Swedish Social Democratic Party
The Swedish Social Democratic Party, contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna and referred to just as the Social Democrats, is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. The current party leader since 2012 is Stefan Löfven, Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014. Founded in 1889, a schism occurred in 1917 when the left socialists split from the Social Democrats to form the Swedish Social Democratic Left Party; the symbol of the SAP is traditionally a red rose, believed to have been Fredrik Ström's idea. The words of honour, as recorded by the 2001 party programme, are "freedom and solidarity." The party had influences from Marxism in its early days, however these were removed in the years leading up to the split in 1917. In 2007, the Social Democrats elected Mona Sahlin as its first female party leader. On 7 December 2009, the Social Democrats launched a political and electoral coalition known as the Red-Greens together with the Greens and the Left Party; the parties contested the 2010 election on a joint manifesto, but lost the election to the incumbent centre-right coalition The Alliance.
On 26 November 2010 the Red-Green alliance was dissolved. The Social Democratic Party has about 100,000 members, with about 2,540 local party associations and 500 workplace associations, it has been the largest party in the Riksdag since 1914. The member base is diverse, but prominently features organized blue-collar workers and public sector employees; the party has a historical relationship with the Swedish Trade Union Confederation. Organisations within the Swedish social democratic movement: The National Federation of Social Democratic Women in Sweden organizes women; the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League organizes youth. The Social Democratic Students of Sweden organizes university students; the Religious Social Democrats of Sweden organizes all members with religious beliefs. The LGBT Social Democrats of Sweden organizes LGBT-people; the Swedish Social Democratic Party had its golden age during the mid-1930s to mid-1980s when in half of all general elections they got between 44.6% and 46.2% of the votes, making it one of the most successful political parties in the history of the liberal democratic world.
In two of the general elections, in 1940 and 1968, they got more than 50%. In 1940 all established Swedish parties, except for the Communist Party, had a coalition government due to the pressures of the Second World War, it led to voters most wanting one party to be in majority to give a parliament that couldn't be hung. In 1944 the tides of the war had turned and the allied nations looked to win, giving voters more confidence in voting by preference and explaining the more normal electoral result of 46.6%. There might well have among parts of the public regarding how the Communist Party was held out of the government, in 1944 they got 10.3%. In 1968 the established Communist Party, most due to bad press about the Soviets overtaking of Czechoslovakia, got a very bad result of 3% of the votes, while the Social Democrats enjoyed 50.1% and their own majority in parliament. Only in a brief period between the elections of 1973 to 1979 did the Social Democrats get below the normal interval of 44.6% to 46.2%, instead scoring an average of 43.2%, losing in 1976, the first time in 44 years, again just in 1979.
However, they won back power in 1982 with a normal result of 45.6%. The voter base consists of a diverse swathe of people throughout Swedish society, although it is strong amongst organised blue-collar workers. In the 2006 general election, the Social Democratic Party received the smallest share of votes in a general election with universal suffrage, resulting in the loss of office to the opposition, the centre-right coalition Alliance for Sweden. Among the support that the Social Democratic Party lost in the 2006 election was the vote of pensioners, blue-collar trade unionists; the combined Social Democratic Party and Left Party vote of citizens with non-Nordic foreign backgrounds sank from 73% in 2002 to 48% in 2006. Stockholm County votes for the centre-right parties. Only 23% of Stockholm City residents voted for S in 2006. From 2006 to 2014, the Social Democrats lost two consecutive terms to the centre-right Alliance, due to the centrist liberal attitudes of Prime Minister Frederik Reinfeldt attracted some of the S voters.
In 2010, 2014 and 2018, the vote shares of S declined, some of these votes were lost to the right-wing populist Sweden Democrats. In the 2018 Swedish general election The Social Democrats' vote share fell to 28.3 percent, its lowest level of support since 1911. In the 1890s the Social Democrats stood on the same ticket as the Liberals; the party's first chapter in its statutes says "the intension of the Swedish Social Democratic Labour Party is the struggle towards the Democratic Socialism," that is, a society with a democratic economy based on the socialist principle, "From each ac
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by the Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky. Trotsky identified as Bolshevik -- Leninist, he supported founding a vanguard party of the proletariat, proletarian internationalism and a dictatorship of the proletariat based on working class self-emancipation and mass democracy. Trotskyists are critical of Stalinism as they oppose Joseph Stalin's theory of socialism in one country in favor of Trotsky's theory of permanent revolution. Trotskyists criticize the bureaucracy that developed in the Soviet Union under Stalin. Vladimir Lenin and Trotsky were close both ideologically and during the Russian Revolution and its aftermath, some call Trotsky its "co-leader". Trotsky was the paramount leader of the Red Army in the direct aftermath of the Revolutionary period. Trotsky opposed some aspects of Leninism, but he concluded that unity between the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks was impossible and joined the Bolsheviks. Trotsky played a leading role with Lenin in the revolution.
Assessing Trotsky, Lenin wrote: "Trotsky long ago said. Trotsky understood this and from that time on there has been no better Bolshevik". Under Stalin's orders, Trotsky was removed from power, expelled from the Communist Party, exiled first to Alma-Ata, from the Soviet Union; as the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued from exile to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union. On 20 August 1940, Trotsky was attacked by Ramón Mercader, a Spanish-born NKVD agent, died the next day in a hospital, his murder is considered a political assassination. All of the Trotskyists within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union were executed in the Great Purges of 1937–1938 removing all of Trotsky's internal influence in the Soviet Union. Trotsky's Fourth International was established in France in 1938, when Trotskyists argued that the Comintern or Third International had become irretrievably "lost to Stalinism" and thus incapable of leading the international working class to political power.
In contemporary English language usage, an advocate of Trotsky's ideas is called a "Trotskyist". A Trotskyist can be called a "Trotskyite" or "Trot" by a critic of Trotskyism. American Trotskyist James P. Cannon wrote in his History of American Trotskyism that "Trotskyism is not a new movement, a new doctrine, but the restoration, the revival of genuine Marxism as it was expounded and practiced in the Russian revolution and in the early days of the Communist International". According to Trotsky, his program could be distinguished from other Marxist theories by five key elements: Support for the strategy of permanent revolution, in opposition to the two-stage theory of his opponents. Criticism of the post-1924 leadership of the Soviet Union, analysis of its features. Support for social revolution in the advanced capitalist countries through working class mass action. Support for proletarian internationalism. Use of a transitional programme of demands that bridge between daily struggles of the working class and the maximal ideas of the socialist transformation of society.
On the political spectrum of Marxism, Trotskyists are considered to be towards the left. In the 1920s they called themselves the Left Opposition, although today's left communism is distinct and non-Bolshevik; the terminological disagreement can be confusing because different versions of a left-right political spectrum are used. Anti-revisionists consider themselves the ultimate leftists on a spectrum from communism on the left to imperialist capitalism on the right, but given that Stalinism is labeled rightist within the communist spectrum and left communism leftist, anti-revisionists' idea of left is different from that of left communism. Despite being Bolshevik-Leninist comrades during the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War and Stalin became enemies in the 1920s and thereafter opposed the legitimacy of each other's forms of Leninism. Trotsky was critical of the Stalinist Soviet Union for suppressing democracy and lack of adequate economic planning. In 1905, Trotsky formulated his theory of permanent revolution that became a defining characteristic of Trotskyism.
Until 1905, some revolutionaries claimed that Marx's theory of history positioned that only a revolution in a European capitalist society would lead to a socialist one. According to this position, it was impossible for a socialist revolution to occur in a backward, feudal country such as early 20th century Russia when it had such a small and powerless capitalist class; the theory of permanent revolution addressed the question of how such feudal regimes were to be overthrown and how socialism could be established given the lack of economic prerequisites. Trotsky argued that in Russia only the working class could overthrow feudalism and win the support of the peasantry. Furthermore, he argued, they would win their own revolution against the weak capitalist class, establish a workers' state in Russia and appeal to the working class in the advanced capitalist countries around the world. As a result, the global working class would come to Russia's aid and socialism could develop worldwide. Revolutions in Britain in the 17th century and in France in 1789 abolished feudalism and established the basic requisites for the development of capitalism.
Trotsky argued. In Results and Prospects, written in 1906, Trotsky outlines his theory in detail, arguing: "History does not repea
Gällivare is a locality and the seat of Gällivare Municipality in Norrbotten County, province of Lapland, Sweden with 8,449 inhabitants in 2010. The town was founded in the 17th century. Together with nearby towns Malmberget and Koskullskulle it forms a conurbation with some 15,000 inhabitants; this conurbation is the second northernmost significant urban area of Sweden after Kiruna. Gällivare is situated at the northern end of the Inlandsbanan railway line, just about 100 kilometres north of the Arctic Circle. Gällivare is located in a major iron ore mining region. Adjacent to Gällivare is Malmberget, known as a site for iron ore extraction from deep mines by LKAB. Outside Gällivare lies the ski resort Dundret, equipped with six ski lifts and ten groomed slopes along with a conference center and hotel; the ski season stretches from the end of October all the way into early May. The town has been host for several World Cup skiing events, both cross-country. Gällivare is the central place for the Firstborn Laestadian movement.
It was the host town for the 2008 VIVA World Cup and the filming spot for Avicii's single "Addicted to You". As expected given its high latitude Gällivare has a cold climate. Under the Köppen climate classification it is classified as a subarctic climate. Winters are severe by Scandinavian standards, but are somewhat moderated by marine air from the North Atlantic and certain cities on the North American Great Plains much further south such as Winnipeg and Grand Forks lower than 50 degrees latitude have colder January averages than Gällivare has; the winter temperature varies a lot due to the location between the open ocean and the large snow covered land mass, can be −30 °C one day and 0 °C next. Gällivare experiences midnight sun for a significant period of summer, but due to its proximity to the Arctic Circle to the south sees some glimpses of daylight during winter solstice; as a result of the midnight sun and its inland position, temperatures can get hot in summer, with an all-time high of 34.5 °C.
Some inhabitants near Gällivare in the village of Tjautjas 20 km outside Gällivare, have a remarkably high incidence of congenital insensitivity to pain, an rare disease which inhibits the sensation of pain and cold. There have been nearly 40 reported cases in the area; the following sports clubs are located in Gällivare: Gällivare Malmbergets FF
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
International Workers League – Fourth International
The International Workers League or IWLfi is a Morenist Trotskyist international organisation. The group's origins lie in the International Committee of the Fourth International. Moreno's supporters followed the American Socialist Workers Party in leaving the ICFI in 1963 to form the reunified Fourth International. In 1969, the USFI voted to support guerrilla war in Latin America. Moreno's group opposed this, it was reduced to sympathiser status. While critical of the Sandinistas, Moreno's group sent a Simon Bolivar Brigade to Nicaragua to aid the Civil War, with the aim of building a revolutionary party there; this brigade was opposed by the reunified Fourth International because it operated outside the discipline of the FSLN. Forty non-Nicaraguan members of the Brigade were expelled from the country by the FSLN. Moreno's and Lambert's tendencies joined to form the Parity Committee for the Reconstruction of the Fourth International. However, Moreno's supporters withdrew in 1981 complaining that Lambert had links to trade union bureaucrats, in 1982 formed the "International Workers League".
In addition to their former supporters, this attracted groups in Peru and Venezuela which split from the Lambertist currents. The group campaigned for the victory of Argentina in the Falklands War, for the non-payment of foreign debt, for the "defeat of imperialism in the Gulf War." In the mid-1990s, it helped launch Workers' Aid to Bosnia and began working with the Workers International to Rebuild the Fourth International, although that group is now inactive. Disagreements following the death of Moreno led several sections to leave the international, while others split; those who left founded the International Centre of Orthodox Trotskyism. The majority of this group rejoined the International Workers League in 2005, the minority forming the International Socialist League; the LITci publishes the bulletin International Courier and the journal Marxism Alive, both in various languages, principally Spanish. Alicia Sagra, A Brief Outline of the History of the IWL Alexander, Robert J.. International Trotskyism, 1929-1985: A Documented Analysis of the Movement.
Duke University Press. ISBN 0822309750. Official website List of IWLfi Parties