Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States. Enacted after the Reconstruction period, these continued in force until 1965. They mandated de jure segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in 1890 with a separate. Facilities for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to available to European Americans. This body of law institutionalized a number of economic, the U. S. military was segregated, as were federal workplaces, initiated in 1913 under President Woodrow Wilson. By requiring candidates to submit photos, his administration practiced racial discrimination in hiring and these Jim Crow laws followed the 1800–1866 Black Codes, which had previously restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. The phrase Jim Crow Law can be found as early as 1892 in the title of a New York Times article about voting laws in the South, as a result of Rices fame, Jim Crow by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning Negro.
When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation which were directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, during the Reconstruction period of 1865–1877, federal laws provided civil rights protections in the U. S. South for freedmen, the African Americans who had formerly been slaves, extensive voter fraud was used. Gubernatorial elections were close and had been disputed in Louisiana for years, in 1877, a national Democratic Party compromise to gain Southern support in the presidential election resulted in the governments withdrawing the last of the federal troops from the South. White Democrats had regained power in every Southern state. These Southern, Democratic Redeemer governments legislated Jim Crow laws, grandfather clauses temporarily permitted some illiterate whites to vote but gave no relief to most blacks. Voter turnout dropped drastically through the South as a result of such measures, in Louisiana, by 1900, black voters were reduced to 5,320 on the rolls, although they comprised the majority of the states population.
By 1910, only 730 blacks were registered, less than 0. 5% of eligible black men, in 27 of the states 60 parishes, not a single black voter was registered any longer, in 9 more parishes, only one black voter was. The cumulative effect in North Carolina meant that voters were completely eliminated from voter rolls during the period from 1896–1904. The growth of their middle class was slowed. Alabama had tens of thousands of poor whites disenfranchised and those who could not vote were not eligible to serve on juries and could not run for local offices. They effectively disappeared from political life, as they could not influence the state legislatures, like schools, Jim Crow public libraries were underfunded and often stocked with secondhand books and other resources
Anti-Masonry is defined as avowed opposition to Freemasonry. However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement, Anti-Masonry consists of radically differing criticisms from sometimes incompatible groups who are hostile to Freemasonry in some form. The earliest anti-Masonic document was a leaflet printed in 1698 by a Presbyterian minister named Winter and it reads, TO ALL GODLY PEOPLE, In the Citie of London. For this devllish Sect of Men are Meeters in secret which swear against all without ther Following and they are the Anti Christ which was to come leading Men from Fear of God. For how should Men meet in secret Places and with secret Signs taking Care that none observed them to do the Work of GOD, are not these the Ways of Evil-doers. Knowing how that God observeth privilly them that sit in Darkness they shall be smitten, mingle not among this corrupt People lest you be found so at the Worlds Conflagration. In 1826, William Morgan disappeared from the town of Batavia, New York. His disappearance caused some Anti-masons to claim that he had kidnapped and murdered by Masons.
Morgans disappearance sparked a series of protests against Freemasonry, which spread to the political realm. Under the leadership of anti-Masonic Thurlow Weed, an Anti-Jacksonist movement became the Anti-Masonic Party and this political Party ran presidential candidates in 1828 and 1832, but by 1835 the party had disbanded everywhere except Pennsylvania. In the United Kingdom, anti-Masonic sentiment grew following the publication of Martin Shorts 1989 book and this movement was initially led by Jack Straw, Home Secretary from 1997 until 2001. In 1999, the Welsh Assembly became the body in the United Kingdom to place a legal requirement on membership declaration for Freemasons. Currently, existing members of the police and judiciary in England are asked to admit to being Freemasons. Conversely, new members of the police are not required to declare their status, Soviet Russia outlawed all secret societies, including Masonry, in 1922. At one of the Second International meetings Grigory Zinoviev demanded to purge it of masons, Freemasonry did not exist in the Soviet Union, China, or most other Communist states.
Postwar revivals of Freemasonry in Czechoslovakia and Hungary were suppressed in 1950, when in power, Castro was said to have kept them on a tight leash as they were considered a subversive element in Cuban society. Fascists treated Freemasonry as a source of opposition. Masonic writers state that the used by the totalitarian regimes is similar to that used by some modern critics of Freemasonry
Persecution of people with albinism
Persecution of people with albinism is based on the belief that certain body parts of albinistic people can transmit magical powers. At the same time, people with albinism have been ostracised and even killed for exactly the reason, because they are presumed to be cursed. The persecutions of people with albinism take place mostly in Sub-Saharan African communities, both parents, who may or may not be albinos themselves, must carry the gene if it is to be passed on to the child. Albinism occurs in males and females and is not specific to any race or ethnic group. Many believe it is a punishment from God or bad luck, and that their disease could be contagious and these misconceptions, coupled with the lack of education, are some of the key reasons that albinism is so heavily persecuted. Ninety-eight percent of albinos die by the age of forty for reasons which could easily be prevented, a report was released on 1 April 2014 by the Dar es Salaam, office of the Canadian charity Under the Same Sun.
Titled Reported Attacks of Persons with Albinism, the document reviews 180 countries and lists 129 recent killings and 181 other attacks and these attacks include mutilation, violation of graves, and cases of asylum-seeking. In Tanzania, albinos represent one in every 1429 births, a higher rate than in any other nation. According to Al-Shymaa Kway-Geer, a member of parliament, there are 6977 officially registered albinos in Tanzania. However, it is believed there may be up to 17000 undocumented. A number of albinos have migrated to the Dar es Salaam area, Tanzania is thought to have the largest population of albinos in Africa. Albinos are especially persecuted in Shinyanga and Mwanza, where witch doctors have promoted a belief in the potential magical, there are further issues which arise when there is lack of education about albinism. Fathers often suspect the mother of the child of infidelity with a white man or that the child is the ghost of a European colonist. This can cause strain on families and relationships.
An albino child is seen as a bad omen and treated as unwanted. Many albino babies become victims of infanticide due to these superstitious views, president Peter Mutharika has formed a committee to study the situation. African rituals and spiritual ideas about albinism have led to the murder of and attacks on innocent men, women. This has gained public attention nationally and internationally as these crimes have been reported as crimes against human rights, kidnapping and decapitations, committed for purposes of supplying highly valued body parts used for amulets, which are sold in underground witchcraft market
Aftonbladet is a Swedish tabloid published in Stockholm, Sweden. It is one of the daily newspapers in the Nordic countries. The newspaper was founded by Lars Johan Hierta in December 1830 under the name of Aftonbladet i Stockholm during the modernization of Sweden, in 1852 the paper began to use its current name, after 25 name changes. It describes itself as an independent social-democratic newspaper, but it publishes extreme left wing columnists in its culture section. The owners of Aftonbladet are the Swedish Trade Union Confederation which bought it in the 1950s, LO sold a large of its shares in the paper to the Schibsted group. As per 15 June 2009 Schibsted bought another 41% and became the majority owner with 91%, however, LO has the right to appoint the political editor of the paper. Aftonbladet, based in Stockholm, is published in tabloid format, the paper reported news and criticised the new Swedish king Charles XIV John. The king stopped Aftonbladet from being printed and banned it, during its existence, Aftonbladet has leant in different political directions.
Initially liberal, it drifted towards conservatism under Harald Sohlman, editor in chief from 1890 to 1921, during World War I, a majority holding was sold to the German government in a secret arrangement. In 1929 the newspaper came under the control of the Kreuger family, in 1932 it backed Per Albin Hanssons new Social Democratic government. Just a few years it realigned with the Liberal Party, heavily influenced by pro-German staff members, the newspaper supported Germany during World War II. The Kreuger era came to an end on 8 October 1956, despite interest from both the Liberal Party and the Centre Party, Torsten Kreuger sold Aftonbladet as well as Stockholms-Tidningen to the Swedish Trade Union Confederation. The ownership change was first followed by a drop in circulation. In the 1960s, the newspaper saw its circulation surge rapidly, by the early 1990s Aftonbladet had run into economic problems, and many had begun to question the competence of the trade union movement as a media owner.
On 2 May 1996, the Norwegian media group Schibsted acquired a 49.9 percent stake in the newspaper, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation kept the remaining 50.1 percent of its shares. The same year its circulation passed that of long-time tabloid rival Expressen, in 2005 Aftonbladet started a Web portal for business news as a joint venture with Svenska Dagbladet. In 1998 the circulation of Aftonbladet was 397,000 copies on weekdays and 502,000 copies on Sundays, the circulation of the paper was 402,000 copies in 2001. As of 2004 the paper was the most selling daily both in Sweden and in other Nordic countries, having a circulation of 422,000 copies and it was 429,000 copies on weekdays in 2005
In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. A society can consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant and this is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology. The term society came from the Latin word societas, which in turn was derived from the noun used to describe a bond or interaction between parties that are friendly, or at least civil. Without an article, the term can refer to the entirety of humanity, Society, in general, addresses the fact that an individual has rather limited means as an autonomous unit. Cultural relativism as an approach or ethic has largely replaced notions of primitive, better/worse. Societies may be structured politically, in order of increasing size and complexity, there are bands, tribes and state societies. These structures may have varying degrees of power, depending on the cultural, geographical. Thus, an isolated society with the same level of technology. A society that is unable to offer a response to other societies it competes with will usually be subsumed into the culture of the competing society.
Sociologist Peter L. Berger defines society as. a human product, and nothing but a human product, according to him, society was created by humans but this creation turns back and creates or molds humans every day. This is similar to the earlier developed by anthropologists Morton H. This system of classification contains four categories, Hunter-gatherer bands, tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige. Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments, in addition to this there are, mankind, upon which rest all the elements of society, including societys beliefs. Virtual society, a society based on identity, which is evolving in the information age. Over time, some cultures have progressed toward more complex forms of organization and this cultural evolution has a profound effect on patterns of community. Hunter-gatherer tribes settled around seasonal food stocks to become agrarian villages, villages grew to become towns and cities.
Cities turned into city-states and nation-states, many societies distribute largess at the behest of some individual or some larger group of people. This type of generosity can be seen in all cultures, typically
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II in order to prevent another such conflict, at its founding, the UN had 51 member states, there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, further main offices are situated in Geneva and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, the UNs mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies. The organization participated in actions in Korea and the Congo. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military, the UN has six principal organs, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Trusteeship Council.
UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, the UNs most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese António Guterres since 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UNs work, the organization won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001, and a number of its officers and agencies have been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UNs effectiveness have been mixed, some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. It incorporated Soviet suggestions, but left no role for France, four Policemen was coined to refer to four major Allied countries, United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China, which emerged in the Declaration by United Nations.
Roosevelt first coined the term United Nations to describe the Allied countries, the term United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. One major change from the Atlantic Charter was the addition of a provision for religious freedom, by 1 March 1945,21 additional states had signed. Each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Governments signatory hereto, the foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism. During the war, the United Nations became the term for the Allies. To join, countries had to sign the Declaration and declare war on the Axis, at the meetings, Lord Halifax deputized for Mr. Eden, Wellington Koo for T. V. Soong, and Mr Gromyko for Mr. Molotov. The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the UN, and the facility was completed in 1952.
Its site—like UN headquarters buildings in Geneva and Nairobi—is designated as international territory, the Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General
Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay. The phrase cultural diversity can refer to having different cultures respect each others differences, the phrase cultural diversity is sometimes used to mean the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. Globalization is often said to have an effect on the worlds cultural diversity. There are many societies that emerged around the globe differed markedly from each other. Cultural diversity can be seen as analogous to biodiversity, like most evolutionary accounts of human nature, the importance of cultural diversity for survival may be an un-testable hypothesis, which can neither be proved nor disproved. In the same manner that the promotion of poverty in underdeveloped nations as cultural diversity is unethical and it is unethical to promote all religious practices simply because they are seen to contribute to cultural diversity.
Particular religious practices are recognized by the WHO and UN as unethical, including female genital mutilation, child brides, with the onset of globalization, traditional nation-states have been placed under enormous pressures. Today, with the development of technology and capital are transcending geographical boundaries, in particular, the growth of the mass media industry has largely impacted on individuals and societies across the globe. Although beneficial in some ways, this increased accessibility has the capacity to affect a societys individuality. With information being so easily distributed throughout the world, cultural meanings, as a result, the strength of identity of individuals and societies may begin to weaken. Nowadays, communication between different countries becomes more and more frequent, and more and more students choose to study overseas for experiencing culture diversity. Their goal is to broaden their horizons and develop themselves from learning overseas, for example, according to Fengling, Chen, Du Yanjun, and Yu Mas paper Academic Freedom in the Peoples Republic of China and the United States Of America.
They pointed out that Chinese education more focus on traditionally, teaching has consisted of spoon feeding, chinas traditional system of education has sought to make students accept fixed and ossified content. And In the classroom, Chinese professors are the laws and authorities, on another hand, in United States of America education American students treat college professors as equals. Also American students are encouraged to debate topics, the free open discussion on various topics is due to the academic freedom which most American colleges and universities enjoy. Discussion above gives us an idea about the differences between China and the United States on education. But we cannot simply judge which one is better, because each culture has its own advantages and features, thanks to those difference forms the culture diversity and those make our world more colorful. Especially, with current process of global economics, people who owned different perspectives on cultures stand at a competitive position in current world
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections. The right to run for office is sometimes called candidate eligibility, in many languages, the right to vote is called the active right to vote and the right to run for office is called the passive right to vote. In English, these are called active suffrage and passive suffrage. Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives, suffrage applies equally to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage describes not only the right to vote, but the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally by elected or non-elected representatives, in most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may be available, for example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. The United States federal government does not offer any initiatives at all, Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens once they have reached the voting age.
What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the governments decision, resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of closely linked countries. The word suffrage comes from Latin suffragium, meaning vote, political support, and the right to vote. The etymology of the Latin word is uncertain, with sources citing Latin suffragari lend support, vote for someone, from sub under + fragor crash, shouts. Other sources say that attempts to connect suffragium with fragor cannot be taken seriously, some etymologists think the word may be related to suffrago and may have originally meant an ankle bone or knuckle bone. Universal suffrage consists of the right to vote without restriction due to sex, social status, education level, or wealth. It typically does not extend the right to vote to all residents of a region, distinctions are made in regard to citizenship, age. The short-lived Corsican Republic was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage to all citizens over the age of 25 and this was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republic of Franceville.
The 1840 constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii granted universal suffrage to all male and female adults, so Finland was the first country in the world to give all citizens full suffrage, in other words the right to vote and to run for office. New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all citizens the right to vote, Womens suffrage is, by definition, the right of women to vote. This was the goal of the suffragists in the United States, short-lived suffrage equity was drafted into provisions of the State of New Jerseys first,1776 Constitution, which extended the Right to Vote to unwed female landholders & black land owners
The working class are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and in skilled, industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some jobs, and most service-work jobs. As with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in different ways. The most general definition, used by Marxists and socialists, is that the class includes all those who have nothing to sell but their labor-power. When used non-academically in the United States, however, it refers to a section of society dependent on physical labor. For certain types of science, as well as scientific or journalistic political analysis, for example. Working-class occupations are categorized into four groups, Unskilled laborers, outworkers, a common alternative, sometimes used in sociology, is to define class by income levels. The cut-off between working class and middle class here might mean the line where a population has discretionary income, some researchers have suggested that working-class status should be defined subjectively as self-identification with the working-class group.
This subjective approach allows people, rather than researchers, to define their own social class, in feudal Europe, the working class as such did not exist in large numbers. Instead, most people were part of the class, a group made up of different professions, trades. A lawyer and peasant were all considered to be part of the social unit. Similar hierarchies existed outside Europe in other pre-industrial societies, the social position of these laboring classes was viewed as ordained by natural law and common religious belief. This social position was contested, particularly by peasants, for example during the German Peasants War, wealthy members of these societies created ideologies which blamed many of the problems of working-class people on their morals and ethics. In The Making of the English Working Class, E. P, starting around 1917, a number of countries became ruled ostensibly in the interests of the working class. Since then, four major states have turned towards semi-market-based governance.
Other states of this sort have either collapsed, or never achieved significant levels of industrialization or large working classes, since 1960, large-scale proletarianisation and enclosure of commons has occurred in the third world, generating new working classes. Additionally, countries such as India have been slowly undergoing social change, karl Marx defined the working class or proletariat as individuals who sell their labour power for wages and who do not own the means of production. He argued that they were responsible for creating the wealth of a society and he asserted that the working class physically build bridges, craft furniture, grow food, and nurse children, but do not own land, or factories
Acculturation is the process of cultural change and psychological change that results following meeting between cultures. The effects of acculturation can be seen at levels in both interacting cultures. Acculturation is a change of ones culture through dominance over anothers culture through either military or political conquest. At the group level, acculturation results in changes to culture, customs. Noticeable group level effects of acculturation often include changes in food, clothing, as enculturation is used to describe the process of first-culture learning, acculturation can be thought of as second-culture learning. The concept of acculturation has been studied scientifically since 1918, contemporary research has primarily focused on different strategies of acculturation and how variations in acculturation affect how well individuals adapt to their society. The earliest recorded thoughts towards acculturation can be found in Sumerian inscriptions from 2370 B. C and these inscriptions laid out rules for commerce and interaction with foreigners designed to limit acculturation and protect traditional cultural practices.
Plato said that acculturation should be avoided, as he thought it would lead to social disorder, the history of Western civilization, and in particular the histories of Europe and the United States, are largely defined by patterns of acculturation. One of the most notable form of acculturation is imperialism, the most common predecessor of direct change, although these cultural changes may seem simple, the results are more complex. The process varies and the results are more complex because it interferes with the system by members of another. J. W. Powell is credited with coining the word acculturation in 1880, the first psychological theory of acculturation was proposed in W. I. Thomas and Florian Znanieckis 1918 study, The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. Before efforts at racial and cultural integration in the United States, the theory focuses on the unitary nature of psychological and social processes and the reciprocal functional personal environment interdependence. This view takes into account micro-psychological and macro-social factors into a theoretical fusion vertical integration of theory, while cross-cultural adaptation theory itself is a fusion of previous ideas, it is not about racial or ethnic integration but instead assimilation.
And as such it is unlike the works of Bateson and Bateson, Watzlawick Beavin, and Jackson, the sojourner must conform to the majority group culture in order to be communicatively competent. In biological science adaptation means the random mutation of new forms of life, according to Gudykunst and Kim the way of upward-forward evolution toward functional fitness and psychological health is for the newcomer to willfully unlearn and deculturize herself. This is not ecological integration but simple disintegration of the newcomer until their identity is erased, according to Gudykunst and Kim the more the newcomer is disintegrated the better, even if it leads to extreme distress for the immigrant. As Gudykunst and Kim put it, Even extreme mental illness can be viewed as a process of a potentially positive disintegration that will be reintegrated with new material at a higher level. Evolutionary progress for the individual requires the individual to abandon identification with the patterns that have constituted who one is