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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Social responsibility

Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large. Social responsibility is a duty every individual has to perform so as to maintain a balance between the economy and the ecosystems. A trade-off may exist between economic development, in the material sense, the welfare of the society and environment, though this has been challenged by many reports over the past decade. Social responsibility means sustaining the equilibrium between the two, it pertains not only to business organizations but to everyone whose any action impacts the environment. It is a concept that aims to ensure secure healthcare for the people living in rural areas and eliminate all barriers like distance, financial condition, etc; this responsibility can be passive, by avoiding engaging in harmful acts, or active, by performing activities that directly advance social goals. Social responsibility must be intergenerational since the actions of one generation have consequences on those following.

Businesses can use ethical decision making to secure their businesses by making decisions that allow for government agencies to minimize their involvement with the corporation. For instance, if a company follows the United States Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for emissions on dangerous pollutants and goes an extra step to get involved in the community and address those concerns that the public might have, they would be less to have the EPA investigate them for environmental concerns. "A significant element of current thinking about privacy, stresses "self-regulation" rather than market or government mechanisms for protecting personal information". According to some experts, most rules and regulations are formed due to public outcry, which threatens profit maximization and therefore the well-being of the shareholder, that if there is not an outcry there will be limited regulation; some critics argue that corporate social responsibility distracts from the fundamental economic role of businesses.

A significant number of studies have shown no negative influence on shareholder results from CSR but rather a negative correlation with improved shareholder returns. Corporate social responsibility or CSR has been defined by Lord Holme and Richard Watts in the World Business Council for Sustainable Development's publication "Making Good Business Sense" as "…the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large." CSR is one of the newest management strategies where companies try to create a positive impact on society while doing business. Evidence suggests that CSR taken on voluntarily by companies will be much more effective than CSR mandated by governments. There is no clear-cut definition of; every company has different CSR objectives. All companies have a two-point agenda -- to improve quantitatively; the second is as important as the first and stake holders of every company are taking an interest in "the outer circle"-the activities of the company and how these are impacting the environment and society.

The other motive behind this is that the companies should not be focused only on maximization of profits. While many corporations include social responsibility in their operations, it is still important for those procuring the goods and services to ensure the products are sustainable. Verification tools are available from a multitude of entities internationally, such as the Underwriters Laboratories environmental standards, BIFMA, BioPreferred, Green Seal; these resources help corporations and their consumers identify potential risks associated with a product's lifecycle and enable end users to confirm the corporation's practices adhere to social responsibility ideals. One common view is that scientists and engineers are morally responsible for the negative consequences which result from the various applications of their knowledge and inventions. After all, if scientists and engineers take personal pride in the many positive achievements of science and technology, why should they be allowed to escape responsibility for the negative consequences related to the use or abuse of scientific knowledge and technological innovations?

Furthermore and engineers have a collective responsibility for the choice and conduct of their work. Committees of scientists and engineers are involved in the planning of governmental and corporate research programs, including those devoted to the development of military technologies and weaponry. Many professional societies and national organizations, such as the National Academy of Science and the National Academy of Engineering in the United States, have ethical guidelines. There is recognition that scientists and engineers, both individually and collectively, have a special and much greater responsibility than average citizens with respect to the generation and use of scientific knowledge, it has been pointed out that the situation is not that simple and scientists and engineers should not be blamed for all the evils created by new scientific knowledge and technological innovations. First, th

Bradley C. S. Watson

Bradley C. S. Watson is a Canadian-born American political science educator and writer, a member of the "West Coast Straussian" school of political thought, he is professor of politics at Saint Vincent College in Latrobe, where he holds the Philip M. McKenna Chair in American and Western Political Thought, he is co-director of the college's Center for Political and Economic Thought, a public policy educational and research institute dedicated to advancing "scholarship on philosophical and policy concerns related to freedom and Western civilization with particular regard to the American experience". He has held visiting faculty appointments at Claremont McKenna College, he is a fellow of several think tanks, a Senior Scholar at the Intercollegiate Studies Institute. He was born in Toronto and educated in Canada and the United States, earning a B. A. from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, a J. D. from Queen's University Faculty of Law in Kingston, Ontario, an M. Phil. From the Institute of Philosophy, University of Leuven, an M.

A. and Ph. D. from the Claremont Graduate University in California. His publications concentrate on several themes: the unfolding of the liberal idea in the modern world through courts of law. Watson is a critic of American progressivism, he has appeared on the Glenn Beck television program to discuss his book Living Constitution, Dying Faith: Progressivism and the New Science of Jurisprudence. He has argued that the idea of a "living constitution", which he traces to social Darwinism and pragmatism, undermines the American founders' Constitution dedicated to fixed natural truths, is a slippery slope toward moral and political nihilism He has been critical of both legal positivism and the deontological liberalism of John Rawls, arguing that they fail to provide a stable foundation for constitutional interpretation, of same-sex marriage, arguing that it is antithetical to moral realism and essentialism. Although West Coast Straussianism is understood to be a version of political conservatism, Watson has been attacked from various points on the conservative spectrum, including by Harry V. Jaffa, the acknowledged founder of the West Coast Straussians.

Jaffa has suggested that Watson is insufficiently critical of the legal positivism of conservative Judge Robert H. Bork, while others have suggested he is too critical. Meanwhile, traditionalist conservatives have denied Watson's claim that universal philosophical principles played an important role in the American founding. Watson has defended both natural rights philosophy and cultural traditions as essential elements of the American experience, of a complete understanding of the U. S. Constitution

Emergency position-indicating radiobeacon station

An emergency position-indicating radiobeacon is a type of emergency locator beacon, a portable battery powered radio transmitter used in emergencies to locate airplanes and persons in distress and in need of immediate rescue. In the event of an emergency, such as the ship sinking or an airplane crash, the transmitter is activated and begins transmitting a continuous radio signal, used by search and rescue teams to locate the emergency and render aid; the signal is detected by satellites operated by an international consortium of rescue services, COSPAS-SARSAT. The basic purpose of this system is to help rescuers find survivors within the so-called "golden day" during which the majority of survivors can be saved; the feature distinguishing modern EPIRBs called GPIRBs, from other types of emergency beacon is that it contains a GPS receiver and broadcasts its position accurate within 100 meters, to facilitate location. The standard frequency of a modern EPIRB is 406 MHz, it is an internationally-regulated mobile radiocommunication service that aids search and rescue operations to detect and locate distressed boats and people.

It is distinct from a Satellite emergency position-indicating radiobeacon station. The first form of these beacons was the 121.500 MHz ELT, designed as an automatic locator beacon for crashed military aircraft. These beacons were first used in the 1950s by the U. S. military and were mandated for use on many types of commercial and general aviation aircraft beginning in the early 1970s. The frequency and signal format used by the ELT beacons was not designed for satellite detection, which resulted in a system with poor location detection abilities and with long delays in detection of activated beacons; the satellite detection network was built after the ELT beacons were in general use, with the first satellite not being launched until 1982, then, the satellites only provided detection, with location accuracy being 20 km. The technology was expanded to cover use on vessels at sea, individual persons. All have migrated from using 121.500 MHz as their primary frequency to using 406 MHz, designed for satellite detection and location.

Since the inception of Cospas-Sarsat in 1982, distress radiobeacons have assisted in the rescue of over 28,000 people in more than 7,000 distress situations. In 2010 alone, the system provided information used to rescue 2,388 persons in 641 distress situations. There are several types of emergency locator beacons, distinguished by the environment for which they were designed to be used: ELTs are carried on aircraft and are activated in the event of a crash EPIRBs are carried on ships and signal maritime distress SEPIRBs are EPIRBs designed only for use on submarines SSASes are used to indicate possible piracy or terrorism attacks on sea-going vessels PLBs are carried by individuals and intended to indicate a person in distress, away from normal emergency services, they are used for crewsaving applications in shipping and lifeboats at terrestrial systems. In New South Wales, some police stations and the National Parks and Wildlife Service provide personal locator beacons to hikers for no charge.

Distress alerts transmitted from ELTs, EPIRBs, SSASes, PLBs, are received and processed by the International Cospas-Sarsat Programme, the international satellite system for search and rescue. These beacons transmit a 0.5 second burst of data every 50 seconds, varying over a span of 2.5 seconds to avoid multiple beacons always transmitting at the same time. When manually activated, or automatically activated upon immersion or impact, such beacons send out a distress signal; the signals are monitored worldwide and the location of the distress is detected by non-geostationary satellites using the Doppler effect for trilateration, in more recent EPIRBs by GPS. Loosely related devices, including search and rescue transponders, AIS-SART, avalanche transceivers, RECCO do not operate on 406 MHz and are thus covered in separate articles. Cospas-Sarsat is an international organization, a model of international cooperation during the Cold War. SARSAT means Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking. COSPAS is an acronym for the Russian words "Cosmicheskaya Sistema Poiska Avariynyh Sudov", which translates to "Space System for the Search of Vessels in Distress".

A consortium of Russia, the U. S. Canada and France formed the organization in 1982. Since 29 others have joined; the satellites used in the system include: SARSAT COSPAS GOES MSG INSAT ELEKTRO/LUCH Cospas-Sarsat defines standards for beacons, auxiliary equipment to be mounted on conforming weather and communication satellites, ground stations, communications methods. The satellites communicate the beacon data to their ground stations, which forward it to main control centers of each nation that can initiate a rescue effort. A transmission is detected and processed in this manner: The transmitter is activated, either automatically in a crash or after sinking, or manually by survivors of an emergency situation. At least one satellite picks up the beacon's transmission; the satellites transfer the beacon's signal to their respective ground control stations. The ground stations process the signals and forward the data, including approximate locatio

Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus is a clinically distinct subset of cases of lupus erythematosus, most present in white women aged 15 to 40, consisting of skin lesions that are scaly and evolve as poly-cyclic annular lesions or plaques similar to those of plaque psoriasis. Characteristically the lesions appear in sun-exposed areas such as the vee of the neckline or the forearms, but not the face, it may be brought on by sun-sensitizing medications, but is associated with autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome. Treatment involves sun avoidance and protection and topical corticosteroids. Sometimes systemic drug treatment is necessary. Besides corticosteroids other immunosuppressants such as methotrexate are used. Lesions of SCLE may have an annular configuration, with central clearing. Lupus erythematosus List of cutaneous conditions List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions

Lisa Godbey Wood

Lisa Godbey Wood is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Georgia. Born in Lexington, Wood received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Georgia in 1985 and a Juris Doctor from the University of Georgia School of Law in 1990, she was a law clerk for Judge Anthony A. Alaimo of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Georgia in 1990, she was in private practice in Brunswick, Georgia from 1991 to 2004. She was a Magistrate judge, Glynn County Magistrate Court, Georgia from 1998 to 2000, she was the United States Attorney for the Southern District of Georgia from 2004 to 2007. Wood is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Georgia. Wood was nominated by President George W. Bush on January 9, 2007, to a seat vacated by Dudley Hollingsworth Bowen Jr, she was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 30, 2007, received her commission on February 8, 2007.

She served as Chief Judge from 2010 to 2017. When Wood was appointed, she became the first woman to serve as Chief Judge for the Southern District of Georgia. Lisa Godbey Wood at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Nationalist Republican Party (Portugal)

The Nationalist Republican Party was a right-wing republican party during the First Portuguese Republic. It was founded as a merger of the Republican Liberal Party, the Reconstitution Party and some elements of the old National Republican Party of Sidónio Pais. With moderate conservative orientation, it drifted to the right, making concessions to Catholic constituencies towards the end of the First Republic. After the leader of the Republican Liberal Party, António Granjo, was assassinated in the "Bloody Night" of 19 October 1921, the Liberals and Reconstituents started negotiations to merge the two parties in 1922. On 7 February 1923, the public manifesto of the Nationalist Republican Party was signed; the party constituted a "bloc of the Rights", intended to incorporate both conservative republicans and frustrated monarchists. It was designed to challenge the power of hegemonic Democratic Party; the adherents of PRN were predominantly proprietors, militaries, public servants and lawyers. It held close links with the Banco Nacional Ultramarino and other important banks and major corporations.

On 15 November 1923, the Nationalists formed a government, led by António Ginestal Machado. It included Óscar Carmona, future president of the Estado Novo, as minister of war and lasted one month. In December 1923, Álvaro de Castro left the PRN to form a new government, which did not include Nationalists, but Democrats and members of the "New Cornfield". De Castro's government, which lasted until July 1924, was opposed by the PRN, most outspokenly by Francisco Cunha Leal. Notable leaders of the Nationalist Republican Party, besides Machado, included Tomé de Barros Queirós, Júlio Dantas, José Mendes Cabeçadas, Cunha Leal, who left to found the Liberal Republican Union in 1926, after 1925, Commander Filomeno da Câmara de Melo Cabral, one of the organisers of the 18 April 1925 Generals' Coup; the secession of the Liberal Republican Union in March 1926, the beginning of the Ditadura Nacional at the end of May of the same year, marked the end of the Nationalist Republican Party. In the early 1930s many former members of the PRN joined the National Union, ruling party of the Estado Novo.

Wheeler, Douglas L. Republican Portugal: A Political History, 1910-1926, The University of Wisconsin Press, p. 237