A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
Saint-Avold is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. It is situated twenty-eight miles east of Metz and seventeen miles southwest of Saarbrücken, Germany; the Saint-Avold area has suffered invasions and since the nineteenth century has been controlled alternately by German and French authorities. The original Abbey of Saint Nabor began as an oratory for a sixth-century monastery. A complex developed after it received the relics of Saint Nabor, the church was rebuilt in the eighteenth century, in part following Baroque style, it was designated as a basilica. During the French Revolution, the monastery and church suffered extensive damage; the ancient parish church was sacrificed in exchange for keeping Saint Nabor. The abbey suffered bombing damage during World War II, but much of the church has hence been restored. Just north of the town is the site of Europe's largest United States' World War II military cemetery, the Lorraine American Cemetery and Memorial, with the graves of 10,489 American soldiers who died during World War II.
Most of the men were killed during the United States' drive to expel German forces from the fortress city of Metz toward the Siegfried Line and the Rhine River. The soldiers were from the U. S. Seventh Army's its cavalry groups. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". Louis Aloyse Risse, engineer born in Saint-Avold who designed the Grand Concourse in the Bronx in New York. Erich Isselhorst, Nazi war criminal, executed in Strasbourg in 1948 Communes of the Moselle department INSEE commune file History of Saint Avold Saint-Avold, France Web site Photo of Saint Nabor Basilica Sociéte d'Histoire du Pays Naborien
Humber Gateway Wind Farm
Humber Gateway Wind Farm is an offshore wind farm 8 km east of Spurn Point off the coast of the East Riding of Yorkshire, in the North Sea, England. The wind farm became operational in June 2015, it was developed by Humber Wind Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of E. ON UK plc.. In 2003 EON submitted a bid to the Crown Estate to develop a wind farm in the'Greater Wash Strategic Area'. Additional planning applications for onshore substation, onshore underground cable were submitted in 2009/2008, approved in 2010; the site was located over 8 km east of Easington, in an area 35 km2 with a water depth of around 15 m, 15 km north-northeast from Donna Nook on the Lincolnshire coast. Cable connections were to make land fall at Easington and connect via about a 30 km underground cable connection with the National Grid near Salt End. Initial plans were with 42-83 turbines; the wind farm had an expected operational life of 40 years based on the length of the Crown Estate lease, with possible turbine replacement after 20–25 years.
Governmental planning approval for a 230 MW wind farm was given in early 2011. In December 2011 E ON published plans for a 73 turbine, 219 MW wind farm, using Vestas V112 3.0 MW turbines, with an initial completion date scheduled for spring 2015. In 2012 CG was awarded the main contract for the design to installation of both onshore and offshore substations for the project. In early 2013 contract for the supply of turbine monopile foundations were split between TAG Energy Solutions, with the remainder supplied by Sif. ABB Group was contracted to supply 132kV submarine export cables in March 2012, the inter turbine cabling supply contract was awarded to General Cable subsidiary Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke Gmbh. in August 2012. Harland and Wolff was contracted to design and supply the about 1300t substation foundation structure and piles in March 2013; the first turbine foundation was installed in September 2013. In December 2013 two 600t offshore substations were delivered to the Port of Sunderland for installation at the wind farm.
By January 2014 the submarine export cables to the offshore transformer had been laid. The first turbine was installed mid 2014. Offshore substation installation was completed in late 2014; the wind farm first generated power in early 2015, with 58 of the turbines installed, became operational by June 2015. The wind farm was formally opened by Andrea Leadsom 30 September 2015. In September 2015 Balfour Beatty Equitix Consortium became preferred bidder to own and operate the £162.9 million electricity export cable. The European Investment Bank provides £82 million for the transmission. 53.57919°N 0.05798°W / 53.57919. Construction firm ISG was awarded a £3 million contract to construct the centre in March 2013, including 5,920 sq ft and 4,047 sq ft warehouse and storage buildings. Construction was completed by September 2013; the centre was formally opened by Eric Pickles on 1 August 2014. Humber Gateway project timeline, EON Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm - Non-Technical Summary of the Offshore Environmental Statement and Onshore Cable Route Environmental Statement, EON UK, archived from the original on 16 December 2010 Onshore route and offshore site map, E ON, retrieved 31 January 2014 "Humber Gateway".
E. ON Energy. "Humber Gateway". Www.4coffshore.com
L'Humanité, is a French daily newspaper. It was an organ of the French Communist Party, maintains links to the party, its slogan is "In an ideal world, L'Humanité would not exist." L'Humanité was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the French Section of the Workers' International. Jaurès edited the paper until his assassination on 31 July 1914; when the Socialists split at the 1920 Tours Congress, the Communists took control of L'Humanité. Therefore, it became a communist paper despite its socialist origin; the PCF has published it since. The PCF owns 40 per cent of the paper with the remaining shares held by staff, readers and "friends" of the paper; the paper is sustained by the annual Fête de l'Humanité, held in the working class suburbs of Paris, at Le Bourget, near Aubervilliers, to a lesser extent elsewhere in the country. The fortunes of L'Humanité have fluctuated with those of the PCF. During the 1920s, when the PCF was politically isolated, it was kept in existence only by donations from Party members.
Louis Aragon started to write for L'Humanité in the "news in brief" section. He led Les Lettres françaises, the paper's weekly literary supplement. With the formation of the Popular Front in 1936, L'Humanité's circulation and status increased, many leading French intellectuals wrote for it. L'Humanité was banned during World War II but published clandestinely until liberation of Paris from German occupation; the paper's status was highest in the years after World War II, when the PCF was the dominant party of the French left and L'Humanité enjoyed a large circulation. Since the 1980s, the PCF has been in decline due to the rise of the Socialist Party, which took over large sections of PCF support, circulation and economic viability of L'Humanité have declined as well; until 1990 the PCF and L'Humanité received regular subsidies from the Soviet Union. According to the French authors Victor Loupan and Pierre Lorrain, L'Humanité received free newsprint from Soviet sources; the fall of the Soviet Union and the continued decline of the PCF's electoral base produced a crisis for L'Humanité.
Its circulation, more than 500,000 after the war, slumped to under 70,000. In 2001, after a decade of financial decline, the PCF sold 20 per cent of the paper to a group of private investors led by the TV channel TF1 and including Hachette. TF1 said its motive was "maintenance of media diversity." Despite the irony of a communist newspaper being rescued by private capital, some of which supported right-wing politics, L'Humanité director Patrick Le Hyaric described the sale as "a matter of life or death." There has been speculation since 2001. But in contrast to most French newspapers, its publication increased to about 75,000. In 2006, the paper created L'Humanité Dimanche; the same year L'Humanité had a circulation of 52,800 copies. In 2008, it sold its headquarters due to financial problems and called for donations. More than €2 million had been donated by the end of 2008; the newspaper organises the annual Fête de l'Humanité festival as a fundraising event. History of French journalism Fête de l'Humanité: A weekend of politics and Rock'n'Roll – Radio France Internationale L'Humanité L'Humanité in English L'Humanité на русском языке L'Humanité en Español Regular French Press Review – Radio France International L'Humanité's digital archives from 1904 to 1944 – Gallica, the digital library of the BnF Underground edition of L'Humanité from 1939 to 1944 online in Gallica.
Underground edition of L'Huma online in Gallica. Underground edition of L'Humanité. Organe central du Parti communiste S. F. I. C. Ed. spéciale féminine. Online in Gallica. "Our Goal", translation of Jean Jaurès' editorial of the first issue Victor Loupan and Pierre Lorrain: L'Argent de Moscou. L'histoire la plus secrete du PCF, Paris, 1994
Energy in France
Energy in France is the energy and electricity production and import in France. The electricity sector in France is dominated by nuclear power, which accounted for 72.3% of total production in 2016, while renewables and fossil fuels accounted for 17.8% and 8.6%, respectively. France has the largest share of nuclear electricity in the world; the country is among the world's biggest net exporters of electricity. The French nuclear power sector is entirely owned by the French government and the degree of the government subsidy is difficult to ascertain because of a lack of transparency. Électricité de France is the main electricity distribution company in France. It was founded on April 8, 1946 as a result of the nationalisation of a number of electricity producers and distributors by the Communist Minister of Industrial Production Marcel Paul; until November 19, 2004 it was a government corporation, but it is now a limited-liability corporation under private law. The French government floated shares of the company on the Paris Stock Exchange in November 2005, although it retains 85% ownership as of the end of 2007.
EDF held a monopoly in the distribution, but not the production, of electricity in France until 1999, when the first European Union directive to harmonize regulation of electricity markets was implemented. EDF is one of the world's largest producers of electricity. In 2003, it produced 22% of the European Union's electricity from nuclear power: nuclear: 74.5% hydro-electric: 16.3% thermal: 9.1% wind power and other renewable sources: 0.1%A report was published in 2011 by the World Energy Council in association with Oliver Wyman, entitled Policies for the future: 2011 Assessment of country energy and climate policies, which ranks country performance according to an energy sustainability index. The best performers were Switzerland and France. Piper Jaffray expected strong growth in France in 2009 and 2010 because of an expected decline in the price of solar panels and because of subsidies introduced in 2006 making themselves felt. France should be a key driver for solar together with Italy during 2009-2010.
Piper Jaffray believes that France would add 500 megawatts of capacity in both 2009 and 2010. France has 50 megawatts of solar power capacity now. Hydroelectric dams in France include Eguzon dam, Étang de Soulcem, Lac de Vouglans. In July 2015, the French parliament passed a comprehensive energy and climate law that includes a mandatory renewable energy target requiring 40% of national electricity production to come from renewable sources by 2030. For context, 19.5% of the country's electricity was generated by renewable energy in 2014. Electricity sector in France Nuclear power in France Renewable energy in France Électricité de France
The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing and distribution. Modern society consumes large amounts of fuel, the energy industry is a crucial part of the infrastructure and maintenance of society in all countries. In particular, the energy industry comprises: the petroleum industry, including oil companies, petroleum refiners, fuel transport and end-user sales at gas stations the gas industry, including natural gas extraction, coal gas manufacture, as well as distribution and sales the electrical power industry, including electricity generation, electric power distribution and sales the coal industry the nuclear power industry the renewable energy industry, comprising alternative energy and sustainable energy companies, including those involved in hydroelectric power, wind power, solar power generation, the manufacture and sale of alternative fuels traditional energy industry based on the collection and distribution of firewood, the use of which, for cooking and heating, is common in poorer countries The use of energy has been a key in the development of the human society by helping it to control and adapt to the environment.
Managing the use of energy is inevitable in any functional society. In the industrialized world the development of energy resources has become essential for agriculture, waste collection, information technology, communications that have become prerequisites of a developed society; the increasing use of energy since the Industrial Revolution has brought with it a number of serious problems, some of which, such as global warming, present grave risks to the world. In some industries, the word energy is used as a synonym of energy resources, which refer to substances like fuels, petroleum products and electricity in general, because a significant portion of the energy contained in these resources can be extracted to serve a useful purpose. After a useful process has taken place, the total energy is conserved, but the resource itself is not conserved, since a process transforms the energy into unusable forms. Since humanity discovered various energy resources available in nature, it has been inventing devices, known as machines, that make life more comfortable by using energy resources.
Thus, although the primitive man knew the utility of fire to cook food, the invention of devices like gas burners and microwave ovens has increased the usage of energy for this purpose alone manyfold. The trend is the same in any other field of social activity, be it construction of social infrastructure, manufacturing of fabrics for covering. Production and consumption of energy resources is important to the global economy. All economic activity requires energy resources, whether to manufacture goods, provide transportation, run computers and other machines. Widespread demand for energy may encourage competing energy utilities and the formation of retail energy markets. Note the presence of the "Energy Marketing and Customer Service" sub-sector; the energy sector accounts for 4.6% of outstanding leveraged loans, compared with 3.1% a decade ago, while energy bonds make up 15.7% of the $1.3 trillion junk bond market, up from 4.3% over the same period. Since the cost of energy has become a significant factor in the performance of economy of societies, management of energy resources has become crucial.
Energy management involves utilizing the available energy resources more, with minimum incremental costs. Many times it is possible to save expenditure on energy without incorporating fresh technology by simple management techniques. Most energy management is the practice of using energy more efficiently by eliminating energy wastage or to balance justifiable energy demand with appropriate energy supply; the process couples energy awareness with energy conservation. The United Nations developed the International Standard Industrial Classification, a list of economic and social classifications. There is no distinct classification for an energy industry, because the classification system is based on activities and expenditures according to purpose. Countries in North America use the North American Industry Classification System; the NAICS sectors #21 and #22 might define the energy industry in North America. This classification is used by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission; the Global Industry Classification Standard used by Morgan Stanley define the energy industry as comprising companies working with oil, gas and consumable fuels, excluding companies working with certain industrial gases.
Add to expand this section: Dow Jones Industrial Average Government encouragement in the form of subsidies and tax incentives for energy-conservation efforts has fostered the view of conservation as a major function of the energy industry: saving an amount of energy provides economic benefits identical to generating that same amount of energy. This is compounded by the fact that the economics of delivering energy tend to be priced for capacity as opposed to average usage. One of the purposes of a smart grid infrastructure is to smooth out demand so that capacity and demand curves align more closely; some parts of the energy industry generate considerable pollution, including toxic and greenhouse gases from fuel combustion, nuclear waste from the generation of nuclear power, oil spillages as a result of petroleum extraction. Government regulations to internaliz
Rampion Wind Farm
Rampion is an offshore wind farm development by E. ON, off the Sussex coast in the UK; the wind farm has a capacity of 400 MW. The wind farm was commissioned in April 2018. Located between 13 and 25 kilometres from the shore, the wind farm is situated off the coast of the towns of Worthing and Shoreham-by-Sea to the west, the city of Brighton and Hove in the centre and the towns of Newhaven and Seaford in the east; the wind farm lies in a zone, an irregular elongated area 28 kilometres in an east to west direction and 10 kilometres in the north to south direction, an area of 72 square kilometres. Known as Zone 6 off the Sussex coast, it was named the "Southern Array"; when the site of the wind farm was changed from near Hastings to off Brighton, E. ON held a competition with local schools to suggest a new name as a public relations exercise; the name ‘Rampion’ was voted the winning suggestion, submitted by Davison C of E High School Pupil Megan McCullough, after the round-headed rampion known as the Pride of Sussex, the county flower of Sussex.
E. ON's final plans use 116 turbines of 3.45 MW capacity, each 140 metres high to the tip of the blade, blade length is 55m, radius is 12m which represents a 43% reduction in the size of the development after planning consent was granted. E. ON proposed using either 175 smaller turbines of 3–3.6 MW capacity, each 180 metres above low tide sea level, or 100 larger turbines of 7 MW capacity, each 210 metres above sea level. Development and construction costs were estimated at £2 billion; as the turbines are designed to last 20–25 years, since E. ON's lease of the site from the Crown Estate is for 50 years, the company would need to replace the turbines. After an 18 month evaluation process between Newhaven and Shoreham ports, E. ON chose Newhaven as their base for Maintenance facility; the company took a lease on a site at the Port of Newhaven, where they constructed two new buildings to house the administration and engineering functions of the wind farm. The site and associated buildings will act as the combined servicing point for the wind farm.
The project was approved by the government in July 2014. In November 2014, E. ON announced that it had reduced the proposed capacity of the project by 40%. Onshore construction work began in June 2015 with construction of a new electricity substation adjacent to the existing National Grid Bolney 400/132kV substation near Twineham. Off shore the 116 monopile foundations were piled into the sea bed and on completion of this the first wind turbine was lifted into place in March 2017. Coincident with this was the ongoing work to backfill the cable duct trenches off Lancing beach due to be completed in Spring 2017. Installation of the remainder of the 150kV cable through to Bolney and the burying in the sea bed of the 33kV inter array cables was completed during this time following the installation of a 2,000 tonne offshore 33/150kV substation, completed in April 2017. An excavator was stranded and disabled after completing cable trench backfilling work in April 2017, it was removed in June 2017. Electricity production commenced during November 2017.
Construction of the wind farm was completed in 2018 at a cost of £1.3 billion. List of offshore wind farms in the United Kingdom Wind power in the United Kingdom Rampion Offshore Wind Farm, E. ON Rampion Offshore Wind Farm. 4C