Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Survival analysis is a branch of statistics for analyzing the expected duration of time until one or more events happen, such as death in biological organisms and failure in mechanical systems. This topic is called reliability theory or reliability analysis in engineering, duration analysis or duration modelling in economics, event history analysis in sociology. Survival analysis attempts to answer questions such as: what is the proportion of a population which will survive past a certain time? Of those that survive, at what rate will they die or fail? Can multiple causes of death or failure be taken into account? How do particular circumstances or characteristics increase or decrease the probability of survival? To answer such questions, it is necessary to define "lifetime". In the case of biological survival, death is unambiguous, but for mechanical reliability, failure may not be well-defined, for there may well be mechanical systems in which failure is partial, a matter of degree, or not otherwise localized in time.
In biological problems, some events may have the same ambiguity. The theory outlined below assumes well-defined events at specific times. More survival analysis involves the modelling of time to event data. Recurring event or repeated event models relax that assumption; the study of recurring events is relevant in systems reliability, in many areas of social sciences and medical research. Survival analysis is used in several ways: To describe the survival times of members of a group Life tables Kaplan-Meier curves Survival function Hazard function To compare the survival times of two or more groups Log-rank test To describe the effect of categorical or quantitative variables on survival Cox proportional hazards regression Parametric survival models Survival trees Survival random forests The following terms are used in survival analyses: Event: Death, disease occurrence, disease recurrence, recovery, or other experience of interest Time: The time from the beginning of an observation period to an event, or end of the study, or loss of contact or withdrawal from the study.
Censoring / Censored observation: If a subject does not have an event during the observation time, they are described as censored. The subject is censored in the sense that nothing is observed or known about that subject after the time of censoring. A censored subject may or may not have an event after the end of observation time. Survival function S: The probability that a subject survives longer than time t; this example uses the Acute Myelogenous Leukemia survival data set "aml" from the "survival" package in R. The data set is from Miller and the question is whether the standard course of chemotherapy should be extended for additional cycles; the aml data set sorted by survival time is shown in the box. Time is indicated by the variable "time", the survival or censoring time Event is indicated by the variable "status". 0 = no event, 1 = event Treatment group: the variable "x" indicates if maintenance chemotherapy was givenThe last observation, at 161 weeks, is censored. Censoring indicates that the patient did not have an event.
Another subject, observation 3, was censored at 13 weeks. This subject was only in the study for 13 weeks, the aml cancer did not recur during those 13 weeks, it is possible that this patient was enrolled near the end of the study, so that they could only be observed for 13 weeks. It is possible that the patient was enrolled early in the study, but was lost to follow up or withdrew from the study; the table shows that other subjects were censored at 16, 28, 45 weeks. The remaining subjects all experienced events while in the study; the question of interest is whether recurrence occurs in maintained patients than in non-maintained patients. The survival function S, is the probability that a subject survives longer than time t. S is theoretically a smooth curve, but it is estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve; the graph shows the KM plot for the aml data and can be interpreted as follows: The x axis is time, from zero to the last observed time point. The y axis is the proportion of subjects surviving.
At time zero, 100% of the subjects are alive without an event. The solid line shows the progression of event occurrences. A vertical drop indicates an event. In the aml table shown above, two subjects had events at 5 weeks, two had events at 8 weeks, one had an event at 9 weeks, so on; these events at 5 weeks, 8 weeks and so on are indicated by the vertical drops in the KM plot at those time points. At the far right end of the KM plot there is a tick mark at 161 weeks; the vertical tick mark indicates that a patient was censored at this time. In the aml data table five subjects were censored, at 13, 16, 28, 45 and 161 weeks. There are five tick marks in the KM plot, corresponding to these censored observations. A life table summarizes survival data in terms of the number of events and the proportion surviving at each event time point; the life table for the aml data, created using the R software, is shown. The life table summarizes the events and the proportion surviving at each event time point.
The columns in the life table have the following
A credit card is a payment card issued to users to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts plus the other agreed charges. The card issuer creates a revolving account and grants a line of credit to the cardholder, from which the cardholder can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance. A credit card is different from a charge card, which requires the balance to be repaid in full each month. In contrast, credit cards allow the consumers to build a continuing balance of debt, subject to interest being charged. A credit card differs from a cash card, which can be used like currency by the owner of the card. A credit card differs from a charge card in that a credit card involves a third-party entity that pays the seller and is reimbursed by the buyer, whereas a charge card defers payment by the buyer until a date; the size of most credit cards is 85.60 mm × 53.98 mm and rounded corners with a radius of 2.88–3.48 mm, conforming to the ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 standard, the same size as ATM cards and other payment cards, such as debit cards.
Credit cards have a printed or embossed bank card number complying with the ISO/IEC 7812 numbering standard. The card number's prefix, called the Bank Identification Number, is the sequence of digits at the beginning of the number that determine the bank to which a credit card number belongs; this is the first six digits for Visa cards. The next nine digits are the individual account number, the final digit is a validity check code. Both of these standards are maintained and further developed by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 17/WG 1. Credit cards have a magnetic stripe conforming to the ISO/IEC 7813. Many modern credit cards have a computer chip embedded in them as a security feature. In addition to the main credit card number, credit cards carry issue and expiration dates, as well as extra codes such as issue numbers and security codes. Not all credit cards do they use the same number of digits. Credit card numbers were embossed to allow easy transfer of the number to charge slips. With the decline of paper slips, some credit cards are no longer embossed and in fact the card number is no longer in the front.
The concept of using a card for purchases was described in 1887 by Edward Bellamy in his utopian novel Looking Backward. Bellamy used the term credit card eleven times in this novel, although this referred to a card for spending a citizen's dividend from the government, rather than borrowing, making it more similar to a Debit card. Charge coins and other similar items were used from the late 19th century to the 1930s, they came in various sizes. Each charge coin had a little hole, enabling it to be put in a key ring, like a key; these charge coins were given to customers who had charge accounts in department stores, so on. A charge coin had the charge account number along with the merchant's name and logo; the charge coin offered a simple and fast way to copy a charge account number to the sales slip, by imprinting the coin onto the sales slip. This sped the process of copying done by handwriting, it reduced the number of errors, by having a standardized form of numbers on the sales slip, instead of various kind of handwriting style.
Because the customer's name was not on the charge coin anyone could use it. This sometimes led to a case of mistaken identity, either accidentally or intentionally, by acting on behalf of the charge account owner or out of malice to defraud both the charge account owner and the merchant. Beginning in the 1930s, merchants started to move from charge coins to the newer Charga-Plate; the Charga-Plate, developed in 1928, was an early predecessor of the credit card and was used in the U. S. from the 1930s to the late 1950s. It was a 2 1/2" × 1 1/4" rectangle of sheet metal related to military dog tag systems, it was embossed with the customer's name and state. It held a small paper card on its back for a signature. In recording a purchase, the plate was laid into a recess in the imprinter, with a paper "charge slip" positioned on top of it; the record of the transaction included an impression of the embossed information, made by the imprinter pressing an inked ribbon against the charge slip. Charga-Plate was a trademark of Farrington Manufacturing Co.
Charga-Plates were issued by large-scale merchants to their regular customers, much like department store credit cards of today. In some cases, the plates were kept in the issuing store rather than held by customers; when an authorized user made a purchase, a clerk retrieved the plate from the store's files and processed the purchase. Charga-Plates speeded back-office bookkeeping and reduced copying errors that were done manually in paper ledgers in each store. In 1934, American Airlines and the Air Transport Association simplified the process more with the advent of the Air Travel Card, they created a numbering scheme that identified the issuer of the card as well as the customer account. This is the reason the modern UATP cards still start with the number 1. With an Air Travel Card, passengers could "buy now, pay later" for a ticket against their credit and receive a fifteen percent discount at any of the accepting airlines. By the 1940s, all of the major U. S. airlines offered Air Travel Cards.
By 1941, about half of the airlines' revenues came through the Air Travel Card agreement. The airlines had started offering i
Ancestry.com LLC is a held online company based in Lehi, Utah. The largest for-profit genealogy company in the world, it operates a network of genealogical, historical record and genetic genealogy websites; as of November 2018, the company claimed to provide access to 10 billion historical records, to have 3 million paying subscribers and to have sold 14 million DNA kits to customers. In 1990, Paul B. Allen and Dan Taggart, two Brigham Young University graduates, founded Infobases and began offering Latter-day Saints publications on floppy disks. In 1988, Allen had worked at Folio Corporation, founded by his brother Curt and his brother-in-law Brad Pelo. Infobases' first products were floppy disks and compact disks sold from the back seat of the founders' car. In 1994, Infobases was named among Inc. magazine's 500 fastest-growing companies. Their first offering on CD was the LDS Collectors Edition, released in April 1995, selling for $299.95, offered in an online version in August 1995. Ancestry went online with the launch of Ancestry.com in 1996.
On January 1, 1997, Infobases' parent company, Western Standard Publishing, purchased Ancestry, Inc. publisher of Ancestry magazine and genealogy books. Western Standard Publishing's CEO was Joe one of the principal owners of Geneva Steel. In July 1997, Allen and Taggart purchased Western Standard's interest in Inc.. At the time, Brad Pelo was president and CEO of Infobases, president of Western Standard. Less than six months earlier, he had been president of Folio Corporation, whose digital technology Infobases was using. In March 1997, Folio was sold to Open Market for $45 million; the first public evidence of the change in ownership of Ancestry magazine came with the July/August 1997 issue, which showed a newly reorganized Ancestry, Inc. as its publisher. That issue's masthead included the first use of the Ancestry.com web address. More growth for Infobases occurred in July 1997, when Ancestry, Inc. purchased Bookcraft, Inc. a publisher of books written by leaders and officers of the LDS Church.
Infobases had published many of Bookcraft's books as part of its LDS Collector's Library. Pelo announced that Ancestry's product line would be expanded in both CDs and online. Alan Ashton, a longtime investor in Infobases and founder of WordPerfect, was its chairman of the board. Allen and Taggart began running Ancestry, Inc. independently from Infobases in July 1997, began creating one of the largest online subscription-based genealogy database services. In April 1999, to better focus on its Ancestry.com and MyFamily.com Internet businesses, Infobases sold the Bookcraft brand name and its catalog of print books to its major competitor in the LDS book market, Deseret Book. Included in the sale were the rights to Infobases' LDS Collectors Library on CD. A year earlier, Deseret Book had released a competing product called GospeLink, the two products were combined as a single product by Deseret Book; the MyFamily.com website launched in December 1998, with additional free sites beginning in March 1999.
The site generated one million registered users within its first 140 days. The company raised more than US$90 million in venture capital from investors and changed its name on November 17, 1999, from Ancestry.com, Inc. to MyFamily.com, Inc. Its three Internet genealogy sites were called Ancestry.com, FamilyHistory.com, MyFamily.com. Sales were about US$62 million for 2002 and US$99 million for 2003. In March 2004, the company, which had outgrown its call center in Orem, opened a new call center, which accommodates about 700 agents at a time, in Provo. Heritage Makers was acquired by MyFamily.com in September 2005. While the company had been offering free access to Ancestry.com at LDS Family History Centers, that service was terminated on March 17, 2007, because the company and the LDS Church were unable to reach a mutually agreeable licensing agreement. In 2010, Ancestry restored access to its site at Family History Centers. In 2010, Ancestry sold its book publishing assets to Turner Publishing Company.
Ancestry.com became a publicly traded company on NASDAQ on November 5, 2009, with an initial public offering of 7.4 million shares priced at $13.50 per share, underwritten by Morgan Stanley, Bank of America, Merrill Lynch, Jefferies & Company, Piper Jaffray, BMO Capital Markets. In 2010, Ancestry.com expanded its domestic operations with the opening of an office in San Francisco, staffed with brand new engineering and marketing teams geared toward developing some of Ancestry's cutting-edge technology and services. In 2011, Ancestry launched an iOS app. In December 2011, Ancestry.com moved the Social Security Death Index search behind a paywall and stopped displaying the Social Security information of people who had died within the past 10 years, because of identity theft concerns. In March 2012, Ancestry.com acquired the collection of DNA assets from GeneTree. In September 2012, Ancestry.com expanded its international operations with the opening of its European headquarters in Dublin, Ireland.
The Dublin office includes a new call centre for international customers, as well as product and engineering teams. In October 2012, Ancestry.com agreed to be acquired by a private equity group consisting of Permira Advisers LLP, members of Ancestry.com's management team, including CEO Tim Sullivan and CFO Howard Hochhauser, Spectrum Equity, for $32 per share or around $1.6 billion. At the same time, Ancestry.com purchased a photo digitization and sharing service called 1000Memories. On July 16, 2015, Ancestry launched AncestryHealth, announced the appointment of Cathy A. Petti as its Chief Health Officer. In April 2016 GIC Private Limited (a sovereign wealth fund owned by the Government of S
Primary Insurance Amount
The Primary Insurance Amount, is a component of Social Security provision in the United States. Eligibility for receiving Social Security benefits is contingent upon the recipient: having worked for at least 10 years and having paid the Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax up to a maximum taxable earnings threshold. For the purposes of the United States Social Security Administration, PIA is used as the beginning point in calculating the annuity payment of benefits, provided to an eligible recipient each month during retirement until the recipient's death; the more a person pays into the Social Security Trust Fund during their life, the higher their PIA will be. However, specific rules in its computation may deviate from this general rule; the main determinant of PIA is the Average Indexed Monthly Earnings. To calculate AIME, the individual's wages are first expressed in today's dollars by inflating the value to reflect increases in the wage level during the worker's years of employment; the inflated wages are totaled across the highest 35 earnings years.
The sum is divided by 420 in order to calculate real average monthly earnings. This estimate of real monthly earnings is referred to as the AIME; as a redistributive function of AIME, PIA is designed to reward workers who earn more with higher benefits, but to ensure that benefits do not rise nearly as fast as earnings. Monthly Social Security benefits at full retirement age are determined through adjusting AIME by multipliers at specific earnings thresholds, which are called "PIA bend points". Accordingly, the PIA is the sum of three separate percentages of portions of estimated AIME; the percentages of the PIA formula are fixed by law, but the dollar amounts in the formula change annually in response to changes in the national average wage index. For 2018, the PIA computation formula is:PIA = 0.90* + 0.32* + 0.15*Accordingly, a beneficiary's PIA will be the sum of: 90 percent of the first $895 of average indexed monthly earnings, plus 32 percent of average indexed monthly earnings between $895 and $5,397, plus 15 percent of average indexed monthly earnings over $5,397 The actual amount of benefits provided to the recipient depends on the age at which they claim their social security benefits, relative to their full retirement age.
Full retirement age is a function of year of birth and is defined by the Social Security Administration as follows: Eligible individuals can begin collecting old-age insurance benefits as early as age 62, referred to as the Early Entitlement Age. Accordingly, individuals born between January 2, 1955, January 1, 1956, are eligible to accept retirement benefits when they turn 62 in 2017. However, there exists a penalty for collecting benefits before full retirement age: the recipient's monthly benefits are permanently reduced. For instance, if a recipient turns age 62 in 2017, their benefit will be 25.8 percent lower than it would have been at full retirement age of 66 and 2 months. In contrast, recipients are rewarded through delayed retirement credits if Social Security benefits are claimed after full retirement. For recipients born in 1943 or 8 percent is added to the yearly benefit amount for each year the recipient delays receiving Social Security benefits beyond their full retirement age.
No delayed credit is given after age 69. Eligible individuals who collect their benefits at full retirement age will receive their calculated PIA. More in 2017, beneficiaries who retire at age 62, full retirement age, or age 70 receive $2,153, $2,687, or $3,538 in benefits. Contrary to common perception, it is still possible to receive retirement benefits and still continue to work. For individuals who decide to accept benefits before their retirement age, $1 in benefits is deducted for each $2, earned above the annual limit. In the year of an individual's full retirement age, up until the precise month of full retirement, $1 of benefits is deducted for every $3, earned over the annual limit. Regardless of the level of earnings, there are no deductions from benefits beyond full retirement age. Since the Social Security Act was first signed in 1935, new legislation has provided for various ways of computing the PIA. In order to assure that those receiving benefits are not harmed by newer methods designed to provide more benefits for others, the highest PIA through any applicable method is used.
Social Security procedures indicate that a worker's earnings record can be "frozen" at the time he or she qualifies for a period of disability, thereby preserving the individual's insured status and preventing the loss of future retirement or disability benefits which may be computed without considering periods of disability. A period of disability for a worker is therefore referred to as a "disability freeze." The primary means of calculating PIAs are the following computation methods. These methods apply in most cases, rather than a handful of cases. All benefits payable to beneficiaries eligible after 1978 may use the 1978 New Start Method known as the Average Indexed Monthly Earnings PIA. To determine the value of this PIA: 1. Determine the Elapsed Years, the Computation Years, divisor months. EY are calculated by taking the earliest of the year the beneficiary obtained the age of 62, became disabled, or died and subtract the year of 1951 or the year the beneficiary obtained the age of 22.
If DIB Freeze applies, exclude any years or wholly within a period of disability. CY are computed by taking the number of EY and subtracting 5.
Social Security (United States)
In the United States, Social Security is the used term for the federal Old-Age and Disability Insurance program and is administered by the Social Security Administration. The original Social Security Act was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935, the current version of the Act, as amended, encompasses several social welfare and social insurance programs. Social Security is funded through payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax or Self Employed Contributions Act Tax. Tax deposits are collected by the Internal Revenue Service and are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the two Social Security Trust Funds. With a few exceptions, all salaried income, up to an amount determined by law, is subject to the Social Security payroll tax. All income over said. In 2018, the maximum amount of taxable earnings was $128,400. With few exceptions, all legal residents working in the United States now have an individual Social Security number.
Indeed, nearly all working residents since Social Security's 1935 inception have had a Social Security number because it is requested by a wide range of businesses. In 2017, Social Security expenditures totaled $806.7 billion for OASDI and $145.8 billion for DI. Income derived from Social Security is estimated to have reduced the poverty rate for Americans age 65 or older from about 40% to below 10%. In 2018, the trustees of the Social Security Trust Fund reported that the program will become financially insolvent in the year 2034 unless corrective action is enacted by Congress. Social Security Timeline 1935 The 37-page Social Security Act signed August 14 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Retirement benefits only to worker, welfare benefits started 1937 First Social Security Cards issued by post offices, over 20 million issued in first year 1937 Ernest Ackerman receives first lump-sum payout in January. 1939 Two new categories of beneficiaries added: spouse and minor children of a retired worker 1940 First monthly benefit check issued to Ida May Fuller for $22.54 1950 Benefits increased and cost of living adjustments made at irregular intervals – 77% COLA in 1950 1954 Disability program added to Social Security 1960 Flemming v. Nestor.
Landmark U. S. Supreme Court ruling that gave Congress the power to revise the schedule of benefits; the Court ruled that recipients have no contractual right to receive payments. 1961 Early retirement age lowered to age 62 at reduced benefits 1965 Medicare health care benefits added to Social security – 20 million joined in three years 1966 Medicare tax of 0.7% added to pay for increased Medicare expenses 1972 Supplemental Security Income program federalized and assigned to Social Security Administration 1975 Automatic cost of living adjustments mandated 1977 COLA adjustments brought back to "sustainable" levels 1980 Amendments are made in disability program to help solve some problems of fraud 1983 Taxation of Social Security benefits introduced, new federal hires required to be under Social Security, retirement age increased for younger workers to 66 and 67 years 1984 Congress passed the Disability Benefits Reform Act modifying several aspects of the disability program 1996 Drug addiction or alcoholism disability benefits could no longer be eligible for disability benefits.
The Earnings limit doubled exemption amount for retired Social Security beneficiaries. Terminated SSI eligibility for most non-citizens 1997 The law requires the establishment of federal standards for state-issued birth certificates and requires SSA to develop a prototype counterfeit-resistant Social Security card – still being worked on. 1997 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, replaces Aid to Families with Dependent Children program placed under SSA 1997 State Children's Health Insurance Program for low income citizens – added to Social Security Administration 2003 Voluntary drug benefits with supplemental Medicare insurance payments from recipients added 2009 No Social Security Benefits for Prisoners Act of 2009 signed. A limited form of the Social Security program began, during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term, as a measure to implement "social insurance" during the Great Depression of the 1930s; the Act was an attempt to limit unforeseen and unprepared-for dangers in modern life, including old age, poverty and the burdens of widows with and without children.
Opponents, decried the proposal as socialism. In a Senate Finance Committee hearing, Senator Thomas Gore asked Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, "Isn't this socialism?" She said that it was not, but he continued, "Isn't this a teeny-weeny bit of socialism?"The provisions of Social Security have been changing since the 1930s, shifting in response to economic worries as well as coverage for the poor, dependent children, spouses and the disabled. By 1950, debates moved away from which occupational groups should be included to get enough taxpayers to fund Social Security to how to provide more benefits. Changes in Social Security have reflected a balance between promoting "equality" and efforts to provide "adequate" and affordable protection for low wage workers; the larger and better known programs under the Social Security Administration, SSA, are: Federal Old-Age and Disability Insurance, OASDI Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, TANF Health Insurance for Aged and Disabled, Medicare Grants to States for Medical Assistance Programs for low income citizens, Medicaid State Children's Health Insurance Program for low income citizens, SCHIP Supplement