Cádiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia. Cádiz, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Western Europe, with archaeological remains dating to 3100 years, was founded by the Phoenicians, it has been a principal home port of the Spanish Navy since the accession of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network, it is the site of the University of Cádiz. Situated on a narrow slice of land surrounded by the sea‚ Cádiz is, in most respects, a Andalusian city with a wealth of attractive vistas and well-preserved historical landmarks; the older part of Cádiz within the remnants of the city walls is referred to as the Old Town. It is characterized by the antiquity of its various quarters, among them El Pópulo, La Viña, Santa María, which present a marked contrast to the newer areas of town. While the Old City's street plan consists of narrow winding alleys connecting large plazas, newer areas of Cádiz have wide avenues and more modern buildings.
In addition, the city is dotted with numerous parks where exotic plants flourish, including giant trees brought to Spain by Columbus from the New World. Little remains of the Phoenician language, but numismatic inscriptions record that they knew the site as a Gadir or Agadir, meaning "The Wall", "The Compound", or "The Stronghold". Borrowed by the Berber languages, this became the agadir common in North African place names; the Carthaginians continued to use this name and all subsequent names have derived from it. The Greek cothon refers to a Carthaginian type of fortified basin that can be seen at ancient sites such as Motya. Attic Greek sources hellenized Gadir as tà Gádeira, neuter plural. Herodotus, using Ionic Greek, transcribed it a little differently, as Gḗdeira; as in Stephanus of Byzantium's notes on the writings of Eratosthenes, the name is given in the feminine singular form as hè Gadeíra. In Latin, the city was known as its Roman colony as Augusta Urbs Iulia Gaditana. In Arabic, the Latin name became Qādis.
The Spanish demonym for people and things from Cádiz is gaditano. In English, the name is pronounced variously; when the accent is on the second syllable, it is pronounced but, when the accent is on the first syllable, it may be pronounced as, as, or as. In Spanish, the accent is always on the first syllable but, while the usual pronunciation in Spain is, the local dialect says, or instead. More some English speakers may attempt to pronounce it as the Spanish to the British version of "Ibiza", leading to pronunciations of Cádiz with /s/ or /θ/ instead of /z/, but keeping the English vowels and the strong /d/. According to a 2016 census estimate, the population of the city of Cádiz was 118,919, that of its metropolitan area was 629,054. Cádiz is the seventeenth-largest Spanish city. In recent years, the city's population has declined. Between 1995 and 2006, it lost more than 14,000 residents, a decrease of 9%. Among the causes of this loss of population is the peculiar geography of Cádiz. There is a pronounced shortage of land to be developed.
The city has little vacant land, a high proportion of its housing stock is low in density. The older quarters of Cádiz are full of buildings that, because of their age and historical significance, are not eligible for urban renewal. Two other physical factors tend to limit the city's population, it is impossible to increase the amount of land available for building by reclaiming land from the sea. Because Cádiz is built on a sandspit, it is a costly proposition to sink foundations deep enough to support the high-rise buildings that would allow for a higher population density; as it stands, the city's skyline is not different from in the Middle Ages. A 17th-century watchtower, the Tavira Tower, still commands a panoramic view of the city and the bay despite its modest 45 meters height. Cádiz is the provincial capital with the highest rate of unemployment in Spain. This, tends to depress the population level. Young Gaditanos, those between 18 and 30 years of age, have been migrating to other places in Spain, as well as to other places in Europe and the Americas.
The population younger than twenty years old is only 20.58% of the total, the population older than sixty-five is 21.67%, making Cádiz one of the most aged cities in all of Spain. The population distribution of the municipality is uneven. In its inhabited areas, Cádiz is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe; the uninhabited Zona Franca industrial area, Bay of Cádiz Port Area, Bay of Cádiz Natural Park occupy 63
Aragon is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces: Huesca and Teruel, its capital is Zaragoza. The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a historic nationality of Spain. Covering an area of 47720 km2, the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza, it is home to the highest mountains of the Pyrenees. As of January 2016, the population of Aragon was 1308563, with over half of it living in its capital city, Zaragoza. During the same year, the economy of Aragon generates a GDP of €34687 million, which represents 3.1% of Spain's national GDP, is 6th in per capita production behind Madrid, Basque Country, Catalonia and La Rioja.
In addition to its three provinces, Aragon is subdivided into counties. All comarcas of Aragon have a rich geopolitical and cultural history from its pre-Roman and Roman days, four centuries of Islamic period as Marca Superior of Al-Andalus or kingdom of Saraqusta, as lands that once belonged to the Frankish Marca Hispanica, counties that formed the Kingdom of Aragon and the Crown of Aragon; the current coat of arms of Aragon is composed of the four barracks and is attested for the first time in 1499, consolidating since the Early Modern Ages to take root decisively in the 19th century and be approved, according to precept, by the Real Academia de la Historia in 1921. The first quartering appears at the end of the 15th century and commemorates, according to traditional interpretation, the legendary kingdom of Sobrarbe; this emblem of gules and gold was used in seals, banners and standards indistinctly, not being but a familiar emblem that denoted the authority as King of Aragon until, with the birth of Modern State, began to be a territorial symbol.
The current flag was approved in 1984, with the provisions of Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, the flag is the traditional of the four horizontal red bars on a yellow background with the coat of arms of Aragon shifted towards the flagpole. The bars of Aragon, common historic element of the current four autonomous communities that once were integrated into the Crown of Aragon, present in the third quartering of the coat of arms of Spain; the anthem of Aragon was regulated in 1989 with music by the Aragonese composer Antón García Abril that combines the old Aragonese musical tradition with popular musical elements within a modern conception. The lyrics were elaborated by the Aragonese poets Ildefonso Manuel Gil, Ángel Guinda, Rosendo Tello and Manuel Vilas and highlights within its poetic framework, values such as freedom, reason, open land... that represent the expression of Aragon as a people. The Day of Aragon is celebrated on April 23 and commemorates Saint George, patron of the Kingdom of Aragon since the 15th century.
It appears in Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon since 1984. Institutional acts such as the delivery of the Aragon Awards by the Government of Aragon or the composition of a flag of Aragon of flowers, with the collaboration of citizens, in the Plaza de Aragón square of Zaragoza; the area of Aragon is 47720 km2 of which 15636 km2 belong to the province of Huesca, 17275 km2 to the province of Zaragoza and 14810 km2 to the province of Teruel. The total represents a 9.43% of the surface of Spain, being thus the fourth autonomous community in size behind Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha. It is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, at a latitude between 39º and 43º'N in the temperate zone of the Earth, its boundaries and borders are in the north with France, the regions of, in the west with the autonomous communities of Castile-La Mancha, Castile and León, La Rioja and Navarre and in the east with the autonomous communities of Catalonia and Valencian Community. The orography of the community has as central axis the Ebro valley which tr
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Román Baldorioty de Castro
Román Baldorioty de Castro was Puerto Rican abolitionist and spokesman for the island's right to self-determination. In 1870, he was elected as a deputy in the Cortes Generales, the Spanish parliament, where he promoted abolition of slavery. In 1887, Baldorioty de Castro was the founder of the Partido Autonomista. Baldorioty de Castro was born in Guaynabo to a poor family, his family moved to San Juan when he was young, where he received his primary education as a student of the noted educator, Rafael Cordero. After completing his elementary education, he enrolled in El Seminario Conciliar de Idelfonso, which at that time was the most organized institution in Puerto Rico, he spent most of his adolescent years studying, finished with one of the best averages in his class. Baldorioty de Castro was granted a scholarship, he collected the money necessary to travel and departed to Spain in the company of three fellow Puerto Ricans, two students and a professor. Before establishing a permanent residence in Madrid, the group traveled to several Spanish provinces, where they visited some of the country's tourist sites.
Among the places visited were locations in Cordoba, Andújar and Bailén where they met Alberto Lista, an educator from Spain. The three other students contracted smallpox shortly after beginning their academic studies in the Central University of Madrid. Baldorioty de Castro cared for them. Baldorioty de Castro was offered a chance to return to Puerto Rico but he declined, he continued his studies along with the only survivor and graduated with a degree in physics and mathematical sciences from the university. Dr. José Gualberto Padilla together with Román Baldorioty de Castro, founded the Puerto Rican chapter of the Sociedad Económica de los Amigos del País and called it "La Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País en Puerto Rico". In 1847 the Sociedad de Amigos del País de Puerto Rico named Baldorioty de Castro the organization's correspondent in Spain. On March 21, 1851 he was granted permission to transfer to France to continue his studies. Baldorioty de Castro moved to Paris. In 1853, after seven years of study, Baldorioty de Castro returned to Puerto Rico and married Isabel Matilde Díaz y Ruiz, the granddaughter of Lieutenant Francisco Díaz, hero of the Battle of San Juan of 1797.
Upon his return, he noticed that there was political tension, because of the differences between the governor in office and the political and educational groups in Puerto Rico. Baldorioty de Castro began promoting the restructuring of the social and educational establishments; these contributions led Fernando Norzagaray, the colony's incumbent governor to offer him the position of mayor of one of the island's municipalities. Baldorioty de Castro declined the offer, based on his ideals. At the time, the government displayed no interest in promoting education among the Criollos of the island. Two years earlier, the governor had imposed the Reglamento del Jornalero, which promoted a more ample labor base by reducing the amount of unemployed citizens. However, this measure was criticized for its elements that were used to increase the wealth of employers; as a consequence, the merits of said law were reconsidered and a group led by Baldorioty de Castro was selected to decide its validity. In 1853, he became a member of the Liberal Reform Party of Puerto Rico.
Besides politics, Baldorioty de Castro loved teaching. He taught Botany and Maritime Sciences at the School of Commerce and Maritime Studies in San Juan. In January 1854, the Councilor Seminary selected Baldorioty de Castro as its botany professor. On November of that year, Puerto Rico's Commerce and Foment Joint selected him to work as a professor in a Nautical School, where he taught Maritime Studies; the colonial government discovered that there was fertile terrain in the islands of Mona and Monito in 1856. After the discovery, they selected Baldorioty de Castro as the supervisor of a series of experiments to determine the terrain's components. In 1857, the cattle industry in Puerto Rico began having difficulties, when the number of animals diminished significantly. To resolve this problem, the island's Economic Society formed a commission composed of Baldorioty de Castro, José Julián Acosta and Juan Hernández Arbizu. Baldorioty de Castro proposed that geometry classes be included in the curriculum of elementary schools in Puerto Rico, accepted by the pertinent authority.
On January 2, 1858, the Economic Society unanimously named him the Secretary of the Studies Commission. On June 4, 1860, the organization named him spokesman of a commission to promote conservation of the island's natural resources; that year, Baldorioty de Castro represented Puerto Rico as a delegate in the Spanish Parliament, serving for five years until 1865. On September 17, 1864, he was certified as an applied mechanics professor and worked for a salary of thirty-five dollars a month. While working in the Spanish Parliament, he made the most of his position and encouraged the abolition of slavery in Puerto Rico and Cuba, drafting a constitution to guarantee Puerto Ricans more political rights. On November 4, 1866, he was named Puerto Rico's representative to Paris' 1867 Universal Exposition, he served as a critic and subsequently wrote a review titled Exposición Universal de París en 1967. Memoria presentada a la Comisión Provincial de Puerto Rico. After completing his participation in Paris, Baldorioty de Castro returned to Puerto Rico.
There were rising tensions between groups that supported the abolition of slavery in th
Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment. Diderot began his education by obtaining a Master of Arts degree in philosophy at a Jesuit college in 1732, he considered working in the church clergy before studying law. When he decided to become a writer in 1734, his father disowned him for not entering one of the learned professions, he lived a bohemian existence for the next decade. He befriended philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau in 1742. Though his work was broad as well as rigorous, it did not bring Diderot riches, he secured none of the posts that were given to needy men of letters. He saw no alternative to selling his library to provide a dowry for his daughter. Empress Catherine II of Russia heard of his financial troubles and commissioned an agent in Paris to buy the library, she requested that the philosopher retain the books in Paris until she required them, act as her librarian with a yearly salary.
Between October 1773 and March 1774, the sick Diderot spent a few months at the empress's court in Saint Petersburg. Diderot died of pulmonary thrombosis in Paris on 31 July 1784, was buried in the city's Église Saint-Roch, his heirs sent his vast library to Catherine II, who had it deposited at the National Library of Russia. He has several times been denied burial in the Panthéon with other French notables; the French government considered memorializing him in this fashion on the 300th anniversary of his birth, but this did not come to pass. Diderot's literary reputation during his lifetime rested on his plays and his contributions to the Encyclopédie. Denis Diderot was born in Champagne, his parents were Didier Diderot, a cutler, maître coutelier, his wife, Angélique Vigneron. Three of five siblings survived to adulthood, Denise Diderot and their youngest brother Pierre-Didier Diderot, their sister Angélique Diderot. According to Arthur McCandless Wilson, Denis Diderot admired his sister Denise, sometimes referring to her as "a female Socrates".
Diderot began his formal education at a Jesuit college in Langres, earning a Master of Arts degree in philosophy in 1732. He entered the Collège d'Harcourt of the University of Paris, he abandoned the idea of entering the clergy in 1735, instead decided to study at the Paris Law Faculty. His study of law was short-lived however and in the early 1740s, he decided to become a writer and translator; because of his refusal to enter one of the learned professions, he was disowned by his father, for the next ten years he lived a bohemian existence. In 1742, he befriended Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whom he met while watching games of chess and drinking coffee at the Café de la Régence. In 1743, he further alienated his father by marrying a devout Roman Catholic; the match was considered inappropriate due to Champion's low social standing, poor education, fatherless status, lack of a dowry. She was about three years older than Diderot; the marriage, in October 1743, produced a girl. Her name was Angélique, named after sister.
The death of his sister, a nun, in her convent may have affected Diderot's opinion of religion. She is assumed to have been the inspiration for his novel about a nun, La Religieuse, in which he depicts a woman, forced to enter a convent where she suffers at the hands of the other nuns in the community. Diderot had affairs with Mlle. Babuti, Madeleine de Puisieux, Sophie Volland and Mme de Maux, his letters to Sophie Volland are known for their candor and are regarded to be "among the literary treasures of the eighteenth century". Diderot's earliest works included a translation of Temple Stanyan's History of Greece. In 1745, he published a translation of Shaftesbury's Inquiry Concerning Virtue and Merit, to which he had added his own "reflections". In 1746, Diderot wrote his first original work: the Philosophical Thoughts. In this book, Diderot argued for a reconciliation of reason with feeling so as to establish harmony. According to Diderot, without feeling there is a detrimental effect on virtue, no possibility of creating sublime work.
However, since feeling without discipline can be destructive, reason is necessary to control feeling. At the time Diderot wrote this book. Hence there is a defense of deism in this book, some arguments against atheism; the book contains criticism of Christianity. In 1747, Diderot wrote The Skeptic's Walk in which a deist, an atheist, a pantheist have a dialogue on the nature of divinity; the deist gives the argument from design. The atheist says that the universe is better explained by physics, chemistry and motion; the pantheist says that the cosmic unity of mind and matter, which are co-eternal and comprise the universe, is God. This work remained unpublished till 1830; the local police—warned by the priests of another attack on Christianity—either seized the manuscript, or authorities forced Diderot give an undertaking that he would no
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host, held to amuse one another and to refine the taste and increase the knowledge of the participants through conversation. These gatherings consciously followed Horace's definition of the aims of poetry, "either to please or to educate". Salons in the tradition of the French literary and philosophical movements of the 17th and 18th centuries were carried on until as as the 1940s in urban settings; the salon was an Italian invention of the 16th century, which flourished in France throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. The salon continued to flourish in Italy throughout the 19th century. In 16th-century Italy, some brilliant circles formed in the smaller courts which resembled salons galvanized by the presence of a beautiful and educated patroness such as Isabella d'Este or Elisabetta Gonzaga. One important place for the exchange of ideas was the salon; the word salon first appeared in France in 1664. Literary gatherings before this were referred to by using the name of the room in which they occurred, like cabinet, réduit and alcôve.
Before the end of the 17th century, these gatherings were held in the bedroom: a lady, reclining on her bed, would receive close friends who would sit on chairs or stools drawn around. This practice may be contrasted with the greater formalities of Louis XIV's petit lever, where all stood. Ruelle meaning "narrow street" or "lane", designates the space between a bed and the wall in a bedroom; the first renowned salon in France was the Hôtel de Rambouillet not far from the Palais du Louvre in Paris, which its hostess, Roman-born Catherine de Vivonne, marquise de Rambouillet, ran from 1607 until her death. She established the rules of etiquette of the salon which resembled the earlier codes of Italian chivalry; the history of the salon is far from straightforward. The salon has been studied in depth by a mixture of feminist, cultural and intellectual historians; each of these methodologies focuses on different aspects of the salon, thus have varying analyses of its importance in terms of French history and the Enlightenment as a whole Major historiographical debates focus on the relationship between the salons and the public sphere, as well as the role of women within the salons.
Breaking down the salons into historical periods is complicated due to the various historiographical debates that surround them. Most studies stretch from the early 16th century up until around the end of the 18th century. Goodman is typical in ending her study at the French Revolution where, she writes:'the literary public sphere was transformed into the political public'. Steven Kale is alone in his recent attempts to extend the period of the salon up until Revolution of 1848:A whole world of social arrangements and attitude supported the existence of French salons: an idle aristocracy, an ambitious middle class, an active intellectual life, the social density of a major urban center, sociable traditions, a certain aristocratic feminism; this world did not disappear in 1789. In the 1920s, Gertrude Stein's Saturday evening salons gained notoriety for including Pablo Picasso and other twentieth-century luminaries like Alice B. Toklas; the content and form of the salon to some extent defines the character and historical importance of the salon.
Contemporary literature about the salons is dominated by idealistic notions of politesse, civilité and honnêteté, but whether the salons lived up to these standards is matter of debate. Older texts on the salons tend to paint an idealistic picture of the salons, where reasoned debate takes precedence and salons are egalitarian spheres of polite conversation. Today, this view is considered an adequate analysis of the salon. Dena Goodman claims that rather than being leisure based or'schools of civilité' salons were instead at'the heart of the philosophic community' and thus integral to the process of Enlightenment. In short, Goodman argues, the 17th and 18th century saw the emergence of the academic, Enlightenment salons, which came out of the aristocratic'schools of civilité'. Politeness, argues Goodman, took second-place to academic discussion; the period in which salons were dominant has been labeled the'age of conversation'. The topics of conversation within the salons - that is, what was and was not'polite' to talk about - are thus vital when trying to determine the form of the salons.
The salonnières were expected, ideally, to moderate the conversation. There is, however, no universal agreement among historians as to what was and was not appropriate conversation. Marcel Proust'insisted that politics was scrupulously avoided'. Others suggested that little other than government was discussed; the disagreements that surround the content of discussion explain why the salon's relationship with the public sphere is so contested. Individuals and collections of individuals that have been of cultural significance overwhelmingly cite some form of engaged, explorative conversation held with an esteemed group of acquaintances as the source of inspiration for their contributions to culture, art and politics, leading some scholars to posit the salon's influence on the public sphere as being more widespread than pre