Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. Specialist literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership, United States versus European approaches. U. S. academic environments define leadership as "a process of social influence in which a person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, behavior, power and values, intelligence, among others. Sanskrit literature identifies ten types of leaders. Defining characteristics of the ten types of leaders are explained with examples from history and mythology. Aristocratic thinkers have postulated that leadership depends on genes. Monarchy takes an extreme view of the same idea, may prop up its assertions against the claims of mere aristocrats by invoking divine sanction.
On the other hand, more democratically inclined theorists have pointed to examples of meritocratic leaders, such as the Napoleonic marshals profiting from careers open to talent. In the autocratic/paternalistic strain of thought, traditionalists recall the role of leadership of the Roman pater familias. Feminist thinking, on the other hand, may object to such models as patriarchal and posit against them attuned and consensual empathetic guidance, sometimes associated with matriarchies. Comparable to the Roman tradition, the views of Confucianism on "right living" relate much to the ideal of the scholar-leader and his benevolent rule, buttressed by a tradition of filial piety. Leadership is a matter of intelligence, humaneness and discipline... Reliance on intelligence alone results in rebelliousness. Exercise of humaneness alone results in weakness. Fixation on trust results in folly. Dependence on the strength of courage results in violence. Excessive discipline and sternness in command result in cruelty.
When one has all five virtues together, each appropriate to its function one can be a leader. — Sun Tzu Machiavelli's The Prince, written in the early 16th century, provided a manual for rulers to gain and keep power. In the 19th century the elaboration of anarchist thought called the whole concept of leadership into question. One response to this denial of élitism came with Leninism, which demanded an élite group of disciplined cadres to act as the vanguard of a socialist revolution, bringing into existence the dictatorship of the proletariat. Other historical views of leadership have addressed the seeming contrasts between secular and religious leadership; the doctrines of Caesaro-papism had their detractors over several centuries. Christian thinking on leadership has emphasized stewardship of divinely provided resources—human and material—and their deployment in accordance with a Divine plan. Compare servant leadership. For a more general take on leadership in politics, compare the concept of the statesperson.
The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has continued for centuries. Philosophical writings from Plato's Republic to Plutarch's Lives have explored the question "What qualities distinguish an individual as a leader?" Underlying this search was the early recognition of the importance of leadership and the assumption that leadership is rooted in the characteristics that certain individuals possess. This idea that leadership is based on individual attributes is known as the "trait theory of leadership". A number of works in the 19th century – when the traditional authority of monarchs and bishops had begun to wane – explored the trait theory at length: note the writings of Thomas Carlyle and of Francis Galton, whose works have prompted decades of research. In Heroes and Hero Worship, Carlyle identified the talents and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. Galton's Hereditary Genius examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when his focus moved from first-degree to second-degree relatives, Galton concluded that leadership was inherited.
In other words, leaders were born, not developed. Both of these notable works lent great initial support for the notion that leadership is rooted in characteristics of a leader. Cecil Rhodes believed that public-spirited leadership could be nurtured by identifying young people with "moral force of character and instincts to lead", educating them in contexts which further developed such characteristics. International networks of such leaders could help to promote international understanding and help "render war impossible"; this vision of leadership underlay the creation of the Rhodes Scholarships, which have helped to shape notions of leadership since their creation in 1903. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. In reviewing the extant literature and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies, the overall evidence suggested that people who are leaders in one situation may not be leaders in other situations.
Subsequently, leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring indivi
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a particular purpose. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means tool or instrument, musical instrument, organ. There are a variety of legal types of organisations, including corporations, non-governmental organisations, political organisations, international organisations, armed forces, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships and educational institutions. A hybrid organisation is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A voluntary association is an organisation consisting of volunteers; such organisations may be able to operate without legal formalities, depending on jurisdiction, including informal clubs. Organisations may operate secretly or illegally in the case of secret societies, criminal organisations and resistance movements. Compare the concept of social groups, which may include non-organizations.
The study of organisations includes a focus on optimising organisational structure. According to management science, most human organisations fall into four types: Committees or juries Ecologies Matrix organisations Pyramids or hierarchies These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group by voting; the difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision. In common law countries, legal juries render decisions of guilt and quantify damages. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the Middle Ages, juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus among local notables. Committees are the most reliable way to make decisions. Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote.
The problem is that if the average member is subsequently worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better. Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions; this organisational structure promotes internal competition. Inefficient components of the organisation starve. Everybody is paid for what they do, so runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired. Companies who utilise this organisation type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology, it is the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not, in general, compete with one another in any way, but are autonomous. The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organisation in this external article from The Guardian. By:Bastian Batac De Leon; this organisational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies. One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organisation is well-trained, measured by a boss, super-expert in the same field.
The other direction tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organised by products, customer types, or some other schemes; as an example, a company might have an individual with overall responsibility for products X and Y, another individual with overall responsibility for engineering, quality control, etc. Therefore, subordinates responsible for quality control of project X will have two reporting lines. A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads other individual members of the organisation; this arrangement is associated with basis that there are enough imagine a real pyramid, if there are not enough stone blocks to hold up the higher ones, gravity would irrevocably bring down the monumental structure. So one can imagine that if the leader does not have the support of his subordinates, the entire structure will collapse. Hierarchies were satirised in The Peter Principle, a book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence."
In the social sciences, organisations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociology, political science, psychology and organisational communication. The broader analysis of organisations is referred to as organisational structure, organisational studies, organisational behaviour, or organisation analysis. A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible: From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like businesses or state authorities are used. From an institutional perspective, an organisation is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context. From a process-related perspective, an organisation is viewed as an entity is being organised, the focus is on the organisation as a set of tasks or actions. Sociology can be defined as the science of the institutions of modernity. In the social and political sciences in general, an "organisation" may be more loosely understood as the planned and purposeful action of human beings working through collective action to reach a common goal or construct a tangible product.
This action is framed by formal membership and form (in
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors, sets of dyadic ties, other social interactions between actors. The social network perspective provides a set of methods for analyzing the structure of whole social entities as well as a variety of theories explaining the patterns observed in these structures; the study of these structures uses social network analysis to identify local and global patterns, locate influential entities, examine network dynamics. Social networks and the analysis of them is an inherently interdisciplinary academic field which emerged from social psychology, sociology and graph theory. Georg Simmel authored early structural theories in sociology emphasizing the dynamics of triads and "web of group affiliations". Jacob Moreno is credited with developing the first sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal relationships; these approaches were mathematically formalized in the 1950s and theories and methods of social networks became pervasive in the social and behavioral sciences by the 1980s.
Social network analysis is now one of the major paradigms in contemporary sociology, is employed in a number of other social and formal sciences. Together with other complex networks, it forms part of the nascent field of network science; the social network is a theoretical construct useful in the social sciences to study relationships between individuals, organizations, or entire societies. The term is used to describe a social structure determined by such interactions; the ties through which any given social unit connects represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. This theoretical approach is relational. An axiom of the social network approach to understanding social interaction is that social phenomena should be conceived and investigated through the properties of relations between and within units, instead of the properties of these units themselves. Thus, one common criticism of social network theory is that individual agency is ignored although this may not be the case in practice.
Because many different types of relations, singular or in combination, form these network configurations, network analytics are useful to a broad range of research enterprises. In social science, these fields of study include, but are not limited to anthropology, communication studies, geography, information science, organizational studies, social psychology and sociolinguistics. In the late 1890s, both Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies foreshadowed the idea of social networks in their theories and research of social groups. Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief or impersonal and instrumental social links. Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts, arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the properties of individual actors. Georg Simmel, writing at the turn of the twentieth century, pointed to the nature of networks and the effect of network size on interaction and examined the likelihood of interaction in loosely knit networks rather than groups.
Major developments in the field can be seen in the 1930s by several groups in psychology and mathematics working independently. In psychology, in the 1930s, Jacob L. Moreno began systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups classrooms and work groups. In anthropology, the foundation for social network theory is the theoretical and ethnographic work of Bronislaw Malinowski, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Claude Lévi-Strauss. A group of social anthropologists associated with Max Gluckman and the Manchester School, including John A. Barnes, J. Clyde Mitchell and Elizabeth Bott Spillius are credited with performing some of the first fieldwork from which network analyses were performed, investigating community networks in southern Africa and the United Kingdom. Concomitantly, British anthropologist S. F. Nadel codified a theory of social structure, influential in network analysis. In sociology, the early work of Talcott Parsons set the stage for taking a relational approach to understanding social structure.
Drawing upon Parsons' theory, the work of sociologist Peter Blau provides a strong impetus for analyzing the relational ties of social units with his work on social exchange theory. By the 1970s, a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different traditions. One group consisted of sociologist Harrison White and his students at the Harvard University Department of Social Relations. Independently active in the Harvard Social Relations department at the time were Charles Tilly, who focused on networks in political and community sociology and social movements, Stanley Milgram, who developed the "six degrees of separation" thesis. Mark Granovetter and Barry Wellman are among the former students of White who elaborated and championed the analysis of social networks. Beginning in the late 1990s, social network analysis experienced work by sociologists, political scientists, physicists such as Duncan J. Watts, Albert-László Barabási, Peter Bearman, Nicholas A. Christakis, James H. Fowler, others and applying new models and methods to emerging data available about online social networks, as well as "digital traces" regarding face-to-face networks.
In general, social networks are self-organizing, em
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as biological organisms and chemicals. Abstract structures include data structures in musical form. Types of structure include a hierarchy, a network featuring many-to-many links, or a lattice featuring connections between components that are neighbors in space. Buildings, skeletons, beaver dams and salt domes are all examples of load-bearing structures; the results of construction are divided into buildings and non-building structures, make up the infrastructure of a human society. Built structures are broadly divided by their varying design approaches and standards, into categories including building structures, architectural structures, civil engineering structures and mechanical structures; the effects of loads on physical structures are determined through structural analysis, one of the tasks of structural engineering.
The structural elements can be classified as two-dimensional, or three-dimensional. The latter was the main option available to early structures such as Chichen Itza. A one-dimensional element has one dimension much larger than the other two, so the other dimensions can be neglected in calculations. Two-dimensional elements with a thin third dimension have little of either but can resist biaxial traction; the structure elements are combined in structural systems. The majority of everyday load-bearing structures are section-active structures like frames, which are composed of one-dimensional structures. Other types are Vector-active structures such as trusses, surface-active structures such as shells and folded plates, form-active structures such as cable or membrane structures, hybrid structures. Load-bearing biological structures such as bones, teeth and tendons derive their strength from a multilevel hierarchy of structures employing biominerals and proteins, at the bottom of which are collagen fibrils.
In biology, structures exist at all levels of organization, ranging hierarchically from the atomic and molecular to the cellular, organ, organismic and ecosystem level. A higher-level structure is composed of multiple copies of a lower-level structure. Structural biology is concerned with the biomolecular structure of macromolecules proteins and nucleic acids; the function of these molecules is determined by their shape as well as their composition, their structure has multiple levels. Protein structure has a four-level hierarchy; the primary structure is the sequence of amino acids. It has a peptide backbone made up of a repeated sequence of two carbon atoms; the secondary structure consists of repeated patterns determined by hydrogen bonding. The two basic types are the β-pleated sheet; the tertiary structure is a back and forth bending of the polypeptide chain, the quaternary structure is the way that tertiary units come together and interact. Chemical structure refers to electronic structure.
The structure can be represented by a variety of diagrams called structural formulas. Lewis structures use a dot notation to represent the valence electrons for an atom. Bonds between atoms can be represented by lines with one line for each pair of electrons, shared. In a simplified version of such a diagram, called a skeletal formula, only carbon-carbon bonds and functional groups are shown. Atoms in a crystal have a structure; the atoms can be modeled as points on a lattice, one can explore the effect of symmetry operations that include rotations about a point, reflections about a symmetry planes, translations. Each crystal has a finite group, called the space group, of such operations. By Neumann's law, the symmetry of a crystal determines what physical properties, including piezoelectricity and ferromagnetism, the crystal can have. A large part of numerical analysis involves identifying and interpreting the structure of musical works. Structure can be found at the level of part of the entire work, or a group of works.
Elements of music such as pitch and timbre combine into small elements like motifs and phrases, these in turn combine in larger structures. Not all music has a hierarchical organization, but hierarchy makes it easier for a listener to understand and remember the music. In analogy to linguistic terminology and phrases can be combined to make complete musical ideas such as sentences and phrases. A larger form is known as the period. One such form, used between 1600 and 1900 has two phrases, an antecedent and a consequent, with a half cadence in the middle and a full cadence at the end providing punctuation. On a larger scale are single-movement forms such as the sonata form and the contrapuntal form, multi-movement forms such as the symphony. A social structure is a pattern of relationships, they are social organizations of individuals in various life situations. Structures are applicable to people in how a society is as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships. This