the ship had a crew of men. Admiral Makarov was named in honour of Admiral Stepan Makarov; the ship had two vertical triple-expansion steam engines with a designed total of 16,500 indicated horsepower intended to propel the cruiser at 21 knots.
However, during sea trials, they developed 19,320 indicated horsepower and drove the ship to a maximum speed of 22.55 knots. Steam for the engines was provided by 26 Belleville boilers, she could carry a maximum of 1,100 long tons of coal. Admiral Makarov's main armament consisted of two 8-inch 45-calibre guns in single-gun turrets fore and aft, her eight 6-inch guns were mounted in casemates on the sides of the ship's hull. Anti-torpedo boat defense was provided by twenty 75-millimetre 50-calibre guns; the remaining guns were located above the six-inch gun casemates in pivot mounts with gun shields. Admiral Makarov mounted four 47-millimetre Hotchkiss guns; the ship had two submerged 18-inch torpedo tubes, one on each broadside. The ship used Krupp armour throughout, her waterline belt was 190 millimetres thick over her machinery spaces. Fore and aft, it reduced to 90 millimetres; the upper belt and the casemates were 60 millimetres thick. The armour deck was 50 millimetres thick; the gun turrets were protected by 132 millimetres of armour and the conning tower had sides 136 millimetres thick.
Admiral Makarov was built by Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée in France. The ship was laid down in April 1905, she was launched on 28 May 1906. Admiral Makarov was completed in April 1908; the ship sailed for the Baltic on 27 May and reached Tallinn, Estonia on 11 June where she was assigned to the Baltic Fleet. A few months she returned to the Mediterranean and provided assistance to the survivor of the Messina earthquake in December; the ship rejoined the Baltic Fleet, but she was transferred back to Mediterranean in 1910 where she represented the Russian Empire, together with the battleship Tsesarevich, the armored cruiser Rurik, the protected cruiser Bogatyr, at the coronation of Nicholas I of Montenegro in August 1910. Admiral Makarov was back in the Baltic during 1911 and she made a port visit to Copenhagen in 1912; the following year, the ship was one of a group of cruisers that visited Brest, the Isle of Portland in Great Britain, Stavanger, Norway. When World War I began, Admiral Makarov was assigned to the First Cruiser Brigade.
On 17 August, the ship, together with the armored cruiser Gromoboi, encountered two German light cruisers and an auxiliary minelayer near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland en route to lay a minefield at the entrance. The Russian commander refused combat because he mistakenly thought that the Germans had two additional armored cruisers with them. Shortly afterward, Admiral Makarov was modified to carry mines, she laid her first mines in early December when she was one of a group of ships that mined the northern and western entrances to the Gulf of Danzig. The following month, she provided cover as other cruisers laid minefields in the western Baltic Sea, near Bornholm and Rügen Islands on the night of 12 January 1915. On 13 February, the ship was en route to cover another minelaying sortie in the Gulf of Danzig, when Rurik ran aground in fog off Fårö Island, she was pulled off despite taking 2,400 long tons of water aboard, Admiral Makarov escorted the damaged ship back home. Together with her sister Bayan and two protected cruisers, she fought a brief and inconclusive action with the light cruiser SMS München during the night of 6/7 May while covering a minelaying sortie off Libau.
On 2 July, the ship participated in the Battle of Åland Islands when intercepted and decoded wireless signals informed the Russians that a small German force was at sea to lay a minefield off the Åland Islands. Rear Admiral Mikhail Bakhirev was at sea with Admiral Makarov, Rurik, the protected cruisers Bogatyr and Oleg, the destroyer Novik en route to bombard Memel. Rurik and Novik got separated from the others in fog, but the rest of the force encountered the light cruiser SMS Augsburg and a number of destroyers escorting the minelayer SMS Albatross; the Russians concentrated on Albatross, forced to run aground in Swedish territorial waters, while the faster Augsburg escaped to the south. The Russian cruisers were low on ammunition when they encountered two more German cruisers and broke off the action after exchanging fire; when the German launched Operation Albion, the invasion of the Estonian islan