Social Progress Index

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2017 Social Progress Index
  Very High Social Progress
  High Social Progress
  Upper Middle Social Progress
  Lower Middle Social Progress
  Low Social Progress
  Very Low Social Progress
  Unranked

The Social Progress Index (SPI) measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens. Fifty-four indicators in the areas of basic human needs, foundations of well-being, and opportunity to progress show the relative performance of nations. The index is published by the nonprofit Social Progress Imperative, and is based on the writings of Amartya Sen, Douglass North, and Joseph Stiglitz.[1] The SPI measures the well-being of a society by observing social and environmental outcomes directly rather than the economic factors. The social and environmental factors include wellness (including health, shelter and sanitation), equality, inclusion, sustainability and personal freedom and safety.[2]

Introduction and methodology[edit]

The index combines three dimensions

  1. Basic human needs
  2. Foundations of well-being
  3. Opportunity

Each dimension includes four components, which are each composed of between three and five specific outcome indicators. The included indicators are selected because they are measured appropriately, with a consistent methodology, by the same organization across all (or essentially all) of the countries in the sample. Together, this framework aims to capture a broad range of interrelated factors revealed by the scholarly literature and practitioner experience as underpinning social progress.

Two key features of the Social Progress Index are:[2]

  1. the exclusion of economic variables
  2. the use of outcome measures rather than inputs

Social Progress Imperative evaluated hundreds of possible indicators while developing the Social Progress Index, including engaging researchers at MIT to determine what indicators best differentiated the performance of nations. The index uses outcome measures when there are sufficient data available or the closest possible proxies.[2]

History[edit]

In 2010, a group of global leaders from the social sector sought to develop a better measure of a country's level of development and, by extension, better understand its development priorities. Funded by private foundations and under the technical guidance of Professors Michael Porter from Harvard Business School and Scott Stern from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the group formed Social Progress Imperative and launched a beta version of the Social Progress Index for 50 countries in 2013 to measure a comprehensive array of components of social and environmental performance and aggregate them into an overall framework.

This work was influenced by the contributions of Amartya Sen on social development, as well as by the recent call for action in the report Mismeasuring Our Lives by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress.[3] The Social Progress Index was released in 2014 for 133 countries with a second version in 2015.[2]

On 11 July 2013, Social Progress Imperative's chairman and professor at Harvard Business School, Michael Porter, addressed the United Nations 6th Ministerial Forum for Development and discussed the Social Progress Index.[2]

In addition to the global Social Progress Index, the methodology used to create it has been adapted to measure social and environmental performance in smaller areas, such as the Amazon region of Brazil.[4] Other projects include a Social Progress Index for the Municipality of Guatemala City.[5] Fundacion Paraguaya has integrated elements of the Social Progress Index into its Poverty Stoplight tool. The national government of Paraguay is setting a target for Social Progress Index performance alongside GDP targets.

The Guardian reported that the European Commission had agreed to partner with Social Progress Imperative to create a social progress index for the European Union.[6]The EU Social Progress Index was published in October, 2016.

A similar index, although with some differences compared to the nation list (and therefore not directly comparable), has been published for the individual U.S. states.[7][8]

Rankings and scores by country[edit]

Social Progress Index by most recent rating
  Very High Social Progress
  High Social Progress
  Upper Middle Social Progress
  Lower Middle Social Progress
  Low Social Progress
  Very Low Social Progress
  Unranked

Color key:

Very high →               → Very low
Country 2017 2016 2015 2014
  Switzerland 1
96.57
1
95.39
1
92.63
1
93.55
 Singapore 2
96.54
4
95.36
4
92.60
4
93.52
 Denmark 1
90.57
3
89.39
8
86.63
9
86.55
 Finland 2
90.53
1
90.09
7
86.75
8
86.91
 Iceland 3
90.27
10
88.45
4
87.62
3
88.07
 Norway 3
90.27
7
88.70
1
88.36
5
87.12
 Taiwan 5
90.10
5
88.87
3
87.97
2
88.19
 Canada 6
89.84
2
89.49
6
86.89
7
86.95
 Netherlands 7
89.82
8
88.65
9
86.50
4
87.37
 Sweden 8
89.66
6
88.80
2
88.06
6
87.08
 Australia 9
89.30
4
89.13
10
86.42
10
86.10
 New Zealand 9
89.30
10
88.45
5
87.08
1
88.24
 Ireland 11
88.91
12
87.94
12
84.66
15
84.05
 United Kingdom 12
88.73
9
88.58
11
84.68
13
84.56
 Germany 13
88.50
15
86.42
14
84.04
12
84.61
 Austria 14
87.98
13
86.60
13
82.83
11
85.11
 Belgium 15
87.15
16
86.19
17
84.68
17
82.63
 Spain 16
86.96
17
85.88
20
81.17
21
80.77
 Japan 17
86.44
14
86.54
15
83.15
14
84.21
 United States 18
86.43
19
84.62
16
82.85
16
82.77
 France 19
85.92
18
84.79
21
80.82
20
81.11
 Portugal 20
85.44
21
83.88
18
81.91
22
80.49
 Slovenia 21
84.32
20
84.27
19
81.62
18
81.65
 Czech Republic 22
84.22
22
82.80
22
80.59
23
80.41
 Estonia 23
82.96
23
82.62
23
80.49
19
81.28
 Italy 24
82.62
24
82.49
31
77.38
29
76.93
 Chile 25
82.54
25
82.12
26
78.29
30
76.30
 South Korea 26
82.08
26
80.92
29
77.70
28
77.18
 Cyprus 27
81.15
27
80.75
30
77.45
N/A
 Costa Rica 28
81.03
28
80.12
28
77.88
25
77.75
 Israel 29
80.61
37
75.32
40
72.60
39
71.40
 Slovakia 30
80.22
31
78.96
25
78.45
24
78.93
 Uruguay 31
80.09
28
80.12
24
79.21
26
77.51
 Poland 32
79.65
30
79.76
27
77.98
27
77.44
 Greece 33
78.92
32
78.27
34
74.03
35
73.43
 Latvia 34
78.61
36
76.19
33
74.12
31
73.91
 Lithuania 35
78.09
34
76.94
35
74.00
33
73.76
 Croatia 36
78.04
33
77.68
37
73.30
36
73.31
 Hungary 37
77.32
35
76.88
32
74.80
32
73.87
 Argentina 38
75.90
38
75.20
38
73.08
42
70.59
 Mauritius 39
75.18
40
73.24
36
73.66
34
73.68
 Panama 40
74.61
41
73.02
41
71.79
38
72.58
 Bulgaria 41
74.42
43
72.14
43
70.19
44
70.24
 Kuwait 42
74.12
45
71.84
47
69.19
40
70.66
 Brazil 43
73.97
46
71.70
42
70.89
46
69.97
 Romania 44
73.53
42
72.23
50
68.37
51
67.72
 Serbia 45
73.41
47
71.55
45
69.79
41
70.61
 Jamaica 46
72.42
44
71.94
44
69.83
43
70.39
 Peru 47
72.15
49
70.09
55
67.23
55
66.29
 Mexico 48
71.93
51
70.02
54
67.50
54
66.41
 Colombia 49
71.72
48
70.84
49
68.85
52
67.24
 Malaysia 50
71.14
50
70.08
46
69.55
45
70.00
 Tunisia 51
71.09
56
68.00
67
64.92
70
62.96
 Albania 52
70.97
52
69.78
52
68.19
48
69.13
 Georgia 53
70.80
54
69.17
60
65.89
66
63.94
 Montenegro 54
70.01
55
68.17
48
69.01
53
66.80
 Ecuador 55
69.97
53
69.56
51
68.25
50
68.15
 Jordan 56
69.85
71
65.43
74
63.31
75
61.92
 Saudi Arabia 57
69.45
65
66.30
69
64.27
65
64.38
 Macedonia 58
69.35
57
67.88
53
67.79
49
68.33
 Armenia 59
69.01
67
66.05
61
65.70
60
65.03
 Paraguay 60
68.73
60
67.44
56
67.10
72
62.65
 Turkey 61
68.68
58
67.82
58
66.24
64
64.62
 Thailand 62
68.51
61
67.43
57
66.34
59
65.14
 Dominican Republic 63
68.42
70
65.65
77
62.47
68
63.03
 Ukraine 64
68.35
63
66.43
62
65.69
62
64.91
 Belarus 65
67.80
66
66.18
66
64.98
58
65.20
 South Africa 66
67.25
58
67.60
63
65.64
69
62.96
 Russia 67
67.17
75
64.19
71
63.64
80
60.79
 Philippines 68
67.10
68
65.92
64
65.46
56
65.86
 Lebanon 69
66.93
72
64.73
73
63.36
71
62.90
 El Salvador 70
66.43
64
66.36
68
64.31
63
64.70
 Bolivia 71
66.31
74
64.42
80
61.85
83
60.05
 Moldova 71
66.31
72
64.73
70
63.68
81
60.12
 Sri Lanka 73
66.16
83
62.21
88
60.10
85
59.71
 Kazakhstan 74
66.01
76
63.86
83
61.38
86
59.47
 Algeria 75
65.41
88
61.18
85
60.66
87
59.13
 Azerbaijan 76
65.33
77
63.75
76
62.62
73
62.44
 Kyrgyzstan 76
65.33
79
62.91
93
58.58
93
57.08
 Morocco 78
65.25
86
61.92
91
59.56
91
58.01
 Indonesia 79
65.10
82
62.27
86
60.47
88
58.98
 Botswana 80
64.44
62
67.03
65
65.22
57
65.60
 Nicaragua 81
64.17
78
63.03
78
62.20
74
62.33
 Egypt 82
63.76
89
60.74
89
59.91
84
59.97
 China 83
63.72
84
62.10
92
59.01
90
58.67
 Guatemala 84
62.62
87
61.68
79
62.19
76
61.37
 Uzbekistan 85
62.02
91
60.49
90
59.71
92
57.34
 Mongolia 86
62.00
80
62.80
81
61.52
89
58.97
 Namibia 87
61.98
85
62.01
75
62.71
78
61.19
 Iran 88
61.93
93
59.45
95
56.82
94
56.65
 Honduras 89
61.76
90
60.64
82
61.44
77
61.28
 Ghana 90
61.44
92
60.37
94
58.29
96
55.96
   Nepal 91
60.08
95
57.40
98
55.33
101
51.58
 Tajikistan 92
58.87
94
58.78
96
56.49
95
56.05
 India 93
58.39
98
53.92
101
53.06
102
50.24
 Senegal 94
58.31
96
55.64
97
56.46
97
53.52
 Kenya 95
56.17
99
53.72
104
51.67
103
50.20
 Myanmar 96
55.69
110
49.84
119
46.12
N/A
 Bangladesh 97
54.84
101
52.73
100
53.39
99
52.04
 Cambodia 98
54.54
97
54.28
99
53.96
100
51.89
 Laos 99
54.17
102
52.54
102
52.41
98
52.41
 Malawi 100
53.09
100
53.44
111
48.95
109
48.79
 Rwanda 101
52.78
105
51.91
106
51.60
105
49.46
 Swaziland 102
52.64
106
51.76
107
50.94
108
48.87
 Lesotho 103
51.74
103
52.39
103
52.27
107
48.94
 Benin 104
51.69
108
50.03
108
50.04
106
49.11
 Pakistan 105
51.54
113
49.13
122
45.66
124
42.40
 Ivory Coast 106
50.65
116
48.97
N/A N/A
 Tanzania 107
50.21
109
49.99
116
47.14
114
46.06
 Zimbabwe 108
50.10
114
49.11
N/A N/A
 Nigeria 109
50.01
119
46.49
125
43.31
123
42.65
 Burkina Faso 110
49.75
112
49.34
112
48.82
112
47.33
 Uganda 111
49.59
107
50.69
110
49.49
111
47.75
 Liberia 112
49.34
124
45.07
123
44.89
120
44.02
 Mauritania 113
48.44
122
46.08
121
45.85
121
43.11
 Republic of the Congo 114
48.24
111
49.74
109
49.60
110
47.99
 Togo 115
48.21
115
49.03
117
46.66
122
42.80
 Mozambique 116
47.90
117
47.96
120
46.02
117
45.23
 Cameroon 117
47.83
118
47.22
114
47.42
116
45.51
 Mali 118
47.75
121
46.24
118
46.51
113
46.85
 Madagascar 119
47.40
123
45.91
124
44.50
119
44.28
 Sierra Leone 120
47.10
125
44.22
N/A N/A
 Ethiopia 121
45.29
126
43.50
118
41.04
N/A
 Yemen 122
43.46
127
41.76
128
40.30
125
40.23
 Guinea 123
43.40
128
41.66
130
39.60
129
37.41
 Niger 124
42.97
129
41.63
127
40.56
126
40.10
 Angola 125
40.73
130
39.70
129
40.00
127
39.93
 Chad 126
35.69
131
36.38
132
33.17
132
32.60
 Afghanistan 127
35.66
132
35.89
131
35.40
N/A
 Central African Republic 128
28.38
133
30.03
133
31.42
131
34.17
 United Arab Emirates N/A 39
73.69
39
72.79
37
72.92
 Bosnia and Herzegovina N/A 69
65.84
59
66.15
61
64.99
 Venezuela N/A 81
62.60
72
63.45
67
63.78
 Iraq N/A 104
52.28
113
48.35
118
44.84
 Djibouti N/A 120
46.30
115
47.27
115
45.95
 Trinidad and Tobago N/A N/A N/A 47
69.88
 Cuba N/A N/A N/A 79
61.07
 Guyana N/A N/A N/A 82
60.06
 Zambia N/A N/A N/A 104
49.88
 Sudan N/A N/A N/A 128
38.45
 Burundi N/A N/A N/A 130
37.33
References [9] [10] [11] [12]

Criticism[edit]

From an econometric stand point, the Index appears to be similar to other efforts aimed at overcoming the limitation of traditional economic measure such as the gross domestic product (GDP). One major criticism is that although the Social Progress Index can be seen as a superset of indicators used by earlier econometric models such as Gross National Well-being Index 2005, Bhutan Gross National Happiness Index of 2012, and World Happiness Report of 2012, Yet, unlike them, it ignores measures of subjective life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Other critics point out that "there remain certain dimensions that are currently not included in the SPI. These are the concentration of wealth in the top 1 percent of the population, efficiency of the judicial system, and quality of the transportation infrastructure."[13]

Some critics argue that "we must be wary. Though words such as “inclusive capitalism” are bandied around increasingly these days to signal a new age, free from ideological battlegrounds between public and private, much of what the organization’s founders say about it confirms that the index is more about being “business inclusive” than “inclusive capitalism.”[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Beyond GDP". The Economist. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Social Progress Imperitive Website". Social Progress Imperitive. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  3. ^ "Beyond GDP". The Economist. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "Conservation of Amazon threatened by poor social conditions of its people: study". Global Post. Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  5. ^ "ÍNDICE DE PROGRESO SOCIAL DE LA CIUDAD DE GUATEMALA - Progreso Social". progresosocial.org. Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  6. ^ Jo Confino. "European Commission agrees to investigate using social progress tool alongside GDP". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  7. ^ "Social Progress Index: US States – Methodology Summary" (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  8. ^ "State Progress Reports". Social Progress Imperative. 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  9. ^ Porter, Michael E.; Stern, Scott (2017). Social Progress Index 2017 (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. p. 4. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  10. ^ Porter, Michael E.; Stern, Scott (2016). Social Progress Index 2016 (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. p. 17. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  11. ^ Porter, Michael E.; Stern, Scott (2015). Social Progress Index 2015 (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. p. 17. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 
  12. ^ Porter, Michael E.; Stern, Scott (2014). Social Progress Index 2014 (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. p. 7. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  13. ^ http://opinion.inquirer.net/80526/social-progress-index
  14. ^ http://www.humanosphere.org/social-business/2016/05/a-new-index-to-measure-social-progress-but-what-is-it-really-telling-us/

External links[edit]