League of Communists of Yugoslavia
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the country's largest communist party, the ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia. It was founded as an opposition party in the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes in 1919. After initial successes in the elections, it was proscribed, or made illegal by the royal government and remained an illegal underground group until World War II. After the Fall of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia during the Invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941, the communist-led Yugoslav Partisans became embroiled in the Yugoslav People's Liberation War and defeated the Axis forces and their local auxiliaries in a bloody civil war. After the liberation from foreign occupation in 1945, the party consolidated its power and established a single party state in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which existed until the 1990 breakup of Yugoslavia; the party, led by Josip Broz Tito from 1937 to 1980, was the first communist party in power in the history of the Eastern Bloc that opposed the Soviet Union and thus was expelled from the Cominform in 1948 after the Tito-Stalin split.
After internal purges of pro-Soviet members, the party renamed itself the League of Communists and adopted the politics of workers' self-management and independent communism, known as Titoism. When the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes was created after World War I, the different social democratic parties that had existed in Austria-Hungary and Montenegro called for a unification of their parties; the idea was accepted by parties and organizations from all over the country and in April 1919 a Congress of Unification was held in Belgrade, attended by 432 delegates representing 130,000 organized supporters of the workers’ class movement from all parts of the Kingdom except Slovenia. The ministerial branch of the Social democrat party of Slovenia was minorized in April 1920, when the Slovenes joined ranks with other social-democrats turned Marxist–Leninist revolutionaries. Slovenes joined at the Second Congress, held in Vukovar in late April 1920; the congress was marked by opposing positions towards the concepts of the revolutionary and reformist currents.
Bolshevik influence was introduced by soldiers who during the war had been captured by Russian forces and had experienced the October Revolution. The Congress decided to form a single political party named Socialist Labor Party of Yugoslavia which would be a member of Comintern, its highest organs, to which all other organs were subordinate, were the Congress and the Central Committee, headed by Filip Filipović and Živko Topalović as political secretaries and Vladimir Ćopić as organizational secretary. The party program, the Basis of Unification, was a "synthesis of the Social Democratic ideological heritage with the experiences of the October Revolution", spoke in terms of an imminent revolution, while the Practical Program of Action was oriented to a long-term political struggle within the capitalist system; the party considered the national question to be solved by the events of 1918, supported a unitarian state merging the different "tribes" into one "nation" as the best basis of class struggle, opposed ″federalism".
In the wake of the Congress, the United Socialist Woman Movement, the Central Workers’ Trade-Union Council were founded, while the Young Communist League of Yugoslavia was formed that year. The newly formed party organized several protests against political situations in the country and rallies of support for Soviet Russia and the Hungarian Soviet Republic, while the Central Workers’ Trade-Union Council organized many strikes and demonstrations against employers and state authority; the party achieved gains in many towns and villages during the local elections of March 1920 in Croatia and Montenegro, where Communists won majority in several cities resulted in the anxious government using pressure against the party: it refused to confirm Communist administrations of these districts and imprisoned the party leadership, which however was subsequently released after a hunger strike. These early successes convinced other groups, including Social Democrats in Slovenia, to join the party. Success continued in local elections in Serbia in the summer of 1920, in which the Communists won majorities in many districts.
Again, Communist administrations were suspended by the government. In elections to the Constitutional Assembly, held on November 28, 1920, the Communist Party received 198,736 votes and 58 of 419 seats in the assembly, but the growth of the party incited arguments about party's agenda and resulted in a split between two currents: The reformist Centrists, stressing that the Kingdoms was an industrially underdeveloped state and not ripe for revolution, opposed an emphasis on class struggle and a close connection between the party and the trade-unions and favored participating in the political life by legal means and working towards social reforms. The decidedly Communist Revolutionaries, arguing that the prerequisites for a revolution existed, favored a centralized party, a close alliance with the unions and the seizing of power by force, including terrorist tactics; the 2nd party congress, held in June 1920 in Vukovar, saw the revolutionaries led by Filipović prevail. The party changed its name to C
Budva is a Montenegrin town on the Adriatic Sea, former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see. It has around 60,000 inhabitants, it is the centre of Budva Municipality; the coastal area around Budva, called the Budva riviera, is the center of Montenegrin tourism, known for its well-preserved medieval walled city, sandy beaches and diverse nightlife. Budva is 2,500 years old. In Montenegrin the town is known as Budva. Extensive archaeological evidence places Budva among the oldest urban settlements of the Adriatic coast. Substantial documentary evidence provides historical references dating back to the 5th century BC. A legend recounts that Bouthoe was founded by Cadmus, the founder of Thebes, when exiled out of Thebes, finding a shelter in this place for him and his wife, goddess Harmonia. Greek colonization of Adriatic began in 4th century BC, when an Emporium was established on the site of Budva. In the 2nd century BC, the area of Budva became part of the Roman Empire. Upon the fall of the Empire and its division into east and west, the defensive barrier which separated the two powers happened to run across this area, subsequently making a lasting impact on the history and culture of this town.
In the 6th century, Budva was part of the Byzantine Empire, in the following two centuries, Slavs and, to a lesser extent, Avars began to arrive in the area, mixing with the native Roman population. Budva bay was known as Avarorum sinus during the Avar incursions. In 841, Budva was sacked by Muslim Saracens. In the early Middle Ages, Budva was reigned by a succession of Doclean kings, as well as Serbian and Zetan aristocrats. Circa 1200, it became the see of a Roman Catholic Diocese of Budua, which lasted until 1828 and was nominally revived as a Latin titular bishopric; the Venetians ruled the town for nearly 400 years, from 1420 to 1797. Budva, called Budua in those centuries, was part of the Venetian Republic region of Albania Veneta and was fortified by powerful Venetian walls against Ottoman conquests. According to the historian Luigi Paulucci in his book "Le Bocche di Cattaro nel 1810", most of the population spoke the Venetian language until the beginning of the 19th century. One of the most renowned theater librettists and composers, Cristoforo Ivanovich, was born in Venetian Budua.
With the fall of Republic of Venice in 1797, Budva came under the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy. During the Napoleonic Wars, Montenegrin forces allied with Russia took control over the city in 1806, only to relinquish the city to France in 1807. French rule lasted until 1813, when Budva was ceded to the Austrian Empire, which remained in control of the city for the next 100 years. A union of Boka Kotorska with Montenegro took place for a brief period, but from 1814 until the end of World War I in 1918, Budva remained under Austria-Hungary; the southernmost fortress in the Austro-Hungarian empire, Fort Kosmač, was constructed nearby to guard the road from Budva to Cetinje. After the war, the Serbian army entered Budva after it was abandoned by Austrian forces and it came under the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In 1941, with the beginning of World War II, Budva was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy. Budva was liberated from Axis rule on 22 November 1944 and incorporated in the Socialist Republic of Montenegro.
A catastrophic earthquake struck Budva on 15 April 1979. Much of old town was devastated, but today there is little evidence of the catastrophe – all the buildings were restored to their original form. Montenegro became an independent country with Budva as its primary tourist destination; the municipal parliament consists of 33 deputies elected directly for a four-year term. Following the last local election held on 16 October 2016, the ruling DPS lost its absolute majority, the new local government being formed by a coalition of opposition parties. Budva is the administrative centre of Budva municipality, which includes the neighbouring towns of Bečići and Petrovac, has a population of 19,218; the town itself has 13,338 inhabitants. Ethnicity in 2018: 19,262 Montenegrins 36,780 Serbs 5.446 Russians 1,480 Ukrainians 2,332 Others The Old Town of Budva is situated on a rocky peninsula, on the southern end of Budva field. Archaeological evidence suggests that Illyrian settlement was formed on the site of the Old Town before Greek colonization of the Adriatic.
While the site was permanently settled since Roman era, most of existing city walls and buildings were erected during the Venetian rule. The entire town is encircled with defensive stone walls; the fortifications of Budva are typical of the Medieval walled cities of the Adriatic, complete with towers, fortified city gates and a citadel. There were gates on all of the four sides of the walled city. However, sea-facing gates were closed up over the years; the main city gate is the grand entry to the city from the west. It is the beginning of the city's main thoroughfare, Njegoševa Street. There are four more gates on the north wall, facing Budva marina, one small gate facing the southwestern beach of Ričardova glava; the layout of the town is orthogonal, although many streets deviate from the grid, resulting in somewhat irregular pattern, with many piazzas connected with narrow
Tivat is a coastal town in southwest Montenegro, located in the Bay of Kotor. As of 2011, its population was 14,111. Tivat is the centre of Tivat Municipality, the smallest municipality by area in Montenegro. In Montenegrin language the town is known as Tivat. According to legend, Tivat is derived from Illyrian queen Teuta. Teuta had a residence in Rhizon and a summer residence between the church of St. Rocco in Donja Lastva and Seljanovo; the name could come from the names of old Christian saints: Saint Theodulus, Theodocius or Theodotus. Besides the popular name Theudo, a Latin expression Latus Tiuveti comes from the 16th century; the name could originate from Celtic word "touto", town. Archaeological sites attest that the area was inhabited in antiquity, with Greek and Roman settlements. Tombs and tombstones from the Roman period were discovered in Opatovo. Tivat, the youngest town in the Boka area was established on the plateau at the bottom of Vrmac. According to the archives of Kotor, Teude and Theudo was used for the settlement in the 14th century.
During the Middle Ages the fertile lands of the area belonged to the aristocrats of Cattaro, Prčanj and Dobrota. Estates and chalets were there as well as the collective church of St Anton dating from 1373. Part of this inheritance, the property of the wealthy Buća family, is a historic chalet which today houses Tivat's museums and galleries; the residence of the metropolitan of the bishopric of Zeta was built from the 13th to the 15th century on the Prevlaka Island. Tivat, known as Teodo in Venetian, was under the Republic of Venice as a part of Albania Veneta from 1420 to 1797. In those centuries Teodo enjoyed economic development that attracted many Serb refugees from Ottoman-held areas; some Venetian-style buildings are still standing today. Rapid development of Tivat started in the second half of 19th century when the Austrian empire built a maritime arsenal for its fleet. Still the town shaped itself by developing small industry. In the beginning of 1918, in the Tivat Bay sailors revolted against the mighty Austrian empire.
With great approval and support, people from this area followed their revolutionary actions. The period between two world wars was marked with syndicate activity in Račica and Arsenal. Between 1941 and 1943 the town was part of the Italian Governatorate of Dalmatia. In 1889 the Naval arsenal was built by Austrians, was used as a naval military base of the Italian Navy, the Yugoslav People's Army and the Army of Montenegro; the JNA enjoyed an international reputation as a powerful, well-equipped, well-trained force. The base was used by Russia and Libya as the technical base for maintenance and overhaul of their ships and submarines; the former naval base is now "Porto Montenegro", a superyacht marina developed by Canadian billionaire Peter Munk sold in 2016 to the Investment Corporation of Dubai. Tivat is located in the central part of the Bay of Kotor, south of mount Vrmac; the municipality lies south of the town, has an exit to open sea at the tourist location Pržno inlet near Radovići village to the south.
Its central part, where Tivat Airport is located, lies in fertile Grbalj valley. The airport is located near the isthmus of Luštica peninsula, which belongs to the municipality of Herceg Novi for the most part, its geographical position and natural environment make it a tourist destination. Boka was described and celebrated in verse by many poets and scientists: Vuk Karadžić, Ljubomir Nenadović, Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, Simo Matavulj, Laza Kostić, Aleksa Šantić, Jovan Cvijić and many others. Boka has captured many writers of travels from England and France, among them: Padget, Fraser, Gilles Verne and Pierre Loti. American Boyd said: ”God made the world in six days, on the seventh day he took his time and created this fjord under Lovcen.” Tivat has about 14,000 inhabitants. It is 19 kilometres away from Herceg Novi, 10 km away from Kotor, 23 km away from Budva, 80 km from Dubrovnik and 90 km from Podgorica. Geomorphologically, Tivat is composed of three areas; the first is the peaks of Vrmac, Velji Vrh and Popova glava.
Water activity formed capes Pakovo and Račica. The second area is Tivat field, flattened by water activity; the third area is Krtoli with islands – Island of Flowers, St. Marko, Lady of Mercy, bordered by Novski bay on the north-west and Grbalj area on the south-east; the municipal parliament consists of 33 deputies elected directly for a five-year term. Following the last local election held on 17 April 2016, the ruling DPS has an absolute majority with 17 deputies; the election was boycotted by parliamentary opposition parties DF, URA and Demos. Tivat is the administrative centre of Tivat municipality, which has a population of 14,031. In 1981 the municipality had a population of 9,315: 2,876 Croats 2,831 Montenegrins 2,384 Yugoslavs 850 Serbs 129 Albanians 155 othersIn 1991 the municipality had a population of 11,404: 3,809 Montenegrins 2,663 Croats 2,346 Yugoslavs 1,724 Serbs 219 Muslims 485 others In 2011 the municipality had a population of 14,031: 4,666 Montenegrins 4,435 Serbs 2,304 Croats 335 Egyptians 114 Muslims 97 Albanians 96 Bosniaks 61 Yugoslavs (0
Social Democratic Party of Montenegro
Social Democratic Party of Montenegro, or just the Social Democratic Party is a centre-left political party in Montenegro. It is the only party in Montenegro to have full membership in the Socialist International. On 14 July 1991 reformists from four coastal municipalities in the SR Montenegro, Herceg Novi, Kotor and Budva, who were subsequently joined by reformists from Cetinje, formed the first regional Montenegrin political party - the Alliance of Reformists of the Montenegrin Coastline with Miodrag Marović as President. On 7 July 1992 the League united with Žarko Rakčević's Party of Socialists desiring to create a major Montenegrin party, forming the Social Democratic Party of Reformists of Montenegro. On 12 June 1993 the Independent Organization of Communists of Bar, the Alliance of Reform forces of Yugoslavia for Montenegro and the Party of National Tolerance merged into it, forming the Social Democratic Party of Montenegro and uniting the forces that opposed the policies of the Milošević regime during the Yugoslav wars.
Yugoslav People's Party and Old Yugoslav People's Party merged into SDP in the following years. Notable SDP founders include Žarko Rakčević, Ljubiša Stanković and Dušan Simonović; when the policies of the ruling Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro turned towards the goal of full independence for Montenegro, DPS and SDP started working together to achieve this goal. Allying itself with the DPS and Đukanović ahead of the 1998 parliamentary elections allowed the SDP to enter the parliament for the first time in its history. Since the 1998 election, SDP has continued to a minor coalition partner of DPS and a part of every Montenegrin government between 1998 and 2015; the goal of restoration of the Montenegrin independence was achieved following the victory in a referendum held on 21 May 2006. Current president of the SDP and President of the Parliament of Montenegro from 2003 to 2016, Ranko Krivokapić proclaimed the independence of Montenegro on 3 June 2006. Following the shift of the party towards a more critical and independent political course, in Autumn 2015 the pro-DPS faction of SDP formed a new party named Social Democrats of Montenegro.
On 22 January 2016, SDP left the ruling coalition with DPS and announced its support for a vote of no confidence against the government of Milo Đukanović on 25 January 2016. In the following 2016 parliamentary election SDP ran independently for the first time since 1996, retained its parliamentary status, winning 5.23% of votes. At the 2018 presidential elections, SDP nominated its MP Draginja Vuksanović, the first female presidential candidate in the history of Montenegro. Vuksanović finished third. A Government.
Parliament of Montenegro
The Parliament of Montenegro is the unicameral legislature of Montenegro. The Parliament has 81 members, elected for a four-year term. Following the 2006 independence referendum, the Parliament declared and ratified the independence of Montenegro on 3 June 2006; the system of the house is proportional representation. The current Speaker of the Parliament is Ivan Brajović, while Deputy Speakers are Branimir Gvozdenović and Genci Nimanbegu. Opposition is awarded the remaining Deputy Speaker seat, vacant due to the ongoing boycott of 39 opposition MPs following the alleged electoral fraud which took place during the latest parliamentary election. Parliament of Montenegro has first been established by the Constitution of the Principality of Montenegro in 1905, under the name of Popular Assembly, under which it had limited legislative role, limited by the authority of Knjaz; the first convocation of the Parliament has been constituted in 1906. Following the annexation of Kingdom of Montenegro into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1918, the Parliament of Montenegro was disbanded until the World War II.
The Parliament was reinstated in 1944, in the form of Montenegrin Antifascist Assembly of National Liberation, which changed its name to Montenegrin National Assembly, National Assembly, lasting until 1946, when the new Assembly was elected in FR Montenegro, a constituent republic within SFR Yugoslavia. Current convocation is the 23rd since the foundation of the Parliament; the Parliament appoints the Prime Minister nominated by the President, as well as the ministers chosen by the Prime Minister. Parliament passes all laws in Montenegro, ratifies international treaties, appoints justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution; the Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence in the Government with a majority of the members. A deputy has a four-year term. One deputy is elected per 6,000 voters, which in turn results in a change of total number of deputies in the parliament; the Parliament has 81 members elected by a D'Hondt method system of proportional representation for a four-year term.
The 81 seats of the Parliament of Montenegro are elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed list proportional representation. Seats are allocated using the d'Hondt method with a 3% electoral threshold. However, minority groups that account for at least 15% of the population in a district are given an exemption that lowers the electoral threshold to 0.7% if their list fails to cross the 3% threshold. For ethnic Croats, if no list representing the population passes the 0.7% threshold, the list with the most votes will win one seat if it receives more than 0.35% of the vote. The most recent elections were held on 16 October 2016 and the next are scheduled for 2020. Since October 2016, the ruling majority is formed by DPS, SD, BS, LP, HGI and FORCA. President of the Parliament of Montenegro Official website
United Montenegro is a conservative political party in Montenegro. Party founder and former leader is Goran Danilović, former Minister of Interior Affairs in Government of Montenegro and former vice-president of Democratic Alliance and New Serb Democracy political parties; the United Montenegro was founded in September 2017 when the conservative faction of Democratic Alliance led by party vice-president Goran Danilović split and formed a new political party due to disagreements with party leader Miodrag Lekić. It has two representatives in the Parliament of Montenegro - both elected in 2016 from DEMOS-lead Key Coalition electoral list
Montenegro is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Herzegovina to the northwest. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079, its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital. During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja corresponding to the southern half. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty; the independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852.
Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year. Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement, it is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.
The country's name derives from Venetian and translates as "Black Mountain", deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense evergreen forests. The native name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići, but the name came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta. The aforementioned region became known as Stara Crna Gora'Old Montenegro' by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of Brda' Highlands'. Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raška, its borders have changed little since losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor. After the second session of the AVNOJ during World War II in Yugoslavia, the modern state of Montenegro was founded as the Federal State of Montenegro on 15 November 1943 within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia by the ZAVNOCGB.
After DF Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal State of Montenegro was renamed to the People's Republic of Montenegro on 29 November 1945. In 1963, the FPRY was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and coincidentally, the People's Republic of Montenegro was renamed to the Socialist Republic of Montenegro; as the breakup of Yugoslavia occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the Republic of Montenegro on 27 April 1992 within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by removing the adjective "socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became known as Montenegro; the ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE. In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja corresponding to the southern half, the west, Rascia, the north. Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia, became recognised as a kingdom.
Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death, several civil wars ensued. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son and his grandson Constantine Bodin. By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro came under the rule of the Balšić noble family the Crnojević noble family, by the 15th century, Zeta was more referred to as Crna Gora; as the nobility fought for the throne, the kingdom was weakened, by 1186, it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into the Serbian realm as a province named Zeta. After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the Balšićs, became sovereigns of Zeta. In 1421, Zeta was a