Social security

Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income". In the United States, this is called welfare or a social safety net when talking about Canada and European countries. Social security is asserted in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. In simple terms, the signatories agree that the society in which a person lives should help them to develop and to make the most of all the advantages which are offered to them in the country. Social security may refer to the action programs of an organization intended to promote the welfare of the population through assistance measures guaranteeing access to sufficient resources for food and shelter and to promote health and well-being for the population at large and vulnerable segments such as children, the elderly, the sick and the unemployed.

Services providing social security are called social services. Terminology in this area is somewhat different in the United States from in the rest of the English-speaking world; the general term for an action program in support of the well being of poor people in the United States is welfare program, the general term for all such programs is welfare. In American society, the term welfare arguably has negative connotations. In the United States, the term Social Security refers to the US social insurance program for all retired and disabled people. Elsewhere the term is used in a much broader sense, referring to the economic security society offers when people are faced with certain risks. In its 1952 Social Security Convention, the International Labour Organization defined the traditional contingencies covered by social security as including: Survival beyond a prescribed age, to be covered by old age pensions. People who cannot reach a guaranteed social minimum for other reasons may be eligible for social assistance.

Modern authors consider the ILO approach too narrow. In their view, social security is not limited to the provision of cash transfers, but aims at security of work and social participation. Social security may refer to: social insurance, where people receive benefits or services in recognition of contributions to an insurance program; these services include provision for retirement pensions, disability insurance, survivor benefits and unemployment insurance. Services provided by government or designated agencies responsible for social security provision. In different countries, that may include medical care, financial support during unemployment, sickness, or retirement and safety at work, aspects of social work and industrial relations. Basic security irrespective of participation in specific insurance programs where eligibility may otherwise be an issue. For instance, assistance given to newly arrived refugees for basic necessities such as food, housing, education and medical care. A report published by the ILO in 2014 estimated that only 27% of the world's population has access to comprehensive social security.

While several of the provisions to which the concept refers have a long history, the notion of "social security" itself is a recent one. The earliest examples of use date from the 19th century. In a speech to mark the independence of Venezuela, Simón Bolívar pronounced: "El sistema de gobierno más perfecto es aquel que produce mayor suma de felicidad posible, mayor suma de seguridad social y mayor suma de estabilidad política". In the Roman Empire, the Emperor Trajan distributed gifts of money and free grain to the poor in the city of Rome, returned the gifts of gold sent to him upon his accession by cities in Italy and the provinces of the Empire. Trajan's program brought acclaim including Pliny the Younger. In Jewish tradition, charity is a matter of religious obligation rather than benevolence. Contemporary charity is regarded as a continuation of the Biblical Maaser Ani, or poor-tithe, as well as Biblical practices, such as permitting the poor to glean the corners of a field and harvest during the Shmi

Already Callin' You Mine

"Already Callin' You Mine" is a song recorded by American country music group Parmalee. It was released in February 2015 as the fourth single from their album Feels Like Carolina; the song was written by group members Matt Thomas, Scott Thomas, Barry Knox, along with Phil O'Donnell and Wade Kirby. Website Taste of Country reviewed the song favorably, saying that "After back-to-back mid-tempo hits, this song gets back to the band’s rock roots without pouring it on too for radio success, like maybe they did with their debut, the Top 40 hit “Musta Had a Good Time.” The song should find few obstacles on its way as it climbs the charts in 2015." The song debuted the Country Airplay chart for the chart of February 2015 at No. 55, entered the Hot Country Songs chart of April 25, 2015 at No. 49. The song climbed up the chart, it debuted at number 25 on the US Billboard Bubbling Under Hot 100 Singles chart for the week of September 26, 2015. The song has sold 174,000 copies in the US as of January 2016


A lithophysa is a felsic volcanic rock with a small spherulitic cavity and concentric chambers. Its shape is lenticular; these rocks are found within obsidian or rhyolite. These cavities are believed to be caused by expanding gases in tuffs and rhyolitic lavas before solidification. If it has become lined with crystals it may be referred to as a geode or filled or with agate, jasper or opal is a thunderegg; the term vug is used for similar cavities although the meaning of vug is restricted to cavities in rocks formed by the removal of material such as soluble minerals. These cavities contain layers of various colors composed by crystals of quartz, hematite and various colored oxides or other minerals. Lithophysae are one of the many forms of silica, as quartz, opal, etc, they can have an average diameter 5–20 centimetres, with a maximum of 60–80 centimetres. Lithophysae are related to the spherulites found in obsidians at Lipari, in Yellowstone Park, other places