Kharkiv known as Kharkov, is the second-largest city in Ukraine. In the northeast of the country, it is the largest city of the Slobozhanshchyna historical region. Kharkiv is the administrative centre of Kharkiv Oblast and of the surrounding Kharkiv Raion, though administratively it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 1,439,036 The city was founded in 1654 and after a humble beginning as a small fortress grew to be a major centre of Ukrainian industry and culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv was the first capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, from December 1919 to January 1934, after which the capital relocated to Kiev. Presently, Kharkiv is a major cultural, educational and industrial centre of Ukraine, with 6 museums, 7 theatres and 80 libraries, its industry specializes in machinery and in electronics. There are hundreds of industrial companies in the city, including the Morozov Design Bureau and the Malyshev Tank Factory.
Some sources offer that the city was named after Kharko. Among other names there are Charkow, Zakharpolis. Cultural artifacts date back to the Bronze Age, as well as those of Scythian and Sarmatian settlers. There is evidence that the Chernyakhov culture flourished in the area from the second to the sixth centuries; the city was founded by re-settlers who were running away from the war that engulfed Right-bank Ukraine in 1654. The years before the region was a sparsely populated part of the Cossack Hetmanate; the group of people came onto the banks of Lopan and Kharkiv rivers where an abandoned settlement stood. According to archive documents, the leader of the re-settlers was otaman Ivan Kryvoshlyk. At first the settlement was self-governed under the jurisdiction of a voivode from Chuhuiv, 40 kilometres to the east; the first appointed voivode from Moscow was Voyin Selifontov in 1656 who started to build a local ostrog. At that time the population of Kharkiv was just over 1000, half of whom were local cossacks, while Selifontov brought along a Moscow garrison of another 70 servicemen.
The first Kharkiv voivode was replaced in two years after complaining that locals refused to cooperate in building the fort. Kharkiv became the centre of the local Sloboda cossack regiment as the area surrounding the Belgorod fortress was being militarized. With the resettlement of the area by Ukrainians it came to be known as Sloboda Ukraine, most of, included under the jurisdiction of the Razryad Prikaz headed by a district official from Belgorod. By 1657 the Kharkiv settlement had a fortress with underground passageways. In 1658 Ivan Ofrosimov was appointed as the new voivode, who worked on forcing locals to kiss the cross to show loyalty to the Moscow tsar; the locals led by their otaman. However, with the election of the new otaman Tymish Lavrynov the community sent a request to the tsar to establish a local Assumption market, signed by deans of Kharkiv churches. Relationships with the neighboring Chuhuiv sometimes were non-friendly and their arguments were pacified by force. With the appointment of the third voivode Vasiliy Sukhotin was finished the construction of the city fort.
Meanwhile, Kharkiv had become the centre of Sloboda Ukraine. The Kharkiv Fortress was erected around the Assumption Cathedral and its castle was at University Hill, it was between today's streets: vulytsia Kvitky-Osnovianenko, Constitution Square, Rose Luxemburg Square, Proletarian Square, Cathedral Descent. The fortress had 10 towers: Chuhuivska Tower, Moskovska Tower, Vestovska Tower, Tainytska Tower, Lopanska Corner Tower, Kharkivska Corner Tower and others; the tallest was Vestovska, some 16 metres tall, while the shortest one was Tainytska which had a secret well 35 metres deep. The fortress had the Lopanski Gates. In 1689 the fortress was expanded and included the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral and Monastery, baptized and became the center of local eparchy. Coincidentally in the same year in the vicinity of Kharkiv in Kolomak, Ivan Mazepa was announced the Hetman of Ukraine. Next to the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral was located the Kharkiv Collegiate, transferred from Belgorod to Kharkiv in 1726. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Kiev Governorate.
Kharkiv is mentioned as one of the towns making a part of the governorate. In 1727, Belgorod Governorate was split off, Kharkiv moved to Belgorod Governorate, it was the center of Kharkiv Sloboda Cossack regiment. The regiment at some point was detached from Belgorod Governorate attached to it again, until in 1765, Sloboda Ukraine Governorate was established with the seat in Kharkiv. Kharkiv University was established in 1805 in the Palace of Governorate-General. Alexander Mikolajewicz Mickiewicz, brother of Adam Mickiewicz was a professor of law in the university, another celebrity Goethe searched for instructors for the school. In 1906 Ivan Franko received a doctorate in Russian linguistics here; the streets were first cobbled in the city centre in 1830. In 1844 the 90 m
All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland"
The All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" referred to as Batkivshchyna in English, is a Ukrainian political party led by Yulia Tymoshenko. The party has been an observer member of the European People's Party since 2008; as the core party of the former Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc, Batkivshchyna has been represented in the Verkhovna Rada since Yulia Tymoshenko set up the parliamentary faction of the same name in March 1999. Since 2008, Batkivshchyna has been an associate member of the European People's Party. After the November 2011 banning of the participation of blocs of political parties in parliamentary elections, Batkivshchyna became a major force in Ukrainian politics independently. Yulia Tymoshenko was a political prisoner of the Yanukovych regime from 5 August 2011 until 22 February 2014. After the 2014 revolution she was rehabilitated by the Supreme Court of Ukraine and the European Court of Human Rights in the absence of crime structure; as the participation of blocks of political parties in the parliamentary elections in 2012 was banned, Batkivshchyna held a campaign called "United opposition Batkivshchyna" and advanced on its behalf members of other parties allied with Batkivshchyna.
The party list was headed by the leader of the "Front of Changes" Arseniy Yatsenyuk. On 15 June 2013 the parties "Front of Changes" and "Reforms and Order" merged with the All-Ukrainian Union Batkivshchyna by self-liquidation; as of 31 December 2013 the parliamentary faction Batkivshchyna had 90 deputies. During the events of Euromaidan, on 22 February 2014 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted a resolution on the implementation of international obligations of Ukraine on release of former Prime Minister of Ukraine Yulia Tymoshenko. Tymoshenko started reforming the party and Batkivshchyna went into the parliamentary elections in 2014 with new members, the top five of the list included: Nadiya Savchenko, Yulia Tymoshenko, Ihor Lutsenko, Serhiy Sobolev, Alyona Shkrum. Based on the election results, the party received 19 seats in the Ukrainian parliament: 17 according to party lists and two through the majority system. Igor Zhdanov from Batkivshchyna received the position of Youth and Sports Minister in the new government.
According to the results of the 2015 local elections, Batkivshchyna came second, thereby doubled its result in comparison to the 2014 parliamentary elections. The predecessor of today's party is the Association of Peace-loving Forces "Batkivshchyna", founded in 1995 by Volodymyr Prisnyakov, a rector at Dnipropetrovsk National University. In 1998, Tymoshenko was elected a people's deputy of the Verkhovna Rada from the Bobrynets constituency in Kirovohrad Oblast. In spring 1999, Tymoshenko created a parliamentary group called "Fatherland" as a breakaway group of Hromada, it should be noted that on 14 September 1998 the General Prosecutor of Ukraine accused Hromada leader Pavlo Lazarenko of embezzlement, the following March Tymoshenko established the "Fatherland" parliamentary group. On 9 July 1999, based on the parliamentary group and smaller party, a new political party – All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" – was founded its constituent congress; the first party chairman was elected Viktor Drachenko, a former Communist Party secretary from Dnipropetrovsk Oblast.
The party was registered by the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine on 16 September 1999 under certificate no. 122. At the second congress, held on 18 December of the same year, Yulia Tymoshenko was elected chairman of the party, replacing Drachenko. In the 2002 parliamentary elections, the party was the main constituent of the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc; the bloc obtained 22 seats in all on the party list. Thirteen of them were allocated to "Fatherland". In January 2005, Tymoshenko became Prime Minister of Ukraine under Viktor Yushchenko's presidency. Several months earlier, she was a leader in the Orange Revolution which enabled Yushchenko's election. After losing several seats in 2002 and 2003, by September 2005 the bloc had grown to 40 members. In March 2005, the Yabluko party merged with Batkivshchyna. However, in March 2007 Yabluko withdrew from Batkivshchyna. In late 2005, the United Ukraine party merged with Batkivshchyna. In the 2006 and 2007 parliamentary elections the party was part of the Tymoshenko Bloc, which won 129 of 450 seats in 2006 and 156 of 450 seats in 2007.
On 18 December 2007 Yulia Tymoshenko was reelected prime minister by a two-vote margin, making Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc and the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc a majority coalition. Since 2008, the party has been an observer member of the European People's Party. In 2009, "Fatherland" put Tymoshenko forward as a candidate for the presidency of Ukraine. After its defeat in the elections, the parliamentary coalition ceased to exist, Tymoshenko’s cabinet was dismissed. Tymoshenko stated on 22 February 2010. During the 2010 Ukrainian local elections party was defeated by the rival Party of Regions in nearly all regions of Ukraine, although it remained the main opposition party. Although Batkivshchyna won seats in 19 of 24 regional parliaments, it did not win a seat in the Supreme Council of Crimea. In Lviv Oblast and Kiev Oblast as well as in Ternopil the party did not participate in the elections cause it was unable to register its candidates. Yulia Tymoshenko claimed that "fraudulent Batkivshchyna party organisations were registered on orders from Viktor Yanukovych".
On 16 November 2010, the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc in the Verkh
Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united)
The Social Democratic Party of Ukraine, is a Ukrainian political party, established as the Social Democratic Party of Ukraine. At the 1998 and 2002 parliamentary elections it won parliamentary seats, since not; when in the Verkhovna Rada the party was influential, but since the Orange revolution it has been marginalized. The Social Democratic Party of Ukraine was founded in May 1990. Unlike the united SD, the Social Democratic refused to follow democratic socialism and was against federalisation of Ukraine; the party joined the People's Movement of Ukraine which had some of its members in Verkhovna Rada. During the 1991 presidential elections it supported Viacheslav Chornovil. In May of 1992 Yuriy Zbitnyev was elected a head of the party replacing Oleksandr Suhonyako. Suhonyako who wanted the party to follow social liberalism policies left the party with his supporters. In spring of 1993 two parties were merged the Social Democratic Party of Ukraine and the United Social Democratic Party of Ukraine and were registered as a single party SDPU.
The head of the new party was Yuriy Buzduhan. Before the next parliamentary elections the new party was to be merged with the Party of Democratic Revival of Ukraine, but both parties ran independently; the party did win two seats in the 1994 parliamentary elections. After the 1994 elections the party split into two factions one led by Buzduhan was re-registered as the Social Democratic Party of Ukraine, another led by Yuriy Zbitnyev wanted to be registered as SDPU, but was denied in registration under such name. In 1995 a new merger was registered by Ministry of Justice of Ukraine where the Zbitnyev's faction of former SDPU merged with Party of Human Rights of Vasyl Onopenko and Ukrainian Party of Justice of Mykhailo Hrechka to form Social Democratic Party of Ukraine; the head of the new party was elected Minister of Justice of Ukraine Vasyl Onopenko, while his deputies were Viktor Medvedchuk, Yuriy Zbitnyev and Mykhailo Hrechka. Note, in 1994 Medvedchuk yet ran for parliament unsuccessfully as non-partisan, according to documents of the Central Election Commission of Ukraine.
The documents of the new party were stating that it is a successor of SDPU, Party of Human Rights and Ukrainian Party of Justice, which all of them were dissolved. However, according to Ukrainian historian Vasyl Yablonskyi, bigger portion of SDPU members and majority of Ukrainian Party of Justice never agreed with such decision; the mentioned parties did not only became inactive, but actively counteracted the newly formed SDPU. The social democrats of Buzduhan accused the leaders of new party in political fraud and representatives of Ukrainian Party of Justice declared that Mykhailo Hrechka exceeded his authority. One of the party's creators Viktor Medvedchuk has controversial biography by being a son of member of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists who managed to attain jurist diploma from a major university in the Soviet Union, he is better known as a state lawyer of several Soviet dissidents from Ukraine who died in prison. In 1989 Medvedchuk was heading the biggest law firm in Kiev with over 40 lawyers, yet not being a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Since 1989 Medvedchuk cooperated with football functionary Hryhoriy Surkis who in 1993 was able to become a president of FC Dynamo Kyiv. The former President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk confirmed that former owners of the club petitioned to him to help against the overtake from Surkis-Medvedchuk; the Medvedchuk-Surkis group back in 1992 had its own bank, the Ukrainian Credit Bank and business holding "Omega-XXI vek". Political and business opponents of the new social democrats were claiming that the business holding was no other than a pyramid scheme which by 1995 owned to the public 28.2 trillion of Karbovanets. Another important business entity of the group was the Industrial and Financial Concern "Slavutich" which starting in 1991-92 was receiving credits from foreign banks for purchase of oil, refining in Ukraine during next 4 to 5 years. In the mid 1990s the office of Slavutich was set on fire and all its accounting records were perished. Through Slavutich, in early 1990s the Medvedchuk-Surkis group managed to established close relationships with the President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk.
According to Kravchuk, the president of Slavutich was offering anti-crisis economical program and he asked his adviser Valentyn Symonenko to learn more about it. The draft of the program received approval from the acting Prime Minister of Ukraine Yukhym Zvyahilskyi and soon was taken into development by the government of Ukraine. After the 1994 presidential elections there was created a special state commission to review activities of Slavutich, but yielded no results; the newly elected president Leonid Kuchma, critical of the Medvedchuk-Surkis group, soon after elections was able to find a common ground with it awarding both of them the Order of Merit in 1996. In January 1996 the Ministry of Justice annulled the registration of SDPU led by Onopenko and in March of 1996 re-registered as SDPU the Buzduhan's faction. In April of 1996 the Onopenko's organization conducted its extraordinary party congress where it adopts decision to change its name by adding word "united". In 1996 the party was joined by Hryhoriy Surkis and original owners of the Inter television channel Oleksandr Zinchenko with Ihor Pluzhnikov.
In 1998 the leadership of the party became Viktor Medved
Ukraine – Forward!
Ukraine – Forward! is a political party in Ukraine. From its registration in December 1998 till March 2012 it was named Ukrainian Social Democratic Party; the party has, according to about 86,000 party members. The official name of the party is: Party of Natalia Korolevska "Ukraine – Forward!". Ukrainian Social Democratic Party was since its first election in 2002 a long a member of Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko but its leader Korolevska fell out with the BYuT's new leaders and they expelled her party from the bloc in March 2012; as a part of BYuT the party was always represented in the Ukrainian Parliament. But running independently in 2012 it failed to win parliamentary representation. Party leader Korolevska did became Minister of Social Policy of Ukraine in the second Azarov Government on 24 December 2012. In the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election members of the party took part in the elections on the party list of Opposition Bloc. Ukraine – Forward! is seen as a pro-business party and the party has campaigned for Yulia Tymoshenko's release from jail.
The party traces its history back to 1994 when the Minister of Justice of Ukraine Vasyl Onopenko created his party, Party of Human Rights, which in January 1995 has united with the Social Democratic Party of Ukraine and the Ukrainian Party of Justice named as the Social Democratic Party of Ukraine. Onopenko became famous for leaving the office of Minister of Justice in protest to the events of 1995 connected with the burial of the Patriarch Volodymyr and became known as the Black Tuesday. A major break up of the party took place in 1998, after which Onopenko once again created a new party; the Ukrainian Social Democratic Party was founded in 1998 by former members of the Social Democratic Party of Ukraine. The first leader of the party was Vasyl Onopenko who in the Presidential elections in 1999 got 0,47% of the votes. At the parliamentary elections on 30 March 2002, the party was part of the Yulia Tymoshenko Electoral Bloc alliance. Three members of the party were included to the parliamentary faction of the Yulia Tymoshenko Electoral Bloc: Vasyl Onopenko, Volodymyr Levtsun, Anatoliy Semynoha.
During the parliamentary elections on 26 March 2006 the party took part in the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc. Out of 129 seats won by the bloc only eight were given to members of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Party. Top 10 membersIn November 2006 Yevhen Korniychuk became the chairman of the party, he served as the First Deputy Justice Minister in the Second Tymoshenko Government. In the parliamentary elections on 30 September 2007, the party was again part of the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc. that won 156 out of 450 seats. Again the party only received eight seats in parliament. Top 10 membersIn August 2011 Korniychuk voluntarily resigned from his post in connection with criminal investigations against him; the leadership of Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc had accused him of working together with their arch-rivals Party of Regions. Former member of All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" Natalia Korolevska was elected party leader on 23 December 2011. Party leader Korolevska was expelled from the “Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko-Batkivschyna”-faction in the Verkhovna Rada on 14 March 2012.
The same day the party stated on its official website "We are shocked and outraged by the betrayal of the leadership of the faction "Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko-Batkivschyna". These events made the party leave the Dictatorship Resistance Committee, but it assured it was still "in opposition to the current regime, the Yanukovych regime". On 15 March 2012 the Ukrainian Social Democratic Party was expelled from the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc for alleged "cooperation with the presidential administration and the ruling regime". Top 10 membersOn the 22 March 2012 party congress the party was renamed Party of Natalia Korolevska "Ukraine – Forward!". Former members of Korolevska's old party All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" have joined the renamed party since. In June 2012 the party stated; the party did participate in the October 2012 parliamentary elections. In March 2012 the parties popularity in opinion polls had reached a level far below above the election threshold with about 1% of the votes predicted to go to the party but in May 2012 the prediction had increased from 1% to 3.8%.
Experts believed the party was gaining potential voters from former supporters of Sergiy Tigipko and his Strong Ukraine. Famed Ukrainian footballer Andriy Shevchenko joined the party after his retirement in July 2012. During the campaign for this election the party was one of the biggest spenders; the party official reported it had spent US$7.6 million on the election campaign in multi-member constituencies. Political scientist Artem Bidenko estimated that the party had spent some US$150 million on the campaign. In June 2012 the party was advertising on 320 billboards in Kiev alone and on 900 across Ukraine. One of their election billboards claimed that “an average wage of 1,000 euros and a pension of 500 euros” was realistic for Ukraine. In the election the party won 1.58% of the national votes and no constituencies (it had competed in 105
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 1990, when the Congress of People's Deputies modified Article 6 of the most recent 1977 Soviet constitution, which had granted the CPSU a monopoly over the political system; the party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks, a majority faction detached from the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in the October Revolution of 1917. After 74 years, it was dissolved on 29 August 1991 on Soviet territory, soon after a failed coup d'état by hard-line CPSU leaders against Soviet president and party general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev and was outlawed three months on 6 November 1991 in Russian territory; the CPSU was a Communist party, organized on the basis of democratic centralism. This principle, conceived by Lenin, entails democratic and open discussion of policy issues within the party followed by the requirement of total unity in upholding the agreed policies.
The highest body within the CPSU was the Party Congress. When the Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body; because the Central Committee met twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo, the Secretariat and the Orgburo. The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or some of the three offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time; the party leader was the de facto chairman of the CPSU Politburo and chief executive of the Soviet Union. The tension between the party and the state for the shifting focus of power was never formally resolved, but in reality the party dominated and a paramount leader always existed. After the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922, Lenin had introduced a mixed economy referred to as the New Economic Policy, which allowed for capitalist practices to resume under the Communist Party dictation in order to develop the necessary conditions for socialism to become a practical pursuit in the economically undeveloped country.
In 1929, as Joseph Stalin became the leader of the party, Marxism–Leninism, a fusion of the original ideas of German philosopher and economic theorist Karl Marx, Lenin, became formalized as the party's guiding ideology and would remain so throughout the rest of its existence. The party pursued state socialism, under which all industries were nationalized and a planned economy was implemented. After recovering from the Second World War, reforms were implemented which decentralized economic planning and liberalized Soviet society in general under Nikita Khrushchev. By 1980, various factors, including the continuing Cold War, ongoing nuclear arms race with the United States and other Western European powers and unaddressed inefficiencies in the economy, led to stagnant economic growth under Alexei Kosygin, further with Leonid Brezhnev and a growing disillusionment. After a younger vigorous Mikhail Gorbachev, assumed leadership in 1985, rapid steps were taken to transform the tottering Soviet economic system in the direction of a market economy once again.
Gorbachev and his allies envisioned the introduction of an economy similar to Lenin's earlier New Economic Policy through a program of "perestroika", or restructuring, but their reforms along with the institution of free multiparty elections led to a decline in the party's power, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the banning of the party by last RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin and subsequent first President of an evolving democratic and free market economy of the successor Russian Federation. A number of causes contributed to CPSU's loss of control and the dissolution of the Soviet Union during the early 1990s; some historians have written that Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" was the root cause, noting that it weakened the party's control over society. Gorbachev maintained. Others have blamed the economic stagnation and subsequent loss of faith by the general populace in communist ideology. In the final years of the CPSU's existence, the Communist Parties of the federal subjects of Russia were united into the Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
After the CPSU's demise, the Communist Parties of the Union Republics became independent and underwent various separate paths of reform. In Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation emerged and has been regarded as the inheritor of the CPSU's old Bolshevik legacy into the present day. 1912–18:Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party 1918–25:Russian Communist Party 1925–52:All-Union Communist Party 1952–91:Communist Party of the Soviet Union The origin of the CPSU was in the Bolshevik majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, left the party in January 1912 to form a new one at the Prague Party Conference, called the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party – or RSDLP. Prior to the February Revolution, the first phase of the Russian Revolutions of 1917, the party worked underground as organized anti-Tsarist groups. By the time of the revolution, many of the party's central leaders, including Lenin, were in exile. With Emperor Nicholas II, deposed in February 1917, a republic was established and administered by a provisional gove
Communist Party of Ukraine (renewed)
The Communist Party of Ukraine is a banned political party in Ukraine, formed in November 2000 following a split from the Communist Party of Ukraine. KPU is led by Mykhaylo Savenko a member of Parliament of the pro-president Kuchma Labour Ukraine. On 30 September 2015, the District Administrative Court in Kiev banned the party. KPU claimed that the formation of KPU was instigated by the political establishment, in order to steal votes from KPU. At the legislative elections on 30 March 2002, the party won 1.4 % of no seats. Despite the fact that only six other parties spent more on their election campaign. In the 30 September 2007 elections, the party garnered only 0.29% of the popular vote. The party did not participate in the 2012 parliamentary elections, and again not in the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election. In May 2015, laws that ban communist symbols came into effect in Ukraine, thus banning communist symbols, singing the Soviet national hymn or the Internationale; because of these laws the Ukrainian Interior Ministry stripped the party of its right to participate in elections on 24 July 2015 and it stated it was continuing the court actions to end the registration of Ukraine’s communist parties.
The party did not challenge this ban and was thus on 30 September 2015 terminated by the District Administrative Court in Kiev
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic; the Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital.
Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia and the Russian SFSR; the Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell after the breakup of the Soviet Union. On January 1, 2018, according to the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine the population of the country was 42,216,766 permanent residents. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population and political power; the name "Ukraine" is a subject of debate. It is perceived as being derived from the Slavic word "okraina", meaning "border land", it was first used to define part of the territory of Kievan Rus' in the 12th century, at which point Kiev was the capital of Rus'.
The name has been used in a variety of ways since the twelfth century. For example, Zaporozhian Cossacks called their Hetmanate "Ukraine", which can be translated as "Our country" or "our land". Within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the name carried unofficial status for eastern parts of bigger Kiev Voivodeship and was overshadowed by the more common Little Poland. Since the partition of Poland, the name had disappeared and was replaced with the Russian colonial name of Little Russia; the idea of Ukraine as borderland crept into the English language at some point. Therefore, while Ukraine was part of the Soviet Union, Anglophones referred to the Ukrainian SSR as "The Ukraine". However, since the fall of the Soviet Union, the recognized name is "Ukraine"; the definite article may imply that it is a land or general geographic area with unidentified borders. After the abdication of the tsar and the start of the process of destruction of the Russian Empire many people in Ukraine wished to establish a Ukrainian Republic.
During a period of civil war from 1917 to 1923 many factions claiming themselves governments of the newly born republic were formed, each with supporters and opponents. The two most prominent of them were a government in Kharkiv; the Kiev-based UPR was internationally recognized and supported by the Central powers following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, whereas the Kharkiv-based USR was supported by Soviet Russian forces, while neither the UPR nor the USR were supported by the White Russian forces that remained. The conflict between the two competing governments, known as the Ukrainian–Soviet War, was part of the ongoing Russian Civil War, as well as a struggle for national independence, which ended with the pro-independence Ukrainian People's Republic being annexed into a new Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic, western Ukraine being absorbed into the Second Polish Republic, the newly stable Ukraine becoming a founding member of the Soviet Union; this government of the Soviet Ukrainian Republic was founded on 24–25 December 1917.
In its publications it names itself either the "Republic of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', Peasants' Deputies" or the "Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets". The 1917 republic, was only recognised by another non-recognised country, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, with the signing of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty was defeated by mid-1918 and dissolved; the last session of the government took place in the city of Taganrog. In July 1918, the former members of the government formed the Communist Party of Ukraine, the constituent assembly of which took place in Moscow. With the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I, Bolshevik Russia resumed its hostilities towards the Ukrainian People's Republic fighting for Ukrainian independence and organised another Soviet government in Kursk, Russia. On 10 March 1919, according to the 3rd Congress of Soviets in Ukraine the name of the state was changed to the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic. After the ratification of the 1936 Soviet Constitution, the names of all Soviet republics were changed, transposing the second and third ("soviet" or "radianska" in