Social Evolution & History
Social Evolution & History is a peer-reviewed academic journal focused on the development of human societies in the past and future. In addition to original research articles, Social Evolution & History includes critical notes and a book review section, it is published in March and September, by Uchitel Publishing House. The editors-in-chief are Dmitri Bondarenko, Leonid Grinin, Andrey Korotayev. Social Evolution & History has published several special issues devoted to questions in social evolution: Ernest Gellner special memorial issue Exploring the Horizons of Big History Thirty Years of Early State Research Analyses of Cultural Evolution The journal is indexed in Scopus, Ulrich's database, ERIH, Russian Science Citation Index. Big History Official website The Evolution Institute Researchgate.net Academia.edu Scimago Journal & Country Rank
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution. It draws from disciplines including ethology, evolution, zoology and population genetics. Within the study of human societies, sociobiology is allied to Darwinian anthropology, human behavioral ecology and evolutionary psychology. Sociobiology investigates social behaviors such as mating patterns, territorial fights, pack hunter pack hunting, the hive society of social insects, it argues that just as selection pressure led to animals evolving useful ways of interacting with the natural environment, so it led to the genetic evolution of advantageous social behavior. While the term "sociobiology" originated at least as early as the 1940s, the concept did not gain major recognition until the publication of E. O. Wilson's book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis in 1975; the new field became the subject of controversy. Critics, led by Richard Lewontin and Stephen Jay Gould, argued that genes played a role in human behavior, but that traits such as aggressiveness could be explained by social environment rather than by biology.
Sociobiologists responded by pointing to the complex relationship between nurture. E. O. Wilson defined sociobiology as "the extension of population biology and evolutionary theory to social organization". Sociobiology is based on the premise that some behaviors are at least inherited and can be affected by natural selection, it begins with the idea that behaviors have evolved over time, similar to the way that physical traits are thought to have evolved. It predicts that animals will act in ways that have proven to be evolutionarily successful over time; this can, among other things, result in the formation of complex social processes conducive to evolutionary fitness. The discipline seeks to explain behavior as a product of natural selection. Behavior is therefore seen as an effort to preserve one's genes in the population. Inherent in sociobiological reasoning is the idea that certain genes or gene combinations that influence particular behavioral traits can be inherited from generation to generationFor example, newly dominant male lions kill cubs in the pride that they did not sire.
This behavior is adaptive because killing the cubs eliminates competition for their own offspring and causes the nursing females to come into heat faster, thus allowing more of his genes to enter into the population. Sociobiologists would view this instinctual cub-killing behavior as being inherited through the genes of reproducing male lions, whereas non-killing behavior may have died out as those lions were less successful in reproducing; the philosopher of biology Daniel Dennett suggested that the political philosopher Thomas Hobbes was the first sociobiologist, arguing that in his 1651 book Leviathan Hobbes had explained the origins of morals in human society from an amoral sociobiological perspective. The geneticist of animal behavior John Paul Scott coined the word sociobiology at a 1948 conference on genetics and social behaviour which called for a conjoint development of field and laboratory studies in animal behavior research. With John Paul Scott's organizational efforts, a "Section of Animal Behavior and Sociobiology" of the ESA was created in 1956, which became a Division of Animal Behavior of the American Society of Zoology in 1958.
In 1956, E. O. Wilson came in contact this emerging sociobiology through his PhD student Stuart A. Altmann, in close relation with the participants to the 1948 conference. Altmann developed his own brand of sociobiology to study the social behavior of rhesus macaques, using statistics, was hired as a "sociobiologist" at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in 1965. Wilson's sociobiology is different from John Paul Scott's or Altmann's, insofar as he drew on mathematical models of social behavior centered on the maximisation of the genetic fitness by W. D. Hamilton, Robert Trivers, John Maynard Smith, George R. Price; the three sociobiologies by Scott and Wilson have in common to place naturalist studies at the core of the research on animal social behavior and by drawing alliances with emerging research methodologies, at a time when "biology in the field" was threatened to be made old-fashioned by "modern" practices of science. Once a specialist term, "sociobiology" became known in 1975 when Wilson published his book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, which sparked an intense controversy.
Since "sociobiology" has been equated with Wilson's vision. The book pioneered and popularized the attempt to explain the evolutionary mechanics behind social behaviors such as altruism and nurturance in ants and other Hymenoptera, but in other animals. However, the influence of evolution on behavior has been of interest to biologists and philosophers since soon after the discovery of evolution itself. Peter Kropotkin's Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, written in the early 1890s, is a popular example; the final chapter of the book is devoted to sociobiological explanations of human behavior, Wilson wrote a Pulitzer Prize winning book, On Human Nature, that addressed human behavior specifically. Edward H. Hagen writes in The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology that sociobiology is, despite the public controversy regarding the applications to humans, "one of the scientific triumphs of the twentieth century." "Sociobiology is now part of the core research and curriculum of all biology departments, it is a foundation of the work of all field biologists" Sociobiological research on nonhuman organisms has increased and continuously i
E. O. Wilson
Edward Osborne Wilson cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, theorist and author, his biological specialty is myrmecology, the study of ants, on which he has been called the world's leading expert. Wilson has been called "the father of sociobiology" and "the father of biodiversity", for his environmental advocacy, his secular-humanist and deist ideas pertaining to religious and ethical matters. Among his greatest contributions to ecological theory is the theory of island biogeography, which he developed in collaboration with the mathematical ecologist Robert MacArthur, the foundation of the development of conservation area design, as well as the unified neutral theory of biodiversity of Stephen Hubbell. Wilson is the Pellegrino University Research Professor, Emeritus in Entomology for the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University, a lecturer at Duke University, a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, he is a Humanist Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism.
He is a two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction and a New York Times bestselling author for The Social Conquest of Earth, Letters to a Young Scientist, The Meaning of Human Existence. Wilson was born in Alabama. According to his autobiography Naturalist, he grew up around Washington, D. C. and in the countryside around Alabama. From an early age, he was interested in natural history, his parents and Inez Wilson, divorced when he was seven. The young naturalist grew up in several cities and towns, moving around with his father and his stepmother. In the same year that his parents divorced, Wilson blinded himself in one eye in a fishing accident, he suffered for hours. He did not complain, he did not seek medical treatment. Several months his right pupil clouded over with a cataract, he was admitted to Pensacola Hospital to have the lens removed. Wilson writes, in his autobiography, that the "surgery was a terrifying century ordeal". Wilson was left with full sight in his left eye, with a vision of 20/10.
The 20/10 vision prompted him to focus on "little things": "I noticed butterflies and ants more than other kids did, took an interest in them automatically."Although he had lost his stereoscopic vision, he could still see fine print and the hairs on the bodies of small insects. His reduced ability to observe mammals and birds led him to concentrate on insects. At nine, Wilson undertook his first expeditions at the Rock Creek Park in Washington, DC, he began to collect insects and he gained a passion for butterflies. He would capture them using nets made with brooms, coat hangers, cheesecloth bags. Going on these expeditions led to Wilson's fascination with ants, he describes in his autobiography how one day he pulled the bark of a rotting tree away and discovered citronella ants underneath. The worker ants he found were "short, brilliant yellow, emitted a strong lemony odor". Wilson said the event left a "vivid and lasting impression on ", he earned the Eagle Scout award and served as Nature Director of his Boy Scout summer camp.
At the age of 18, intent on becoming an entomologist, he began by collecting flies, but the shortage of insect pins caused by World War II caused him to switch to ants, which could be stored in vials. With the encouragement of Marion R. Smith, a myrmecologist from the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, Wilson began a survey of all the ants of Alabama; this study led him to report the first colony of fire ants near the port of Mobile. Concerned that he might not be able to afford to go to a university, Wilson tried to enlist in the United States Army, he planned to earn U. S. government financial support for his education, but failed the Army medical examination due to his impaired eyesight. Wilson was able to afford to enroll in the University of Alabama after all, earning his B. S. and M. S. degrees in biology there in 1950. In 1952 he transferred to Harvard University. Appointed to the Harvard Society of Fellows, he could travel on overseas expeditions, collecting ant species of Cuba and Mexico and travel the South Pacific, including Australia, New Guinea, New Caledonia and Sri Lanka.
In 1955, he received his Ph. D. and married Irene Kelley. From 1956 until 1996 Wilson was part of the faculty of Harvard, he began as an ant taxonomist and worked on understanding their evolution, how they developed into new species by escaping environmental disadvantages and moving into new habitats. He developed a theory of the "taxon cycle". Just after completing is PhD in 1955, Wilson started supervising Stuart A. Altmann on the social behavior of rhesus macaques, which gave Wilson a first impetus to imagine sociobiology as a global theory of animal social behavior, he collaborated with mathematician William Bossert, discovered the chemical nature of ant communication, via pheromones. In the 1960s he collaborated with ecologist Robert MacArthur. Together, they tested the theory of species equilibrium on a tiny island in the Florida Keys, he observed the re-population by new species. A book The Theory of Island Biogeography about this experiment became a standard ecology text. In 1971, he published the book The Insect Societies about the biology of social insects like ants, bees and termites.
In 1973, Wilson was appointed'Curator of Insects' at the Museum of Comparative Zoology. In 1975, he published the book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis applying his theories of insect behavior to vertebrates, in the last chapter, humans, he speculated that evolved and inherited tendencies were responsible for hierarc
Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time. Whereas sociocultural development traces processes that tend to increase the complexity of a society or culture, sociocultural evolution considers process that can lead to decreases in complexity or that can produce variation or proliferation without any significant changes in complexity. Sociocultural evolution is "the process by which structural reorganization is affected through time producing a form or structure, qualitatively different from the ancestral form". Most of the 19th-century and some 20th-century approaches to socioculture aimed to provide models for the evolution of humankind as a whole, arguing that different societies have reached different stages of social development; the most comprehensive attempt to develop a general theory of social evolution centering on the development of sociocultural systems, the work of Talcott Parsons, operated on a scale which included a theory of world history.
Another attempt, on a less systematic scale, originated with the world-systems approach from the 1970s. More recent approaches focus on changes specific to individual societies and reject the idea that cultures differ according to how far each one is on some linear scale of social progress. Most modern archaeologists and cultural anthropologists work within the frameworks of neoevolutionism and modernization theory. Many different societies have existed in the course of human history, with estimates as high as a total of over one million separate societies. Anthropologists and sociologists assume that human beings have natural social tendencies and that particular human social behaviours have non-genetic causes and dynamics. Societies adapt themselves to these environments, it is thus inevitable. Specific theories of social or cultural evolution attempt to explain differences between coeval societies by positing that different societies have reached different stages of development. Although such theories provide models for understanding the relationship between technologies, social structure or the values of a society, they vary as to the extent to which they describe specific mechanisms of variation and change.
Early sociocultural evolution theories – the ideas of Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer and Lewis Henry Morgan – developed with, but independently of, Charles Darwin's works and were popular from the late 19th century to the end of World War I. These 19th-century unilineal evolution theories claimed that societies start out in a primitive state and become more civilized over time; some forms of early sociocultural evolution theories have led to much-criticised theories like social Darwinism and scientific racism, sometimes used in the past to justify existing policies of colonialism and slavery and to justify new policies such as eugenics. Most 19th-century and some 20th-century approaches aimed to provide models for the evolution of humankind as a single entity. However, most 20th-century approaches, such as multilineal evolution, focused on changes specific to individual societies. Moreover, they rejected directional change. Most archaeologists work within the framework of multilineal evolution.
Other contemporary approaches to social change include neoevolutionism, dual inheritance theory, modernisation theory and postindustrial theory. In his seminal 1976 book The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins wrote that "there are some examples of cultural evolution in birds and monkeys, but... it is our own species that shows what cultural evolution can do". Enlightenment and thinkers speculated that societies progressed through stages: in other words, they saw history as stadial. While expecting humankind to show increasing development, theorists looked for what determined the course of human history. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, for example, saw social development as an inevitable process, it was assumed that societies start out primitive in a state of nature, could progress toward something resembling industrial Europe. While earlier authors such as Michel de Montaigne had discussed how societies change through time, the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century proved key in the development of the idea of sociocultural evolution.
In relation to Scotland's union with England in 1707, several Scottish thinkers pondered the relationship between progress and the affluence brought about by increased trade with England. They understood the changes Scotland was undergoing as involving transition from an agricultural to a mercantile society. In "conjectural histories", authors such as Adam Ferguson, John Millar and Adam Smith argued that societies all pass through a series of four stages: hunting and gathering and nomadism, a stage of commerce. Philosophical concepts of progress, such as that of Hegel, developed as well during this period. In France, authors such as Claude Adrien Helvétius and other philosophes were influenced by the Scottish tradition. Thinkers such as Comte de Saint-Simon developed these i
Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings and/or animals, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. In an extreme case, altruism may become a synonym of selflessness, the opposite of selfishness. In a common way of living, it doesn't deny the singular nature of the subject, but realizes the traits of the individual personality in relation to the others, with a true and personal interaction with each of them, it is focusing both on the whole community. In a Christian practice, it is the law of love direct to his neighbour; the word "altruism" was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as altruisme, for an antonym of egoism. He derived it from the Italian altrui, which in turn was derived from Latin alteri, meaning "other people" or "somebody else".
Altruism in biological observations in field populations of the day organisms is an individual performing an action, at a cost to themselves, but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without the expectation of reciprocity or compensation for that action. Steinberg suggests a definition for altruism in the clinical setting, "intentional and voluntary actions that aim to enhance the welfare of another person in the absence of any quid pro quo external rewards". Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of loyalty, in that whilst the latter is predicated upon social relationships, altruism does not consider relationships. Much debate exists as to; the theory of psychological egoism suggests that no act of sharing, helping or sacrificing can be described as altruistic, as the actor may receive an intrinsic reward in the form of personal gratification. The validity of this argument depends on whether intrinsic rewards qualify as "benefits"; the term altruism may refer to an ethical doctrine that claims that individuals are morally obliged to benefit others.
Used in this sense, it is contrasted with egoism, which claims individuals are morally obligated to serve themselves first. The concept has a long history in ethical thought; the term was coined in the 19th century by the founding sociologist and philosopher of science, Auguste Comte, has become a major topic for psychologists, evolutionary biologists, ethologists. Whilst ideas about altruism from one field can affect the other fields, the different methods and focuses of these fields always lead to different perspectives on altruism. In simple terms, altruism is acting to help them. Marcel Mauss's book The Gift contains a passage called "Note on alms"; this note describes the evolution of the notion of alms from the notion of sacrifice. In it, he writes: Alms are the fruits of a moral notion of the gift and of fortune on the one hand, of a notion of sacrifice, on the other. Generosity is an obligation, because Nemesis avenges the poor and the gods for the superabundance of happiness and wealth of certain people who should rid themselves of it.
This is the ancient morality of the gift. The gods and the spirits accept that the share of wealth and happiness, offered to them and had been hitherto destroyed in useless sacrifices should serve the poor and children. Compare Altruism – perception of altruism as self-sacrifice. Compare explanation of alms in various scriptures. In the science of ethology, more in the study of social evolution, altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. In evolutionary psychology this may be applied to a wide range of human behaviors such as charity, emergency aid, help to coalition partners, courtship gifts, production of public goods, environmentalism. Theories of altruistic behavior were accelerated by the need to produce theories compatible with evolutionary origins. Two related strands of research on altruism have emerged from traditional evolutionary analyses and from evolutionary game theory a mathematical model and analysis of behavioural strategies.
Some of the proposed mechanisms are: Kin selection. That animals and humans are more altruistic towards close kin than to distant kin and non-kin has been confirmed in numerous studies across many different cultures. Subtle cues indicating kinship may unconsciously increase altruistic behavior. One kinship cue is facial resemblance. One study found that altering photographs so that they more resembled the faces of study participants increased the trust the participants expressed regarding depicted persons. Another cue is having the same family name if rare, this has been found to increase helpful behavior. Another study found more cooperative behavior the greater the number of perceived kin in a group. Using kinship terms in political speeches increased audience agreement with the speaker in one study; this effect was strong for firstborns, who are close to their families. Vested interests. People are to suffer if their friends and similar social ingroups suffer or disappear. Helping such group members may therefore benefit the altruist.
Making ingroup membership more no
Andrey Vitalievich Korotayev is a Russian anthropologist, economic historian, comparative political scientist and sociologist, with major contributions to world-systems theory, cross-cultural studies, Near Eastern history, Big History, mathematical modelling of social and economic macrodynamics. He is the Head of the Laboratory for Monitoring of the Risks of Sociopolitical Destabilization at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, a Senior Research Professor at the Center for Big History and System Forecasting of the Institute of Oriental Studies as well as in the Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In addition, he is a Senior Research Professor of the International Laboratory on Political Demography and Social Macrodynamics of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, as well as a Full Professor of the Faculty of Global Studies of the Moscow State University, he is co-editor of the journals Social Evolution & History and Journal of Globalization Studies, as well as History & Mathematics yearbook.
Together with Askar Akayev and George Malinetsky he is a coordinator of the Russian Academy of Sciences Program "System Analysis and Mathematical Modeling of World Dynamics". Born in Moscow, Andrey Korotayev attended Moscow State University, where he received an MA in 1984, he earned a PhD in 1993 from Manchester University, in 1998 a Doctor of Sciences degree from the Russian Academy of Sciences. Since 2000, he has been Professor and Director of the Anthropology of the East Center at the Russian State University for the Humanities and Senior Research Professor in the Oriental Institute and Institute for African Studies at the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 2001–2003, he directed the "Anthropology of the East" Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow and is now the Head of the Laboratory of Monitoring of the Sociopolitical Destabilization Risks at this University. In 2003–2004, he was a visiting member at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ.
Korotayev is a laureate of the Russian Science Support Foundation in "The Best Economists of the Russian Academy of Sciences" nomination. In 2012 he was awarded with the Gold Kondratieff Medal by the International N. D. Kondratieff Foundation. Andrey Korotayev has made important contributions to the following fields. In this field he has proposed one of the most convincing mathematical explanations for von Foerster's Doomsday Equation. In collaboration with his colleagues, Artemy Malkov and Daria Khaltourina, he has shown that till the 1970s the hyperbolic growth of the world population was accompanied by quadratic-hyperbolic growth of the world GDP, developed a number of mathematical models describing both of these phenomena simultaneously; the hyperbolic growth of the world population and quadratic-hyperbolic growth of the world GDP observed till the 1970s have been correlated by him and his colleagues to a non-linear second order positive feedback between the demographic growth and technological development that can be spelled out as follows: technological growth – increase in the carrying capacity of land for people – demographic growth – more people – more potential inventors – acceleration of technological growth – accelerating growth of the carrying capacity – the faster population growth – accelerating growth of the number of potential inventors – faster technological growth – hence, the faster growth of the Earth's carrying capacity for people, so on.
He has shown that the world urban population growth curve has up till followed a quadratic-hyperbolic pattern. In addition and his colleagues have proposed a number of forecasts of the World System development up to 2100. In collaboration with Alexander V. Markov he has demonstrated that a similar mathematical model can be developed to describe the macrotrends of biological evolution, they have shown that changes in biodiversity through the Phanerozoic correlate much better with hyperbolic model than with exponential and logistic models. The latter models imply that changes in diversity are guided by a first-order positive feedback and/or a negative feedback arising from resource limitation. Hyperbolic model implies a second-order positive feedback; the hyperbolic pattern of the world population growth has been demonstrated by Korotayev to arise from a second-order positive feedback between the population size and the rate of technological growth. According to Korotayev and Markov, the hyperbolic character of biodiversity growth can be accounted for by a feedback between the diversity and community structure complexity.
They suggest that the similarity between the curves of biodiversity and human population comes from the fact that both are derived from the interference of the hyperbolic trend with cyclical and stochastic dynamics. Korotayev has demonstrated that the hyperbolic models of this type may be used to describe in a rather accurate way the overall growth of the planetary complexity of the Earth since 4 billion BC up to the present. In the field of cliodynamics, Korotayev has developed a number of mathematical models of interaction between the long-term, "millennial" hyperbolic trend dynamics of social systems and the shorter-term, "secular", cyclical dynamics
Nikolay Nikolaevich Kradin is a Russian anthropologist and archaeologist. Since 1985 he has been a Research Fellow of the Institute of History and Ethnology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Vladivostok, he was Head and Professor of the Department of Social Anthropology in the Far-Eastern National Technical University, Head and Professor of the Department of World History and Anthropology in the Far-Eastern Federal University. Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. B. A. M. A. Irkutsk State University, 1985 Ph. D. Institute of History and Ethnology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Vladivostok, 1990 Dr. Sc. Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1999 Nikolay Kradin's major contributions belong to three fields: anthropology and social history of the Eurasian nomads. Social archaeology of the nomadic empires. Kradin has written over 400 articles dealing with his research interests; these include Nomadic Societies, The Xiongnu Empire, Political Anthropology, Chinggis Khan Empire, Nomads of Eurasia, Nomads of Inner Asia in Transition, History of Khitans Empire Liao.
Alternatives of Social Evolution: An Introduction // Alternatives of Social Evolution. Ed. by N. Kradin, A. Korotayev, Dmitri Bondarenko, V.de Munck, V. Lynsha et al. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka, 2000. P. 27–89. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2000. Nomadic Empires in Evolutionary Perspective. In Alternatives of Social Evolution. Ed. by N. N. Kradin, A. V. Korotayev, Dmitri Bondarenko, V. de Munck, P. K. Wason. Vladivostok: Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Ed. by Leonid Grinin et al.. Volgograd: Uchitel', 2004. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2002. Nomadism and World-Systems: Pastoral Societies in Theories of Historical Development. Journal of World-System Research 8: 368-388. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2003. Nomadic Empires: Origins, Decline. In Nomadic Pathways in Social Evolution. Ed. by N. N. Kradin, Dmitri Bondarenko, T. Barfield. Moscow: Center for Civilizational Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2006. Archaeological Criteria of Civilization. Social Evolution & History 5: 89-108. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2006. Cultural Complexity of Pastoral Nomads.
World Cultures 15: 171-189. Kradin, Nikolay N. Skrynnikova Tatiana D. 2006. Why do we call Chinggis Khan's Polity'an Empire'. Ab Imperio 2006: 89-118. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2008. Structure of Power in Nomadic Empires of Inner Asia: Anthropological Approach. In: Hierarchy and Power in the History of Civilizations: Ancient and Medieval Cultures. Ed. By L. E. Grinin, D. D. Beliaev, A. V. Korotayev. Moscow: URSS, 2008, p. 98-124. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2008. Early State Theory and the Evolution of Pastoral Nomads. Social Evolution & History 7: 107-130. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2008. Transformation of Peasant Pastoralism among the Aginsky Buryats, end of XX – Beginning of XXI Centuries. In: Proceedings of the International Conference "Dialog between Cultures and Civilizations: Present State and Perspectives of Nomadism in a Globalizing World. Ed. by J. Janzen and B. Enkhtuvshin. Ulaanbaatar, 2008: 153-158. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2009. State Origins in Anthropological Thought. Social Evolution & History 8: 25-51. Kradin, Nikolay N. Skrynnikova Tatiana D. 2009.
"Stateless Head": Notes on Revisionism in the Studies of Nomadic Societies. Ab Imperio 2009: 117-128. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2010. Between Khans and Presidents. Anthropology of Politics in Post-Soviet Central Asia. Social Evolution & History 9: 150-172. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2011. A Panorama of Social Archaeology in Russia. In: Comparative Archaeologies: A Sociological View of the Science of the Past. Ed. by L. R. Lozny. New York: Springer, 2011: 243-271. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2011. Post-Soviet Power in Anthropological Perspective. In: State and Transformation. Ed. by B. A. Mitchneck. Washington, D. C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2011: 50-76. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2011. Stateless Empire: The Structure of the Xiongnu Nomadic Super-Complex Chiefdom. In: Xiongnu Archaeology: Multidisciplinary Perspectives of the First Steppe Empire in Inner Asia. Ed. by U. Brosseder and B. Miller. Bonn: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn, 2011: 77-96. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2013. Chinggis Khan, World System Analysis and Preindustrial Globalization.
Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar, No 15: 169-188. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2013. Criteria of Complexity in Evolution: Cross-Cultural Study in Archaeology of Prehistory. Social Evolution & History12: 28-50. Kradin, Nikolay N. 2014. Nomadic Empires in Inner Asia. In: Complexity of Interaction Along the Eurasian Steppe Zone in the First Millennium CE. Ed. by J. Bemmann, M. Schmauder. Bonn: Rheinische Friedrich