Politics of New Zealand
The politics of New Zealand function within a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democracy. New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy in which a hereditary monarch—since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II—is the sovereign and head of state; the New Zealand Parliament holds legislative power and consists of the Queen and the House of Representatives. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General of New Zealand. Members are elected to the House of Representatives every three years. Executive power in New Zealand is based on the principle that "The Queen reigns, but the government rules". Although an integral part of the process of government, the Queen and her governor-general remain politically neutral and are not involved in the everyday aspects of governing. Ministers are selected from among the democratically elected members of the House of Representatives. Most ministers are members of the Cabinet, the main decision-making body of the New Zealand Government; the prime minister is the most senior minister, chair of the Cabinet, thus head of government.
Other ministers are appointed by the governor-general upon the advice of the prime minister, are all accountable to Parliament. The country has a multi-party system in which many of its legislative practices derive from the unwritten conventions of and precedents set by the United Kingdom's Westminster Parliament. However, New Zealand has evolved variations; the dominant political parties in New Zealand have been the Labour Party and the National Party. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated New Zealand as a "full democracy" in 2016; the country ranks for government transparency, has the lowest perceived level of corruption in the world. New Zealand is a unitary parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, it has no formal codified constitution. The Constitution Act in 1852 established the system of government and these were consolidated in 1986. Constitutional rights are protected under common law and are strengthened by the Bill of Rights Act 1990 and Human Rights Act 1993, although these are not entrenched and can be overturned by Parliament with a simple majority.
The Constitution Act 1986 describes the three branches of government in New Zealand: the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. Parliament is responsible for passing laws, adopting the state's budgets, exercising control of the Government, it has a single chamber, the House of Representatives. Before 1951 there was the Legislative Council. Suffrage is extended to everyone over the age of 18 years, women having gained the vote in 1893. Members of Parliament are elected for a maximum term of three years, although an election may be called earlier in exceptional circumstances; the House of Representatives meets in Wellington. All parliamentary general elections between 1853 and 1996 were held under the first past the post electoral system. Under FPP the candidate in a given electorate that received the most votes was elected to parliament; the only deviation from the FPP system during this time occurred in the 1908 election when a second ballot system was tried. Under this system the elections since 1935 have been dominated by two political parties and Labour.
Criticism of the FPP system began in the 1950s and intensified after Labour lost the 1978 and 1981 elections despite having more overall votes than National. An indicative referendum to change the voting system was held in 1992, which led to a binding referendum during the 1993 election; as a result, New Zealand has used the mixed-member proportional system since 1996. Under MMP, each member of Parliament is either elected by voters in a single-member constituency via FPP or appointed from his or her party's list; the New Zealand Parliament has 120 seats, however some elections have resulted in overhangs and there is the potential for underhangs. Seven seats are reserved for MPs elected on a separate Māori roll. However, Māori may choose to vote in and to run for the non-reserved seats and for the party list, as a result many have now entered Parliament outside of the reserved seats. Queen Elizabeth II is New Zealand's head of state; the New Zealand monarchy has been distinct from the British monarchy since the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947, all Elizabeth II's official business in New Zealand is conducted in the name of the "Queen of New Zealand".
The Queen's role is ceremonial, her residual powers—the "Royal Prerogative"—are exercised through the government of the day. These include the power to sign treaties and to declare war. Since the Queen is not resident in New Zealand, the functions of the monarchy are conducted by her representative, the Governor-General; as of 2017, the Governor-General is Dame Patsy Reddy. The Governor-General formally has the power to appoint and dismiss ministers and to dissolve Parliament; the Governor-General chairs the Executive Council, a formal committee consisting of all ministers. Members of the Executive Council are required to be members of Parliament, most are in the Cabinet. Cabinet is the most senior policy-making body and is led by the Prime M
Sir Roy Emile Jack was a New Zealand politician of the National Party. He was Speaker of the House of Representatives. Jack was born in New Plymouth in 1914, he was educated at Wanganui Collegiate School and graduated from the Victoria University with an LLB. During the war, he served with the Royal New Zealand Air Force, he was deputy mayor in the following year. He served on the city council until 1955, he represented the electorate of Patea from 1954 to 1963 Waimarino from 1963 to 1972 Rangitikei from 1972 to 1977 when he died. The Waimarino electorate became Rangitikei because of post-census boundary changes before the 1972 election, though a sitting MP he was challenged by Ruth Richardson. George Chapman who chaired the selection said that The tensions were tremendous, but Roy was confirmed as the candidate, he had an election-night majority of 2067 in 1972, down from Shelton's 1969 majority of 4214). In the 1972 Marshall Ministry of the last year of the Second National Government, he was Attorney-General and Minister of Justice.
He was Chairman of Committees between 1961 and 1966. He was Speaker of the House of Representatives from 1967 to 1972 and 1976 to 1977, he was knighted in the 1970 Birthday Honours. He died in 1977 on Christmas Eve in his office at parliament. Gustafson, Barry; the First 50 Years: A History of the New Zealand National Party. Auckland: Reed Methuen. ISBN 0-474-00177-6. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. Who’s Who in New Zealand, 10th Edition 1961
John O'Brien (New Zealand politician)
John Bernard O'Brien was a political candidate and party leader of Social Credit in New Zealand. In the late 1960s, O'Brien was deputy-leader to Vernon Cracknell and sole MP of the Social Credit Party. Following the sudden death of Bill Brown, O'Brien unsuccessfully contested the Palmerston North electorate in the 1967 by-election. Cracknell lost his seat in the 1969 election, the following year, O'Brien challenged him for the leadership; the contest was bitter resulting in brawling between supporters of the two camps. O'Brien was successful. Although a powerful speaker and an energetic organiser, O'Brien was accused by his opponents of being abrasive and overly confrontational, he antagonised many party members those in the Christchurch branch. O'Brien's leadership of the party lasted only until 1972, with Tom Weal, the deputy leader, others, he quit the party and was replaced by Bruce Beetham. O'Brien formed his own group, the New Democratic Party; the New Democrats were one of the larger parties to contest the 1972 election, standing candidates in all but one electorate.
In the end, they placed fifth overall. They did not win any seats, he was from the Palmerston North area. After politics, he ran a shop in Nelson retired and died there, aged 65. Obituary in Dominion of 15 October 1990 page 3. Bryant, George. Beetham. Palmerston North: The Dunmore Press. ISBN 0-908564-73-2
Elections in New Zealand
New Zealand is a representative democracy. Members of the unicameral New Zealand Parliament gain their seats through nationwide general elections, or in by-elections. General elections are held every three years. A by-election is held to fill a vacancy arising during a parliamentary term; the most recent general election took place on 23 September 2017. New Zealand has a multi-party system due to proportional representation. No party has won an outright majority since the introduction of proportional representation; the introduction of the mixed-member proportional voting system in 1993 was the most significant change to the electoral system in the 20th century. The Electoral Commission is responsible for the administration of parliamentary elections. Local government politicians, including mayors and District Health Boards are voted in during the local elections, held every three years; these elections used both single transferable vote and first past the post systems in 2007. The first national elections in New Zealand took place in 1853, the year after the British government passed the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852.
Women's suffrage was introduced with New Zealand being the first modern country to do so. New Zealand used the first-past-the-post electoral system; the first election under the mixed-member proportional system was held in 1996 following the 1993 electoral referendum. The electoral roll consists of a register of all enrolled voters, organised within electorates. All persons who meet the requirements for voting must by law register on the electoral roll if they do not intend to vote. Although eligible voters must be enrolled, voting in New Zealand elections is not compulsory. To be eligible to enrol, a person must be 18 years or older, a New Zealand citizen or permanent resident and have lived in New Zealand for one or more years without leaving the country. People can provisionally enrol to vote once they turn 17, with them being automatically enrolled on their 18th birthday; the Registrar of Births Deaths and Marriages automatically notifies a person's death to the Electoral Commission so they may be removed from the roll.
Enrolment update drives are conducted prior to every local and general election in order to keep the roll up to date, identifying any voters who have failed to update their address or cannot be found. The roll records the name and stated occupation of all voters, although individual electors can apply for "unpublished" status on the roll in special circumstances, such as when having their details printed in the electoral roll could threaten their personal safety; the roll is "public information" meaning it can be used for legitimate purposes such as selecting people for jury service but it can be abused by marketing companies who use the electoral roll to send registered voters unsolicited advertising mail. According to Elections New Zealand, "having the printed electoral rolls available for the public to view is a part of the open democratic process of New Zealand"; the Electoral Commission, in their report on the 2017 General Election recommended that roll sales be discontinued. For anything other than electoral purposes.
New Zealanders refer to voting districts as "electorates", or as "seats". Following the work of the 2014 Representation Commission review, New Zealand from 2014 on will have 71 geographical electorates; the Commission moved boundaries in west Auckland to abolish the Waitakere electorate and establish the new electorates of Upper Harbour and Kelston. The 71 electorates include 7 Māori electorates specially set up for people of Māori ethnicity or ancestry who choose to place themselves on a separate electoral roll. All electorates have the same number of people in them – the Representation Commission periodically reviews and alters electorate boundaries to preserve this approximate balance; the number of people per electorate depends on the population of the South Island – this the less populous of the country's two main islands, has sixteen guaranteed electorates, so the ideal number of people per electorate equals the population of the South Island divided by sixteen. From this, the Commission determines the number of North Island, Māori and list seats, which may fluctuate accordingly.
Supplementing the geographically-based electorate seats, the system allows for 49 at-large "list seats". A nationwide "party-vote" fills these seats from lists submitted by political parties. For example, if a party wins 20% of the party vote, but only ten electorate seats, it will win fourteen list-seats, so that it has a total of 24 seats: 20% of the 120 seats in parliament. New Zealand general elections occur every three years. Unlike some other countries, New Zealand has no fixed election-date for general elections, but rather the Prime Minister determines the timing of general elections by advising the Governor-General when to issue the writs for a general election; the Constitution Act 1986 requires new parliamentary elections every three years, unless a major crisis arises or the Prime Minister loses the ability to command a majority in parliament. The 1910s, 1930s and 1940s saw three elections delayed due to World War I, the Great Depression and World War II, respectively: the 1919, 1935 and 1943 elections would otherwise have taken place in 1917, 1934 and 1941
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
1943 New Zealand general election
The 1943 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 27th term. With the onset of World War II, elections were postponed, but it was decided to hold a general election in September 1943, around two years after it would have occurred; the election saw the governing Labour Party re-elected by a comfortable margin, although the party lost considerable ground to the expanding National Party. The Labour Party had formed its first government after its resounding victory in the 1935 elections and had been re-elected by a substantial margin in the 1938 elections. Michael Joseph Savage, the first Labour Prime Minister, died in 1940. In the same year as Fraser took power, the opposition National Party had replaced the ineffectual Adam Hamilton with Sidney Holland, was beginning to overcome the internal divisions that had plagued Hamilton's time as leader; as World War II continued, the issues surrounding it came to dominate political debate.
Shortages appeared. The matter of conscription was contentious — although both Labour and National supported it, many traditional followers of Labour were angry at their party's stance. Many early Labour leaders, including Fraser, had been jailed for opposing conscription in World War I, were branded hypocrites for introducing it. A faction of Labour, dissatisfied with the mainstream party's economic and conscription policies, followed dissident MP John A. Lee to his new Democratic Labour Party. A general election was due to be held in 1941, but Fraser, who held a tight reign over the coalition war cabinet, persuaded Parliament to postpone it due to the war. During April and May 1943, there were three deaths of sitting members: Paraire Karaka Paikea – Northern Maori – died on 6 April Alfred Ransom – Pahiatua – died on 22 May Gordon Coates – Kaipara – died on 27 MayThis would have required three by-elections in a year where the government was planning to hold a general election, in fact, the writ for the Northern Maori by-election was issued on 19 May.
On 11 June, the government announced that a general election would be held in September, at the same time they introduced legislation that postponed the three by-elections. The By-elections Postponement Act 1943 was passed, amongst other things it revoked the writ issued for the Northern Maori by-election; this was the first time. The date for the main 1943 election was a Saturday; the election to the four Māori electorates was held the day before. 1,021,034 civilians and an uncertain number of serving military personnel were registered to vote — special legislation provided voting rights to all serving members of the armed forces regardless of age, they voted over several days prior to 25 September. Among the civilian population, there was a turnout of 82.8%. The number of seats in Parliament was 80, a number, fixed since 1902. There were three minor movements participating with 45 candidates: the People's Movement or Independent People's Group, the Real Democracy Movement and the Fighting Forces League.
However these groups got only 12,867 votes. Two of the three Fighting Forces League candidates were supported by the Real Democracy Movement, formed by the Social Credit Association. Two seats were uncontested: Awarua and Matarura. Both seats were held for the National Party by serving officers. Labour did not contest Nelson where Harry Atmore stood. National did not contest three electorates: Kaipara and Palmerston North where Independent Nationalists stood, or Buller. 1943 was the last general election. With seamen's and servicemen's votes taking time to come in, it took until mid-October before all results were finalised; the outcome in at least ten electorates was in doubt: Oamaru, Raglan, New Plymouth, Wairarapa, Hamilton and Motueka. In its 27 September edition, The New Zealand Herald posted profiles of new members of parliament; this included National's T. R. Beatty, a building contractor from Oamaru who had beaten Arnold Nordmeyer, a sitting cabinet minister. In initial results, Beatty had a majority of just six votes, but incumbents had strong support by military staff, Nordmeyer had a final majority of 125 votes.
The 1943 election saw the governing Labour Party retain office by a ten-seat margin, winning forty-five seats to the National Party's thirty-four, with one independent. The popular vote was closer — Labour won 47.6%, while National won 42.8%. Holland was stunned by the result, called for a Commission of Inquiry to look at the servicemens’ vote, but was answered by a report from the Chief Electoral Officer; the Labour vote dropped in rural areas where the now more prosperous farmers returned to their normal political allegiance. There were strikes by the miners, resentment at wartime restrictions. Lee’s "Democratic Soldier Labour" party took votes in contested seats, there was a "vast and weird variety of miscellaneous candidates under strange labels"; however the forces vote favoured both Labour and Democratic Soldier Labour, s