Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse. This is done out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship is practiced by film producers, film directors, news anchors, journalists and other kinds of authors including individuals who use social media. In authoritarian countries, creators of artworks may remove material that their government might find controversial for fear of sanction by their governments. In pluralistic capitalist countries, repressive judicial lawmaking can cause widespread "rivercrabbing" of Western media. Self-censorship can occur in order to conform to the expectations of the market. For example, the editor of a periodical may consciously or unconsciously avoid topics that will anger advertisers, customers, or the owners in order to protect her or his livelihood either directly or indirectly; this phenomenon is referred to as soft censorship.
Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantees freedom of speech from all forms of censorship. Article 19 explicitly states that "everyone has the right to freedom of expression. People communicate to affirm one's identity and sense of belonging. People may express their opinions or withhold their opinions due to the fear of exclusion or unpopularity. Shared social norms and beliefs create a sense of belonging, but they can create a suppression of expression in order to comply or belong. People may adjust their opinions to go along with the majority attitude. There are different factors that contribute to self-censorship such as gender, education, political interests and media exposure. For some, the reason for their change in beliefs and opinions are rooted in fear of isolation and exclusion; the risk of negative reactions is greater than expressing one's true beliefs. Journalists censor themselves due to threats against them or their interests from another party, editorial instructions from their supervisor, perceived conflicts of interest with a media organization's economic sponsors, advertisers or shareholders, etc.).
Self-censorship occurs when journalists deliberately manipulate their expression out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship of journalists is most pervasive in societies where governments have official media censorship policies and where journalists will be jailed, fined, or lose their job if they do not follow the censorship rules. Organizations such as have raised concerns about news broadcasting stations Fox News, censoring their own content to be less controversial when reporting on certain types of issues such as the War on Terror. In their book Manufacturing Consent, Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman argue that corporate ownership of news media strongly encourages systematic self-censorship owing to market forces. In this argument with liberal media and self-censorship is evident in the selection and omission of news stories, the framing of acceptable discussion, in line with the interests of the corporations owning those media.
The journalists have sought censorship advice from military authorities in order to prevent the inadvertent revelation of military secrets. In 2009, The New York Times succeeded in suppressing news of a reporter's abduction by militants in Afghanistan for seven months until his escape from captivity in order to'reduce danger to the reporter and other hostages'. Journalists have sometimes self-censored publications of news stories out of concern for the safety of people involved. Jean Pelletier, the Washington D. C. correspondent for the Montreal La Presse newspaper, uncovered a covert attempt by the Canadian government to smuggle US diplomats out of Iran during the Iranian Hostage Crisis before the "Canadian Caper" had reached its conclusion. In order to preserve the safety of those involved, he refused to allow the paper to publish the story until the hostages had left Iran, despite the considerable news value to the paper and writer. Self-censorship became a quite frequent practice in Russia after 2000's government take-overs and consolidation of media, further deepened after 2014-2015 laws on'undesirable organisations'.
As for Europe, threats to media freedom have shown a significant increase in recent years. Journalists and whistleblowers have experienced threats. Self-censorship is one of the major consequences of such circumstances. A study published in 2017 by the Council of Europe found that in the period 2014-2016 that 40% of journalists involved in the survey experienced some kind of unwarranted interference, in particular psychological violence, including slandering and smear campaigning, cyberbulling. Other forms of unwarranted interference include intimidation by interest groups, threats with force, intimidation by political groups, targeted surveillance, intimidation by the police, etc. In terms of geography, cases of physical assault were more common in the South Caucasus, followed by Turkey, but were present in other regions as well. In China, the media has to go to greater extents to censor mu
Toleration is the allowing, permitting, or acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with. Random House Dictionary defines tolerance as "a fair and permissive attitude toward those whose opinions, practices, racial or ethnic origins, etc. differ from one's own". Toleration may signify "no more than forbearance and the permission given by the adherents of a dominant religion for other religions to exist though the latter are looked on with disapproval as inferior, mistaken, or harmful."Historically, most incidents and writings pertaining to toleration involve the status of minority and dissenting viewpoints in relation to a dominant state religion. In the 20th century and after, analysis of the doctrine of toleration has been expanded to include political and ethnic groups, LGBT individuals and other minorities, human rights embodies the principle of enforced toleration. From the Latin tolerans, the word tolerance was first used in Middle French in the 14th century and in Early Modern English in the early 15th century.
The word toleration was first used in English in the 1510s to mean "permission granted by authority, licence" from the French tolération, moving towards the meaning of "forbearance, sufferance" in the 1580s. The notion of religious toleration stems from 1609. Religious toleration has been described as a "remarkable feature" of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia; as reported in the Old Testament, king Cyrus the Great was believed to have released the Jews from captivity in 539–530 BCE, permitted their return to their homeland. Cyrus the Great assisted in the restoration of the sacred places of various cities; the Hellenistic city of Alexandria, founded 331 BCE, contained a large Jewish community which lived in peace with equivalently sized Greek and Egyptian populations. According to Michael Walzer, the city provided "a useful example of what we might think of as the imperial version of multiculturalism."The Roman Empire encouraged conquered peoples to continue worshipping their own gods. "An important part of Roman propaganda was its invitation to the gods of conquered territories to enjoy the benefits of worship within the imperium."
Christians were singled out for persecution because of their own rejection of Roman pantheism and refusal to honor the emperor as a god. In 311 CE, Roman Emperor Galerius issued a general edict of toleration of Christianity, in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine I. In the Old Testament, the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy make similar statements about the treatment of strangers. For example, Exodus 22:21 says: "Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt"; these texts are used in sermons to plead for compassion and tolerance of those who are different from us and less powerful. Julia Kristeva elucidated a philosophy of political and religious toleration based on all of our mutual identities as strangers; the New Testament Parable of the Tares, which speaks of the difficulty of distinguishing wheat from weeds before harvest time, has been invoked in support of religious toleration. In his "Letter to Bishop Roger of Chalons", Bishop Wazo of Liege relied on the parable to argue that "the church should let dissent grow with orthodoxy until the Lord comes to separate and judge them".
Roger Williams, a Baptist theologian and founder of Rhode Island, used this parable to support government toleration of all of the "weeds" in the world, because civil persecution inadvertently hurts the "wheat" too. Instead, Williams believed; this parable lent further support to Williams' Biblical philosophy of a wall of separation between church and state as described in his 1644 book, The Bloody Tenent of Persecution. In the Middle Ages, there were instances of toleration of particular groups; the Latin concept tolerantia was a "highly-developed political and judicial concept in mediaeval scholastic theology and canon law." Tolerantia was used to "denote the self-restraint of a civil power in the face of" outsiders, like infidels, Muslims or Jews, but in the face of social groups like prostitutes and lepers. Heretics such as the Cathari, Jan Hus, his followers, the Hussites, were persecuted. Theologians belonging or reacting to the Protestant Reformation began discussion of the circumstances under which dissenting religious thought should be permitted.
Toleration "as a government-sanctioned practice" in Christian countries, "the sense on which most discussion of the phenomenon relies—is not attested before the sixteenth century". In Poland in 1264, the Statute of Kalisz was issued, guaranteeing freedom of religion for the Jews in the country. In 1348, Pope Clement VI issued a bull pleading with Catholics not to murder Jews, whom they blamed for the Black Death, he noted that Jews died of the plague like anyone else, that the disease flourished in areas where there were no Jews. Christians who blamed and killed Jews had been "seduced by that liar, the Devil", he took Jews under his personal protection at Avignon, but his calls for other clergy to do so failed to be heeded. Johann Reuchlin was a German humanist and a scholar of Greek and Hebrew who opposed efforts by Johannes Pfefferkorn, backed by the Dominicans of Cologne, to confiscate all religious texts from the Jews as a first step towards their forcible conversion to the Catholic religion.
Despite occasional spontaneous episodes of pogroms and killings, as during the Black Death, Polish–Lithuanian
Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love and sense of attachment to a homeland and alliance with other citizens who share the same sentiment. This attachment can be a combination of many different feelings relating to one's own homeland, including ethnic, political or historical aspects, it encompasses a set of concepts related to, but mutually exclusive from those of nationalism. Some manifestations of patriotism emphasise the "land" element in love for one's native land and use the symbolism of agriculture and the soil – compare Blut und Boden. An excess of patriotism in the defense of a nation is called chauvinism; the English term patriot is first attested in the Elizabethan era. The abstract noun patriotism appears in the early 18th century; the general notion of civic virtue and group dedication has been attested in culture globally throughout the historical period. For the Enlightenment thinkers of 18th-century Europe, loyalty to the state was chiefly considered in contrast to loyalty to the Church.
It was argued that clerics should not be allowed to teach in public schools since their patrie was heaven, so that they could not inspire love of the homeland in their students. One of the most influential proponents of this classical notion of patriotism was Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Enlightenment thinkers criticized what they saw as the excess of patriotism. In 1774, Samuel Johnson published a critique of what he viewed as false patriotism. On the evening of 7 April 1775, he made the famous statement, "Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel." James Boswell, who reported this comment in his Life of Johnson, does not provide context for the quote, it has therefore been argued that Johnson was in fact attacking the false use of the term "patriotism" by contemporaries such as John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute and his supporters. However, there is no direct evidence to contradict the held belief that Johnson's famous remark was a criticism of patriotism itself. Patriotism may be strengthened by adherence to a national religion.
This is the opposite of the separation of church and state demanded by the Enlightenment thinkers who saw patriotism and faith as similar and opposed forces. Michael Billig and Jean Bethke Elshtain have both argued that the difference between patriotism and faith is difficult to discern and relies on the attitude of the one doing the labelling. Christopher Heath Wellman, professor of philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis, describes that a popular view of the "patriotist" position is robust obligations to compatriots and only minimal samaritan responsibilities to foreigners. Wellman calls this position "patriotist" rather than "nationalist" to single out the members of territorial, political units rather than cultural groups. George Orwell, in his influential essay Notes on Nationalism distinguished patriotism from the related concept of nationalism: "By'patriotism' I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force upon other people.
Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both culturally. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power; the abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, not for himself but for the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to sink his own individuality." "It is lamentable, that to be a good patriot one must become the enemy of the rest of mankind." Marxists have taken various stances regarding patriotism. On one hand, Karl Marx famously stated that "The working men have no country" and that "the supremacy of the proletariat will cause them to vanish still faster." The same view is promoted by present-day Trotskyists such as Alan Woods, "in favour of tearing down all frontiers and creating a socialist world commonwealth."On the other hand and Maoists are in favour of socialist patriotism based on the theory of socialism in one country. In the European Union, thinkers such as Jürgen Habermas have advocated a "Euro-patriotism", but patriotism in Europe is directed at the nation-state and more than not coincides with "Euroscepticism".
Several surveys have tried to measure patriotism for various reasons, such as the Correlates of War project which found some correlation between war propensity and patriotism. The results from different studies are time dependent. For example, patriotism in Germany before World War I ranked at or near the top, whereas today it ranks at or near the bottom of patriotism surveys. Since 1981, the World Values Survey explores people's national values and beliefs and refer to the average answer "for high income residents" of a country to the question "Are you proud to be?". It ranges from 1 to 4. Charles Blatberg, From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics: Putting Practice First, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-829688-6. Craig Calhoun, Is it Time to Be Postnational?, in Ethnicity and Minority Rights, Stephen May, Tariq Modood and Judith Squires. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. Pp. 231–56. Paul Gomberg, “Patriotism is Like Racism,” in Igor Primoratz, ed. Patriotism, Humanity Books, 2002, pp. 105–12.
ISBN 1-57392-955-7. Jürgen Habermas, “Appendix II: Citizenship and National Identity,” in Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of
In statistics, quality assurance, survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Statisticians attempt for the samples to represent the population in question. Two advantages of sampling are lower cost and faster data collection than measuring the entire population; each observation measures one or more properties of observable bodies distinguished as independent objects or individuals. In survey sampling, weights can be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design in stratified sampling. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide the practice. In business and medical research, sampling is used for gathering information about a population. Acceptance sampling is used to determine if a production lot of material meets the governing specifications. Successful statistical practice is based on focused problem definition. In sampling, this includes defining the "population".
A population can be defined as including all people or items with the characteristic one wishes to understand. Because there is rarely enough time or money to gather information from everyone or everything in a population, the goal becomes finding a representative sample of that population. Sometimes what defines. For example, a manufacturer needs to decide whether a batch of material from production is of high enough quality to be released to the customer, or should be sentenced for scrap or rework due to poor quality. In this case, the batch is the population. Although the population of interest consists of physical objects, sometimes it is necessary to sample over time, space, or some combination of these dimensions. For instance, an investigation of supermarket staffing could examine checkout line length at various times, or a study on endangered penguins might aim to understand their usage of various hunting grounds over time. For the time dimension, the focus may be on discrete occasions.
In other cases, the examined'population' may be less tangible. For example, Joseph Jagger studied the behaviour of roulette wheels at a casino in Monte Carlo, used this to identify a biased wheel. In this case, the'population' Jagger wanted to investigate was the overall behaviour of the wheel, while his'sample' was formed from observed results from that wheel. Similar considerations arise when taking repeated measurements of some physical characteristic such as the electrical conductivity of copper; this situation arises when seeking knowledge about the cause system of which the observed population is an outcome. In such cases, sampling theory may treat the observed population as a sample from a larger'superpopulation'. For example, a researcher might study the success rate of a new'quit smoking' program on a test group of 100 patients, in order to predict the effects of the program if it were made available nationwide. Here the superpopulation is "everybody in the country, given access to this treatment" – a group which does not yet exist, since the program isn't yet available to all.
Note that the population from which the sample is drawn may not be the same as the population about which information is desired. There is large but not complete overlap between these two groups due to frame issues etc.. Sometimes they may be separate – for instance, one might study rats in order to get a better understanding of human health, or one might study records from people born in 2008 in order to make predictions about people born in 2009. Time spent in making the sampled population and population of concern precise is well spent, because it raises many issues and questions that would otherwise have been overlooked at this stage. In the most straightforward case, such as the sampling of a batch of material from production, it would be most desirable to identify and measure every single item in the population and to include any one of them in our sample. However, in the more general case this is not possible or practical. There is no way to identify all rats in the set of all rats. Where voting is not compulsory, there is no way to identify which people will vote at a forthcoming election.
These imprecise populations are not amenable to sampling in any of the ways below and to which we could apply statistical theory. As a remedy, we seek a sampling frame which has the property that we can identify every single element and include any in our sample; the most straightforward type of frame is a list of elements of the population with appropriate contact information. For example, in an opinion poll, possible sampling frames include an electoral register and a telephone directory. A probability sample is a sample in which every unit in the population has a chance of being selected in the sample, this probability can be determined; the combination of these traits makes it possible to produce unbiased estimates of population totals, by weighting sampled units according to their probability of selection. Example: We want to estimate the total income of adults living in a given street. We visit each household in that street, identify all adults living there, randomly select one adult from each household..
We interview the selected person and find their income
Social research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan. Social research methodologies can be classified as qualitative. Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, rely on statistical analysis of many cases to create valid and reliable general claims. Related to quantity. Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, may stress contextual subjective accuracy over generality. Related to quality. While methods may be classified as quantitative or qualitative, most methods contain elements of both. For example, qualitative data analysis involves a structured approach to coding the raw data into systematic information, quantifying intercoder reliability. Thus, there is a more complex relationship between "qualitative" and "quantitative" approaches than would be suggested by drawing a simple distinction between them. Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena: from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agent's social experiences.
Methods rooted in classical sociology and statistics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines, such as political science, media studies, program evaluation and market research. Social scientists are divided into camps of support for particular research techniques; these disputes relate to the historical core of social theory. While different in many aspects, both qualitative and quantitative approaches involve a systematic interaction between theory and data; the choice of method depends on what the researcher intends to investigate. For example, a researcher concerned with drawing a statistical generalization across an entire population may administer a survey questionnaire to a representative sample population. By contrast, a researcher who seeks full contextual understanding of an individuals' social actions may choose ethnographic participant observation or open-ended interviews. Studies will combine, or triangulate and qualitative methods as part of a multi-strategy design.
A population is large, making a census or a complete enumeration of all the values in that population infeasible. A sample thus forms a manageable subset of a population. In positivist research, statistics derived from a sample are analysed in order to draw inferences regarding the population as a whole; the process of collecting information from a sample is referred to as sampling. Sampling methods may be either non-random/nonprobability; the most common reason for sampling is to obtain information about a population. Sampling is cheaper than a complete census of a population. Social research is based on logic and empirical observations. Charles C. Ragin writes in his Constructing Social Research book that "Social research involved the interaction between ideas and evidence. Ideas help social researchers make sense of evidence, researchers use evidence to extend and test ideas." Social research thus attempts to create or validate theories through data collection and data analysis, its goal is exploration, description and prediction.
It should never be mistaken with philosophy or belief. Social research aims to find social patterns of regularity in social life and deals with social groups, not individuals themselves. Research can be divided into pure research and applied research. Pure research has no application on real life, whereas applied research attempts to influence the real world. There are no laws in social science. A law in social science is a universal generalization about a class of facts. A fact is an observed phenomenon, observation means it has been seen, heard or otherwise experienced by researcher. A theory is a systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of social life. Concepts are the basic building blocks of theory and are abstract elements representing classes of phenomena. Axioms or postulates are basic assertions assumed to be true. Propositions are conclusions drawn about the relationships among concepts, based on analysis of axioms. Hypotheses are specified expectations about empirical reality derived from propositions.
Social research involves testing these hypotheses to see. Social research involves creating a operationalization and observation. Social theories are written in the language of variables, in other words, theories describe logical relationships between variables. Variables are logical sets of attributes, with people being the "carriers" of those variables. Variables are divided into independent variables that influences the dependent variables. For example, in a study of how different dosages of a drug are related to the severity of symptoms of a disease, a measure of the severity of the symptoms of the disease is a dependent variable and the administration of the drug in specified doses is the independent variable. Rese
Bias is disproportionate weight in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another in a way considered to be unfair. Biases can be learned implicitly within cultural contexts. People may develop biases toward or against an individual, an ethnic group, a sexual or gender identity, a nation, a religion, a social class, a political party, theoretical paradigms and ideologies within academic domains, or a species. Biased means lacking a neutral viewpoint, or not having an open mind. Bias is related to prejudice and intuition. In science and engineering, a bias is a systematic error. Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average; the word derives from Old Provençal into Old French biais, "sideways, against the grain". Whence comes French biais, "a slant, a slope, an oblique", it seems to have entered English via the game of bowls, where it referred to balls made with a greater weight on one side.
Which expanded to the figurative use, "a one-sided tendency of the mind", and, at first in law, "undue propensity or prejudice". A cognitive bias is a repeating or basic misstep in thinking, recollecting, or other cognitive processes; that is, a pattern of deviation from standards in judgment, whereby inferences may be created unreasonably. People create their own "subjective social reality" from their own perceptions, their view of the world may dictate their behaviour. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality; however some cognitive biases are taken to be adaptive, thus may lead to success in the appropriate situation. Furthermore, cognitive biases may allow speedier choices. Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations, coming about because of an absence of appropriate mental mechanisms, or just from human limitations in information processing. Anchoring is a psychological heuristic that describes the propensity to rely on the first piece of information encountered when making decisions.
According to this heuristic, individuals begin with an implicitly suggested reference point and make adjustments to it to reach their estimate. For example, the initial price offered for a used car sets the standard for the rest of the negotiations, so that prices lower than the initial price seem more reasonable if they are still higher than what the car is worth. Apophenia known as patternicity, or agenticity, is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data. Apophenia is well documented as a rationalization for gambling. Gamblers may imagine that they see patterns in the numbers which appear in lotteries, card games, or roulette wheels. One manifestation of this is known as the "gambler's fallacy". Pareidolia is the auditory form of apophenia, it has been suggested that pareidolia combined with hierophany may have helped ancient societies organize chaos and make the world intelligible. An attribution bias can happen when individuals assess or attempt to discover explanations behind their own and others' behaviors.
People make attributions about others' behaviors. Rather than operating as objective perceivers, individuals are inclined to perceptual slips that prompt biased understandings of their social world; when judging others we tend to assume their actions are the result of internal factors such as personality, whereas we tend to assume our own actions arise because of the necessity of external circumstances. There are a wide range of sorts of attribution biases, such as the ultimate attribution error, fundamental attribution error, actor-observer bias, self-serving bias. Examples of attribution bias: Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses while giving disproportionately less attention to information that contradicts it; the effect is stronger for charged issues and for entrenched beliefs. People tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization, belief perseverance, the irrational primacy effect and illusory correlation.
Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in organizational contexts. Framing involves the social construction of social phenomena by mass media sources, political or social movements, political leaders, so on, it is an influence over how people organize and communicate about reality. It can be positive or negative, depending on the audience and what kind of information is being presented. For political purposes, framing presents facts in such a way that implicates a problem, in need of a solution. Members of political parties attempt to frame issues in a way that makes a solution favoring their own political leaning appear as the most appropriate course of action for the situation at hand; as understood in social theory, framing is a schema of interpretation, a collection of anecdotes and stereo
The silent majority is an unspecified large group of people in a country or group who do not express their opinions publicly. The term was popularized by U. S. President Richard Nixon in a November 3, 1969, speech in which he said, "And so tonight—to you, the great silent majority of my fellow Americans—I ask for your support." In this usage it referred to those Americans who did not join in the large demonstrations against the Vietnam War at the time, who did not join in the counterculture, who did not participate in public discourse. Nixon along with many others saw this group of Middle Americans as being overshadowed in the media by the more vocal minority. Preceding Nixon by half a century, it was employed in 1919 by Warren G. Harding's campaign for the 1920 presidential nomination. Before that, the phrase was used in the 19th century as a euphemism referring to all the people who have died, others have used it before and after Nixon to refer to groups of voters in various nations of the world.
The phrase had been in use for much of the 19th century to refer to the dead—the number of living people is less than the number who have died throughout human history, so the dead are the majority in that sense. Phrases such as "gone to a better world", "gone before", "joined the silent majority" served as euphemisms for "died". In 1902, Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan employed this sense of the phrase, saying in a speech that "great captains on both sides of our Civil War have long ago passed over to the silent majority, leaving the memory of their splendid courage." In May 1831, the expression "silent majority" was spoken by Churchill C. Cambreleng, representative of New York state, before 400 members of the Tammany Society. Cambreleng complained to his audience about a U. S federal bill, rejected without full examination by the United States House of Representatives. Cambreleng's "silent majority" referred to other representatives who voted as a bloc: Whenever majorities trample upon the rights of minorities—when men are denied the privilege of having their causes of complaint examined into—when measures, which they deem for their relief, are rejected by the despotism of a silent majority at a second reading—when such become the rules of our legislation, the Congress of this Union will no longer justly represent a republican people.
In 1883, an anonymous author calling himself "A German" wrote a memorial to Léon Gambetta, published in The Contemporary Review, a British quarterly. Describing French Conservatives of the 1870s, the writer opined that "their mistake was, not in appealing to the country, but in appealing to it in behalf of a Monarchy which had yet to be defined, instead of a Republic which existed. In Collier's magazine, Barton portrayed Coolidge as the everyman candidate: "It sometimes seems as if this great silent majority had no spokesman, but Coolidge belongs with that crowd: he lives like them, he works like them, understands."Referring to Charles I of England, historian Veronica Wedgwood wrote this sentence in her 1955 book The King's Peace, 1637–1641: "The King in his natural optimism still believed that a silent majority in Scotland were in his favour." In 1955, while Nixon was serving as vice-president to Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy and his research assistants wrote in his book Profiles in Courage, "Some of them may have been representing the actual sentiments of the silent majority of their constituents in opposition to the screams of a vocal minority..."
In January 1956, Kennedy gave Nixon an autographed copy of the book. Nixon wrote back the next day to thank him: "My time for reading has been rather limited but your book is first on my list and I am looking forward to reading it with great pleasure and interest." Nixon wrote Six Crises, his response to Kennedy's book, after visiting Kennedy at the White House in April 1961. In 1967, labor leader George Meany asserted that those labor unionists who supported the Vietnam War were "the vast, silent majority in the nation." Meany's statement may have provided Nixon's speechwriters with the specific turn of phrase. In the months leading up to Nixon's 1969 speech, his vice-president Spiro T. Agnew said on May 9, "It is time for America's silent majority to stand up for its rights, let us remember the American majority includes every minority. America's silent majority is bewildered by irrational protest..." Soon thereafter, journalist Theodore H. White analyzed the previous year's elections, writing "Never have America's leading cultural media, its university thinkers, its influence makers been more intrigued by experiment and change.
Mr. Nixon's problem is to interpret what the silent people think, govern the country against the grain of what its more important thinkers think."Thirty-five years Nixon speechwriter Pat Buchanan recalled using the phrase in a memo to the president. He explained how Nixon singled out the phrase and went on to make use of it in his speech: "We used'forgotten Americans' and'quiet Americans' and other phrases, and in one memo I mentioned twice the phrase'silent majority,' and it's double-underlined by Richard Nixon, it would pop up in 1969 in that great speech that made his presidency." Buchanan noted that while he had written the memo that contained the phrase, "Nixon wrote that speech by himself."Coincidentall