Unitarianists or Unitarians were the proponents of the concept of a unitary state in Buenos Aires during the civil wars which shortly followed the Declaration of Independence of Argentina in 1816. They were opposed to the Argentine Federalists. In the Argentine War of Independence the forces of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata fought Spanish royalists who attempted to regain control of their American colonies after the Napoleonic Wars. After the victorious May Revolution of 1810, disagreements arose between the dominant province of Buenos Aires, who were known as Unitarianists, the other provinces of Argentina, known as the Federalists; these were evident at least as early as the declaration of Argentine independence in 1816. The Unitarianists lost their controlling power after the Battle of Cepeda, followed by several months of chaos. However, the Unitarianists were forced to sign a treaty with other provinces; this did not solve the conflicts between the Federalists and the Unitarians.
Under President Bernardino Rivadavia, the Unitarianists gained control for a short period of time. The Constitution of 1826 allowed for a balance between the ideas of the Unitarianists and the Federalists: “It provided for a centralized national authority while leaving the provinces with considerable local powers.” However, the constitution was rejected by provincial caudillos, military leaders, the conflict continued. Forced to resign, the Government of Buenos Aires and the Foreign relations of the country were taken over by Federalist Manuel Dorrego. However, a contingent of military led by Juan Lavalle, opposed to the peace negotiations with the Brazilian Empire after the end of the Cisplatine War took over the Buenos Aires Government and shot Dorrego at Navarro. In 1829, Juan Manuel de Rosas, the leader of a troop of Federalists, became the Governor of Buenos Aires after defeating General Juan Lavalle, forced into exile. Although Rosas was a Federalist, his following of the principles of Federalism has been questioned.
In 1830, the Unitarian League was created by General José María Paz in order to defeat the Federalists. The Federalists faced Paz and his troops on May 31, 1831 and the Unitarianists were defeated after the Gauchos captured the Unitarianist commander; the Provinces of the Unitarian League joining into the Federal Pact and the Argentine Confederation. Although the Unitarians exiled in neighboring countries, the Civil War would continue for another two decades, the Unitarians being led by Lavalle, Paz and many others. With support from Corrientes Province and the Brazilian Empire, Justo José de Urquiza, Federalist caudillo of Entre Ríos Province defeated Rosas at the Battle of Caseros on February 3, 1852. On May, the San Nicolás Agreement was signed by the provincial governors; the pact reinstated the 1831 Federal Pact original provisions for a constitutional convention. In 1853 the Autonomists of Buenos Aires broke away from the Argentine Confederation after Urquiza nationalized the customs receipts from Buenos Aires and allowed the free flow of trade on the Parana and Uruguay rivers.
In 1859 Buenos Aires was forced to accept the federal constitution of 1853 after six years of secession, after Mitre was defeated at the 1859 Battle of Cepeda by Urquiza. However, the federal constitution was "amended to allow Buenos Aires greater influence" after the ensuing 1861 Battle of Pavón. Mitre was chosen as President of a new national government. Opposition to the Unitarianists continued until 1890 under the Córdoba League. History of Argentina United Provinces of South America Bernardino Rivadavia "unitario" Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 3 Nov. 2008 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9100157>. "Cepeda, battles of" Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9022115>. Crow, John A. he Epic of Latin America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07723-2
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Juan Manuel de Rosas
Juan Manuel de Rosas, nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was a politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province and the Argentine Confederation. Although born into a wealthy family, Rosas independently amassed a personal fortune, acquiring large tracts of land in the process. Rosas enlisted his workers in a private militia, as was common for rural proprietors, took part in the disputes that led to numerous civil wars in his country. Victorious in warfare influential, with vast landholdings and a loyal private army, Rosas became a caudillo, as provincial warlords in the region were known, he reached the rank of brigadier general, the highest in the Argentine Army, became the undisputed leader of the Federalist Party. In December 1829, Rosas became governor of the province of Buenos Aires and established a dictatorship backed by state terrorism. In 1831, he signed the Federal Pact, recognising provincial autonomy and creating the Argentine Confederation; when his term of office ended in 1832, Rosas departed to the frontier to wage war on the indigenous peoples.
After his supporters launched a coup in Buenos Aires, Rosas was asked to return and once again took office as governor. Rosas reestablished his dictatorship and formed the repressive Mazorca, an armed parapolice that killed thousands of citizens. Elections became a farce, the legislature and judiciary became docile instruments of his will. Rosas created a cult of personality and his regime became totalitarian in nature, with all aspects of society rigidly controlled. Rosas faced many threats to his power during early 1840s, he fought a war against the Peru–Bolivian Confederation, endured a blockade by France, faced a revolt in his own province and battled a major rebellion that lasted for years and spread to several Argentine provinces. Rosas persevered and extended his influence in the provinces, exercising effective control over them through direct and indirect means. By 1848, he had extended his power beyond the borders of Buenos Aires and was ruler of all of Argentina. Rosas attempted to annex the neighbouring nations of Uruguay and Paraguay.
France and Great Britain jointly retaliated against Argentine expansionism, blockading Buenos Aires for most of the late 1840s, but were unable to halt Rosas, whose prestige was enhanced by his string of successes. When the Empire of Brazil began aiding Uruguay in its struggle against Argentina, Rosas declared war in August 1851, starting the Platine War; this short conflict ended with Rosas absconding to Britain. His last years were spent in exile living as a tenant farmer until his death in 1877. Rosas garnered an enduring public perception among Argentines as a brutal tyrant. Since the 1930s, an authoritarian, anti-Semitic, racist political movement in Argentina called Revisionism has tried to improve Rosas's reputation and establish a new dictatorship in the model of his regime. In 1989, his remains were repatriated by the government in an attempt to promote national unity, seeking forgiveness for him and for the 1970s military dictatorship. Rosas remains a controversial figure in Argentina in the 21st century.
Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rosas was born on 30 March 1793 at his family's town house in Buenos Aires, the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He was the first child of Agustina López de Osornio. León Ortiz was the son of an immigrant from the Spanish Province of Burgos. A military officer with an undistinguished career, León Ortiz had married into a wealthy Criollo family; the young Juan Manuel de Rosas's character was influenced by his mother Agustina, a strong-willed and domineering woman who derived these character traits from her father Clemente López de Osornio, a landowner who died defending his estate from an Indian attack in 1783. As was common practice at the time, Rosas was schooled at home until the age of 8, enrolled in what was regarded the best private school in Buenos Aires. Though befitting the son of a wealthy landowner, his education was unremarkable. According to historian John Lynch, Rosas' education "was supplemented by his own efforts in the years that followed.
Rosas was not unread, though the time, the place, his own bias limited the choice of authors. He appears to have had a sympathetic, if superficial, acquaintance with minor political thinkers of French absolutism."In 1806, a British expeditionary force invaded Buenos Aires. A 13-year-old Rosas served distributing ammunition to troops in a force organised by Viceroy Santiago Liniers to counter the invasion; the British returned a year later. Rosas was assigned to the Caballería de los Migueletes, although he was barred from active duty during this time due to illness. After the British invasions had been repelled and his family moved from Buenos Aires to their estancia, his work there further shaped his character and outlook as part of the Platine region's social establishment. In the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, owners of large landholdings provided food and protection for families living in areas under their control, their private defense forces consisted of laborers who were drafted as soldiers.
Most of these peons, as such workers were called, were gauchos. The landed aristocracy of Spanish descent considered the illiterate, mixed-race gauchos, who comprised the majority of the population, to be ungovernable and untrustworthy; the gauchos were tolerated because there was no other labor force available, but were treated with contempt by the landowners. Rosas got along well with the gauchos in his service, despite his harsh and authorit
Revolution of the Restorers
The Revolution of the Restorers was a rebellion that took place in Buenos Aires in 1833. The governor Juan Ramón Balcarce was replaced by Juan José Viamonte; the rebellion was motivated by actions taken by Balcarce against former governor Juan Manuel de Rosas. Rosas was absent from the city by that time, but the rebellion was supported by his wife Encarnación Ezcurra, it strengthened the political power of Rosas, who would become governor a second time a short time later. On October 11, 1833, Buenos Aires was filled with banners announcing a trial against Juan Manuel de Rosas. Rosas was not in the city at the time, he was instead in the south, waging the Desert Campaign; the popular reaction was immediate. José María Benavente arrived with many riders from the pampas, was followed by Cuitiño, Commander Hidalgo, José Montes de Oca, Lieutenant Cabrera, Commissars Chanteiro, Robles and others, they were known as "Restorers" because they were supporters of Rosas, known as the "Restorer of Laws". The commotion prevents the audience from taking place, all shops were closed out of fear.
Generals Pinedo and Izquierdo were ordered to lead the troops to control the demonstration, but they disobeyed and joined the demonstration as leaders instead. The quick reaction was possible because of the active intervention of Encarnación Ezcurra, wife of Rosas, she had a fluent relation with the mentioned caudillos, suspected that Balcarce may attempt to act against Rosas sooner or later. The movement secured the arsenals kept at Quilmes and Dolores; the government of Balcarce was left without military power of support. They tried to negotiate an end of hostilities, without success; the food in the city became scarce. The threat of new hostilities raised on November 1, the legislature requested an armistice. Pinedo offered requesting the resignation of Balcarce. Balcarce called an assembly to decide what to do, on the promise of having an answer by the 6:00 of the morning of the following day, he decided to accept whatever the legislature decided. The legislature removed him from office, designated Juan José Viamonte as the new governor.
The Revolution of the Restorers led to the creation of the Mazorca, which would operate during the next term of Rosas
The Slaughter Yard
The Slaughter Yard, is a short story by the Argentine poet and essayist Esteban Echeverría. It was the first Argentine work of prose fiction, it is one of the most studied texts in Latin American literature. Written in exile but published posthumously in 1871, it is an attack on the brutality of the Federalist regime of Juan Manuel Rosas and his parapolice thugs, the Mazorca; the text in the first uniform edition of Echeverría's works may be downloaded from the Internet Archive. A printed English translation by Norman Thomas di Giovanni has been published; the following is an English-language précis of the original Spanish text. The action takes place on some unspecified date in the 1830s during the season of Lent; the City of Buenos Aires has been isolated by floods. Pounding their pulpits, the preachers thunder; the floods abate but not before the city has run out of beef. The government gives orders that 50 bullocks are to be slaughtered, ostensibly to provide beef for children and the sick; the reader is given to understand that the meat is intended for privileged persons including Rosas himself and his corrupt clergy.
Echeverría proceeds to paint the slaughter yard scene in lurid colours: in the pens, the cattle stuck in the glutinous mud. On a ruinous shed there are signboards declaiming: "Long live the Federation". Presiding there is the sinister Judge of the Slaughter Yard. By order of Rosas the Judge enjoys absolute power over this collection of debased humanity. Forty-nine bullocks are slaughtered and quartered with axes. One more animal remains, but there is a suspicion that he may be no bullock, but a bull – though bulls are not allowed in the slaughter yard. Driven mad with rage by the crowd's handling, he charges. A horseman lassoes him but owing to an accident the taut lasso decapitates a child; the animal escapes and heads off to the city, pursued by a crowd, incidentally, tramples a passing Englishman. After an hour the animal is recaptured, taken back to the slaughter yard and despatched in horrific terms by the butcher Matasiete; the "bullock" is cut open and proves after all to possess an enormous pair of retracted testicles – much to the amusement of the crowd, which by now has forgotten the decapitated boy.
At this point the chief protagonist, never named but is a man of about 25, enters the scene. The crowd spots that he is a unitario, his sideburns are cut in the form of a letter U. Furthermore, his horse bears a silla or gringo saddle – in the crowd's mentality, the sure sign of the effete city slicker. Egged on by the crowd, Matasiete throws him from his horse, seizes him by the necktie and holds a dagger to his throat. "Cut his throat, Matasiete" jeers the crowd. At that point the slaughter yard Judge rides up and orders that the protagonist be taken to his shed, a rudimentary courtroom. In this room is a massive table never without glasses of grog and playing cards "unless to make room for the executions and tortures of the Federalist thugs of the slaughter yard". After the crowd has shouted threats and ribald insults the Judge orders everyone to shut up and sit down. There transpires an angry dialogue between the Judge and taunting crowd and the defiant, brave but rather high-minded protagonist.
The Judge and the crowd speak in direct, colloquial street Spanish but, the protagonist when insulting them, uses correct literary language, addressing them in the third person. At last the Judge delivers his ruling: "Drop this city slicker's underpants and give him the verge to his bald buttocks"; the reader is assumed to understand the inward significance of the word Mazorca. The protagonist is violently stretched out on the torture-table and he develops paroxysms of uncontrollable rage, demanding to have his throat cut rather than submit to this indignity. After a terrible struggle the young man dies on the spot; the Judge comments: "Poor devil. According to the American editor and Borges collaborator Norman Thomas di Giovanni, "Esteban Echeverría’s El matadero, written towards the end of the 1830s, is chronologically the first work of Argentine prose fiction…. Owing in part to its brevity – a mere 6,000 or so words – it may be the most studied school text in all Latin American literature.
It is known and acclaimed beyond the borders of Argentina."For Borges himself, who wrote a foreword to one edition, "In