Social geography

Social geography is the branch of human geography, most related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components. Though the term itself has a tradition of more than 100 years, there is no consensus on its explicit content. In 1968, Anne Buttimer noted that "ith some notable exceptions, social geography can be considered a field created and cultivated by a number of individual scholars rather than an academic tradition built up within particular schools". Since despite some calls for convergence centred on the structure and agency debate, its methodological and topical diversity has spread more, leading to numerous definitions of social geography and, contemporary scholars of the discipline identifying a great variety of different social geographies. However, as Benno Werlen remarked, these different perceptions are nothing else than different answers to the same two questions, which refer to the spatial constitution of society on the one hand, to the spatial expression of social processes on the other.

The different conceptions of social geography have been overlapping with other sub-fields of geography and, to a lesser extent, sociology. When the term emerged within the Anglo-American tradition during the 1960s, it was applied as a synonym for the search for patterns in the distribution of social groups, thus being connected to urban geography and urban sociology. In the 1970s, the focus of debate within American human geography lay on political economic processes, while in the 1990s, geographical thought was influenced by the "cultural turn". Both times, as Neil Smith noted, these approaches "claimed authority over the'social'". In the American tradition, the concept of cultural geography has a much more distinguished history than social geography, encompasses research areas that would be conceptualized as "social" elsewhere. In contrast, within some continental European traditions, social geography was and still is considered an approach to human geography rather than a sub-discipline, or as identical to human geography in general.

The term "social geography" originates from France, where it was used both by geographer Élisée Reclus and by sociologists of the Le Play School independently from each other. In fact, the first proven occurrence of the term derives from a review of Reclus' Nouvelle géographie universelle from 1884, written by Paul de Rousiers, a member of the Le Play School. Reclus himself used the expression in several letters, the first one dating from 1895, in his last work L'Homme et la terre from 1905; the first person to employ the term as part of a publication's title was Edmond Demolins, another member of the Le Play School, whose article Géographie sociale de la France was published in 1896 and 1897. After the death of Reclus as well as the main proponents of Le Play's ideas, with Émile Durkheim turning away from his early concept of social morphology, Paul Vidal de la Blache, who noted that geography "is a science of places and not a science of men", remained the most influential figure of French geography.

One of his students, Camille Vallaux, wrote the two-volume book Géographie sociale, published in 1908 and 1911. Jean Brunhes, one of Vidal's most influential disciples, included a level of interactions among groups into his fourfold structure of human geography; until the Second World War, no more theoretical framework for social geography was developed, leading to a concentration on rather descriptive rural and regional geography. However, Vidal's works were influential for the historical Annales School, who shared the rural bias with the contemporary geographers, Durkheim's concept of social morphology was developed and set in connection with social geography by sociologists Marcel Mauss and Maurice Halbwachs; the first person in the Anglo-American tradition to use the term "social geography" was George Wilson Hoke, whose paper The Study of Social Geography was published in 1907, yet there is no indication it had any academic impact. Le Play's work, was taken up in Britain by Patrick Geddes and Andrew John Herbertson.

Percy M. Roxby, a former student of Herbertson, in 1930 identified social geography as one of human geography's four main branches. By contrast, the American academic geography of that time was dominated by the Berkeley School of Cultural Geography led by Carl O. Sauer, while the spatial distribution of social groups was studied by the Chicago School of Sociology. Harlan H. Barrows, a geographer at the University of Chicago regarded social geography as one of the three major divisions of geography. Another pre-war concept that combined elements of sociology and geography was the one established by Dutch sociologist Sebald Rudolf Steinmetz and his Amsterdam School of Sociography. However, it lacked a definitive subject, being a combination of geography and ethnography created as the more concrete counterpart to the rather theoretical sociology. In contrast, the Utrecht School of Social geography, which emerged in the early 1930s, sought to study the relationship between social groups and their living spaces.

In the German-language geography, this focus on the connection between social groups and the landscape was further developed by Hans Bobek and Wolfgang Hartke after the Second World War. For Bobek, groups of Lebensformen —influenced by social factors—that formed the landscape, were at the center of his social geographical analysis. In a similar approach, Hartke considered the landscape a source for indices or tr

George Ashiru

George Ashiru is a Nigerian Taekwondo grandmaster and sports leader, an entrepreneur. He was born to a royal household in the southwestern part of Nigeria, his father became an international diplomat, working in Brussels with the African Caribbean and Pacific Group/EU. His mother was a successful entrepreneur and one time president of the Nigerian-American Chamber of Commerce, Kaduna, she was a US "Visitor", having participated in the International Visitor Leadership Programme of the US Government. George was educated in Nigeria and Britain and studied in diverse schools like Irwin Academy, Ijebu Ode Grammar School, Federal Government College, Nigeria, University of Lagos and Middlesex University. Seven times Ashiru was Nigerian Taekwondo champion in the light and welter weight categories and won a silver medal at the 4th All Africa Games in Kenya in 1987, he has been named Best National Player, Best National Referee and Team Manager to the Beijing 2008 Nigerian Taekwondo Olympic Team. Additionally, he became Africa's first 7th Degree Black belt International Master Instructor & International Referee Class A, certified by the International Taekwon-Do Federation, 8th Degree Taekwondo, issued in Korea through Taekwondo Jidokwan Korea, named "Taekwondo Ambassador" by Taekwondo Jidokwan Society, is listed in the World Taekwondo Federation Hall of Fame.

He is Technical Advisor and two time Inductee of the Official Taekwondo Hall of Fame and a Special Correspondent with the US Taekwondo Times magazine. In 2011 the President of the Kukkiwon awarded him the "Commendation Certificate" for promotion of Taekwondo all over the world. George Ashiru is an International Referee by the World Taekwondo Federation as well as a graduate of the Kukkiwon Foreign Masters Training Course, 2012, he was appointed Regular Member of the Kukkiwon 2012 Seoul World Taekwondo Leaders Forum. He is distinguished as a certified Master of Tang Soo Do by the World Tang Soo Do Association and one of the world's leading exponents of Korean Kempo. In Nigeria, he was at various times, an Executive member of the Nigeria Judo Federation, Grading Commission of the Nigeria Taekwondo Federation, Ogun State Taekwondo Association and a member of the Nigeria Olympic Committee, Marketing Commission. In December 2012 he was "Outstanding Achievement" Awardee of the Korean Ambassador to Nigeria and was in the same period appointed the Continental Director for Africa by the Official Taekwondo Hall of Fame.

In May 2013 he was elected the 7th President of the World Taekwondo Federation member national association, the Nigeria Taekwondo Federation. In 2013 George Ashiru was elected Vice President of the Commonwealth Taekwondo Union. In 2014 he was appointed by the Honourable Minister of Sports in Nigeria as a member of the National High Performance Task Team, he is a Board Member of the Nigeria Olympic Committee, Vice Chairman of the Technical Commission of the NOC. George Ashiru, in addition to his exploits in sports is highly accomplished in several other areas. In 1988 he was named "Mr Nigeria" and represented the country at the 11 Mr & Miss University Pageant in Tokyo, Japan, he was a delegate to the World Student's Festival in the UK in 1990. He was a national television presenter on Nigeria's NTA Youth Scene between 1988 and 1990. While studying at the University of Lagos, Nigeria, he founded the Ultimate Gold/Love Foundations and the University of Lagos Taekwondo Club, both of which have endured since the mid-1980s till today.

In recognition of his varied achievements, Nigeria's Vanguard Newspapers named him one of the "40 Young Leaders of The Future" in 1995. In 1997 he was awarded with the prestigious "Men of Achievement Awards" at the Lagos Sheraton Hotels. In 1998, the Comet Newspapers named him "Leader of the Future", he produced a television programme for DBN Television in Lagos and was a regular columnist for several magazines, since the popular but now defunct Classique Magazine, back in the late 80s. In 1997 he led a delegation of business men members of the Nigerian American Chamber of Commerce to the World Trade Expo, in Detroit, USA; that same year, he organised, with the same Chamber, the National Seminar, "Nigeria Can Compete". George is an ordained Minister of the Gospel, with his own Transformation Ministries. In 2003, the Federal Government co-opted him as an official Chaplain for the COJA 2003 All Africa Games in Abuja, he coordinates the NGO, Town Hall Meetings Project. He runs his own IATA Accredited travel business and is an official representative of the London School of Business and Finance in Nigeria.

He was, at one time the Vice Chairman of the Tourism Group of the Nigerian American Chamber of Commerce, Lagos. One of George's keen activities is mentoring emerging leaders and giving inspirational talks, to youths, government personnel and the general citizenry, on personal development and nation building, he is a member of several national prayer intercession groups. Http:// George Ashiru profile


Skräddargränd is an alley in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. Stretching from Västerlånggatan to Stora Nygatan, it forms a parallel street to Bedoirsgränd and Tyska Brinken; the alley was named after the tailor's guild which occupied number 2 between 1627-1842. Part of the building served as the Förgylta Drufvan tavern sanctioned by King Gustavus Adolphus; the alley was known as Bredgränd at the end of the 15th century, a name shared by several other small alleys in the old town, explained by its larger width compared to the numerous small alleys north of it. List of streets and squares in Gamla stan - Location map and virtual walk