I. M. Pei
Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA, RIBA known as I. M. Pei, is a Chinese American architect. Born in Guangzhou and raised in Hong Kong and Shanghai, Pei drew inspiration at an early age from the gardens at Soochow. In 1935, he moved to the United States and enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania's architecture school, but transferred to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he was unhappy with the focus at both schools on Beaux-Arts architecture, spent his free time researching emerging architects Le Corbusier. After graduating, he joined the Harvard Graduate School of Design and became a friend of the Bauhaus architects Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer. In 1948, Pei was recruited by New York City real estate magnate William Zeckendorf, for whom he worked for seven years before establishing his own independent design firm I. M. Pei & Associates in 1955, which became I. M. Pei & Partners in 1966 and in 1989 became Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Pei retired from full-time practice in 1990. Since he has taken on work as an architectural consultant from his sons' architectural firm Pei Partnership Architects.
Pei's first major recognition came with the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Colorado. His new stature led to his selection as chief architect for the John F. Kennedy Library in Massachusetts, he went on to design the East Building of the National Gallery of Art. He returned to China for the first time in 1975 to design a hotel at Fragrant Hills, designed Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, a skyscraper in Hong Kong for the Bank of China fifteen years later. In the early 1980s, Pei was the focus of controversy when he designed a glass-and-steel pyramid for the Musée du Louvre in Paris, he returned to the world of the arts by designing the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center in Dallas, the Miho Museum in Japan, the Suzhou Museum in Suzhou, Museum of Islamic Art in Qatar, the Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art, abbreviated to Mudam, in Luxembourg. Pei has won a wide variety of prizes and awards in the field of architecture, including the AIA Gold Medal in 1979, the first Praemium Imperiale for Architecture in 1989, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in 2003.
In 1983, he won. Pei's ancestry traces back to the Ming Dynasty. Finding wealth in the sale of medicinal herbs, the family stressed the importance of helping the less fortunate. Ieoh Ming Pei was born on 26 April 1917 to Tsuyee and Lien Kwun, the family moved to Hong Kong one year later; the family included five children. As a boy, Pei was close to his mother, a devout Buddhist, recognized for her skills as a flautist, she invited him to join her on meditation retreats. His relationship with his father was less intimate, their interactions were respectful but distant. Pei's ancestors' success meant that the family lived in the upper echelons of society, but Pei said his father was "not cultivated in the ways of the arts"; the younger Pei, drawn more to music and other cultural forms than to his father's domain of banking, explored art on his own. "I have cultivated myself," he said later. At the age of ten, Pei moved with his family to Shanghai. Pei attended Saint Johns Middle School, run by Protestant missionaries.
Academic discipline was rigorous. Pei enjoyed playing billiards and watching Hollywood movies those of Buster Keaton and Charlie Chaplin, he learned rudimentary English skills by reading the Bible and novels by Charles Dickens. Shanghai's many international elements gave it the name "Paris of the East"; the city's global architectural flavors had a profound influence on Pei, from the Bund waterfront area to the Park Hotel, built in 1934. He was impressed by the many gardens of Suzhou, where he spent the summers with extended family and visited a nearby ancestral shrine; the Shizilin Garden, built in the 14th century by a Buddhist monk, was influential. Its unusual rock formations, stone bridges, waterfalls remained etched in Pei's memory for decades, he spoke of his fondness for the garden's blending of natural and human-built structures. Soon after the move to Shanghai, Pei's mother developed cancer; as a pain reliever, she was prescribed opium, assigned the task of preparing her pipe to Pei. She died shortly after his thirteenth birthday, he was profoundly upset.
The children were sent to live with extended family. Pei said: "My father began living his own separate life pretty soon after that." His father married a woman named Aileen, who moved to New York in her life. As Pei, neared the end of his secondary education, he decided to study at a university, he decided to enroll at the University of Pennsylvania. Pei's choice had two roots. While studying in Shanghai, he had examined the catalogs for various institutions of higher learning around the world; the architectural program at the University of Pennsylvania stood out to him. The other major factor was Hollywood. Pei was fascinated by the representations of college life in the films of Bing Crosby, which differed tremendously from the academic atmosphere in China. "College life in the U. S. seemed to me to be fun and games", he said in 2000. "Since I was too young to be serious, I wanted to be part of it... You could get a feeling for it in Bing Crosby's movies. College life in America seemed
JPMorgan Chase Tower (Houston)
The JPMorgan Chase Tower Texas Commerce Tower, is a 305.4-meter, 2,243,013-square-foot, 75-story skyscraper at 600 Travis Street in Downtown Houston, United States. It is the tallest building in the city, the tallest building in Texas, the tallest five-sided building in the world, the 19th-tallest building in the United States, the 107th-tallest building in the world; the tower was built between 1981 as the Texas Commerce Tower. It was designed by noted architects I. M. Partners. In some early plans, the building reached up to 80 stories. Nonetheless, when it was completed, it was the eighth-tallest building in the world; the building was developed as part of a partnership between Texas Commerce Bank and Khalid bin Mahfouz. It was built on the site. Upon its completion, the building surpassed Aon Center in Los Angeles to become the tallest building in the United States west of the Mississippi River, a title it held until Los Angeles's Library Tower, now known as the U. S. Bank Tower, was built in 1990.
JPMorgan Chase Tower is not connected to the Houston Downtown Tunnel System. This system forms a network of subterranean, climate-controlled, pedestrian walkways that link twenty-five full city blocks; the lobby of JPMorgan Chase Tower has been designed to harmonize not only with the height of the structure but with the portico of Jones Hall, home of the Houston Symphony Orchestra, which occupies the city block to the west. For that reason, a five-story glass wall supported by a stainless steel space frame spans the entire 85-foot width of the front entrance, making the lobby area light and airy, opening up the space to the plaza outside.. The Tower includes 22,000 square feet of retail space; the sky lobby observation deck is located on the 60th floor. The sky lobby acts as a transfer point for persons traveling to the upper floors, but as an observation deck for the building tenants; the sky lobby is only accessible by tenants. In the large plaza area at the entrance of the building is a multi-colored sculpture entitled "Personage with Birds", designed by painter and sculptor Joan Miró, and, installed in the plaza in early 1982.
While the tower's name reflects the bank JPMorgan Chase, the only space designated to Chase is a single branch office on the bottom floor. The tower is managed by its original owner, Hines Interests. On September 13, 2008, many of the tower's windows were blown out as Hurricane Ike struck the city, leaving desks exposed, metal blinds hanging in twisted heaps, smoky black glass covering the streets below. Police were forced to cordon off the area due to the amount of debris in the streets. At first, it was speculated that the glass came off the building due to impact from debris or due to high-speed winds in the confined spaces. However, flying glass debris must be governed by drag and lift forces that overcome gravity for a considerable time period; the high-wind-speed-in-confined-spaces theory is not justified since the height of damage seen in the tower exceeded too the height of the Chase Center parking garage next to the tower. This theory was proposed; this drop in pressure at the side and leeward walls, combined with the normal, higher pressure inside the building would result in a force that could overcome design pressures causing the window to separate.
Other theories included those of ABS Consulting Engineers, who suggested that glazing damage may have been produced by "organized" vortices produced by the upwind Calpine Center and steady vortices between the Tower and the Chase Center parking garage. The NatHaz Modeling Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame is conducting an investigation of the flow field around the structure, modeling the tower and the immediate area surrounding it using computational fluid dynamics. Preliminary findings suggest that the localized damage is the result of a confluence of multiple mechanisms arising from the arrangement of nearby buildings, critical flow directionality and the possible entrapment of debris within evolving flow structures. List of tallest buildings in Houston List of tallest buildings by U. S. state List of tallest buildings in Texas List of tallest buildings in the United States Gulf Building JP Morgan Chase Tower Official Site Video of the after effects of Hurricane Ike on the JPMorgan Chase Tower
Dallas City Hall
Dallas City Hall is the seat of municipal government of the city of Dallas, United States. It is located at 1500 Marilla in the Government District of downtown Dallas; the current building, the city's fifth city hall, was completed in 1978 and replaced the Dallas Municipal Building. The City of Dallas' idea for a centralized municipal center began when city planning consultants Harland Bartholomew & Associates presented their ideas in 1944; the idea was to relocate from the current Dallas Municipal Building to a grand Beaux-Arts complex of city and federal offices, a convention center and cultural facilities. Two sites downtown were possible contenders: one north centered on Federal Street and Akard, one south centered on Young Street. Plans proceeded until cost estimates shocked city leaders and the plan was shelved, although land at the southern site was acquired by the city for future use; the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy turned the world against the city, as Dallas became known as the "City of Hate".
Dallas Mayor Erik Jonsson made it a priority to reinvent the city's image, the "Goals for Dallas" program was enacted to accomplish this. One of goals, Design of the City, was summarized by the statement, "We demand a city of beauty and functional fitness that embraces the quality of life for all its people." This was the start of the movement to create a new modern City Hall and municipal center. Planning for the Dallas Municipal Center commenced in 1964 when the Dallas City Council appointeda Citizen's City Hall Site Committee to select an appropriate location for new municipal administration offices; the mayor was involved with the project, a committee of prominent citizens settled on I. M. Pei to design the new facility. Construction began on June 1972 under the direction of contractor Robert E. McKee and Pei; the project was completed in three phases. The City accepted the garage parking areas in November 1974; the cost of design and construction of the building, the Park Plaza and the garage was over $70 million.
Controversies arose over cost overruns and aesthetic issues, though most problems were addressed and work moved on to completion. The first Dallas City Council meeting was held in the building's City Council Chamber on February 1, 1978, the entire facility was formally opened and dedicated on March 12, 1978; when you do a city hall, it has to convey an image of the people, this had to represent the people of Dallas... The people I met – rich and poor and not so powerful – were all proud of their city, they felt that Dallas was the greatest city there was, I could not disappoint them. – I. M. Pei I. M. Pei's modernist inverted pyramid design is a result of space requirements from city government. Public areas and citizen services required much less space than offices that ran the government and overhanging the upper floors allowed them to be larger than the public spaces below; the building slopes at a 34° angle, with each of the 7 above-grade floors being 9½ feet wider than the one below. This inclined façade interacts with the buildings it faces downtown and provides protection from the weather and Texas sun.
The foundation and basement levels are wider than the apparent footprint of the structure, extending out beneath the inclined facade. The cantilevered roof is 200 feet wide, the ground floor is 126 feet wide, the basement 230 feet wide; when Mayor Jonsson reacted to the apparent top-heaviness of the building's shape, 3 cylindrical pillars that appear the hold up the structure were created. These contain stairwells, concealed within the design; these pillars only do not bear the load of the building. Pei persuaded the city to acquire an additional 6 acres in front of the building as a plaza and buffer zone for his grand public structure. A 1,325 car parking garage was built beneath the plaza, the extra income helped supplement the funding of the building. A buff-colored concrete was chosen for the main building material. Since concrete was both the primary structural and finish material, close attention was paid to every aspect of its mix and placement; the design of Dallas City Hall inspired the J. Erik Jonsson Central Library building located across the street – whereas the upper floors of City Hall are oriented toward Marilla Street, the upper floors of the Central Library are oriented away from Marilla.
The building features as the Headquarters of the OCP company. City Hall contained 1,400 workstations when it opened in 1978, it had few floor-to-ceiling walls, using instead five-, six-, seven-foot-high partitions to create separate offices. The absence of walls allowed visitors to have window views from all areas; the second floor of Dallas City Hall is referred to as the Great Court because of its 250-foot length and the uninterrupted height to the vaulted ceiling 100 feet above. The Park Plaza is two blocks long and one block wide and is bounded by Young, Ervay and Akard streets; the Plaza includes a 180-foot -diameter reflecting pool, a variable-height fountain, park benches and three distinctive 84-foot -high flagpoles. The Plaza is landscaped with trees native to Texas: red oaks; the reflective pool contains large floating sculptures designed by artist Marta Pan. A 16-foot -high by 24-foot -wide, three-piece sculpture titled "The Dallas Pi
Society Hill is a historic neighborhood in Center City Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with a population of 6,215 as of the 2010 United States Census. Settled in the early 1680s, Society Hill is one of the oldest residential neighborhoods in Philadelphia. After urban decay developed between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, an urban renewal program began in the 1950s, restoring the area and its many historic buildings. Society Hill has since become one of the most expensive neighborhoods with the highest average income and second highest real estate values in Philadelphia. Society Hill's historic colonial architecture, along with intelligent planning and restoration efforts, led the American Planning Association to designate it, in 2008, as one of the great American neighborhoods and a good example of sustainable urban living; the neighborhood contains one of the largest concentrations of original 18th- and early 19th-century buildings in the United States. Society Hill is noted for its Franklin street lamps, brick sidewalks and Belgian block streets bordered by two- to four-story brick rowhouses in Federal and Georgian architecture, public buildings in Greek Revival architecture such as the Merchants' Exchange Building and the Old Pine Street Church.
Society Hill is named after the 17th-century Free Society of Traders, which had its offices at Front Street on the hill above Dock Creek. The Free Society of Traders was a company of elite merchants and personal associates of William Penn who were granted special concessions in order to direct the economy of the young colony. Society Hill was known as the Dock Ward, an appropriate designation until the post-World War II period when the shipping industry declined and relocated; the Dock Ward, first defined in 1705, was one of the ten original wards that the city used to subdivide land east of 7th Street. As part of the 1854 Act of Consolidation, the Dock Ward was renamed the 5th Ward; the wards were realigned in 1965 and the boundaries of the 5th Ward no longer correspond to Society Hill's boundaries. The land area of Society Hill is 0.254 square miles. Bordering the Delaware River just south of Old City and Independence Hall, Society Hill is loosely defined as bounded by Walnut, Front and 8th Streets.
The Society Hill Civic Association further subdivides Society Hill along Spruce Street and 4th Street into quadrants by intercardinal directions: northeast, southeast and northwest. Across different sources, variation in the exact border includes extending the eastern boundary to the Delaware River, the southern border to South Street, the northern border to Chestnut Street, or limiting the western border to 7th Street. With prime access to the Delaware River and Philadelphia's civic buildings, including Independence Hall, the neighborhood became one of the most populous areas in colonial Philadelphia. Several market halls and churches were built alongside brick houses of Philadelphia's affluent citizens. After the Revolutionary War, the polluted Dock Creek—which had been used as a public sewer—became Dock Street when the city filled in the creek and created a new food distribution market. Though the streets of Philadelphia were laid out in a grid, the new Dock Street’s arc connecting Chestnut and Spruce Streets between 2nd and 3rd, owes its uncharacteristic shape to the path of the former creek as it ran to the river.
In the 19th century, the city expanded westward and the area lost its appeal. Houses deteriorated, by the 1940s, Society Hill had become a slum neighborhood, one of the worst in the city. In the 1950s, the city and federal governments began one of the first urban renewal programs aimed at the preservation of historic buildings. While most commercial 19th-century buildings were demolished, historically-significant houses were restored by occupants or taken over by the Philadelphia Redevelopment Authority and sold to individuals who agreed to restore the exteriors. Replicas of 18th-century street lights and brick sidewalks were added to enhance the colonial atmosphere. Empty lots and demolished buildings were replaced with parks and modern townhouses. From 1957-1959, the Greater Philadelphia Movement, the Redevelopment Authority and the Old Philadelphia Development Corporation bought 31 acres around Dock Street, they demolished and relocated the Dock Street market, setting aside 5 acres of land that would become the Society Hill Towers.
In 1957, Edmund Bacon, the executive director of the Philadelphia City Planning Commission, awarded developer-architect firm Webb and Knapp the competition for the redevelopment of Society Hill. Architect I. M. Pei and his team designed a plan for three 31-story Society Hill Towers and low-rise buildings; the Towers and townhouses project was completed in 1964, while the entire plan was completed in 1977. Architect Louis Sauer designed dozens of rowhouse projects for the area around Society Hill, including Waverly Court and Penn's Landing Square. Historic buildings in Society Hill include the Society Hill Synagogue, built in 1829 as a Baptist church by Philadelphia architect Thomas Ustick Walter, one of the architects of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. The synagogue was entered into the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. Another notable building is St. Peter's Church, constructed between 1761 by Robert Smith. Congregation Kesher Israel occupies and has renovated the building constructed by the Universalist Church in 1796 at 412 Lombard Street.
The Society Hill Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. In 1999, it was listed on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,215 people residing in So
One Dallas Center
One Dallas Center is a modernist skyscraper located in the City Center District of downtown Dallas, completed in 1979. The building rises 448 feet. One Dallas Center is tied with the Sheraton Dallas Hotel North Tower as the 25th-tallest building in the city; the building was planned as part of a three-building complex designed by I. M. Pei & Partners, but only one tower was constructed. One Dallas Center is now owned by houses HKS Inc.. Greyhound HQ, Apex Clearing Corporation; the first 15 floors of the high rise are renovated office space, while the top 15 floors are luxury apartment homes scheduled to be delivered by October 2014. One Dallas Center is professionally managed by Lincoln Property Company. One Dallas Center was announced by developer Vince Carrozza in 1977 as the first phase of a US$200 million mixed-use development. Phase One included the 500-space parking garage across Bryan Street. Two Dallas Center, adjacent to the south of One Dallas Center, was to include a 21-story, 500 room hotel above 30 floors of office space.
The third phase would have consisted of a 400-unit luxury apartment complex across Harwood Street, on land now occupied by the Sheraton Dallas Hotel convention facility. All parts were to be connected by the expanded Dallas Pedestrian Network. During construction in 1977 a crane fell 27 stories from the roof and crashed to the ground, killing a worker, injuring others, punching several holes in the side of the tower. One Dallas Center opened in 1979. In 1985 the building was purchased by Trammell Crow, who owned a large share of adjacent office space at the time, it changed ownership again during the 1990s. In 2007 Younan Properties Inc. changed the name to Patriot Tower. The company planned a $10 million renovation and addition of a war memorial museum in the building's lobby. In 2012 the building sold to new owners, who plan to convert the upper 17 floors into apartments and renovate the lower levels. One Dallas Center was designed by architect Henry N. Cobb of I. M. Pei & Partners to play with the site rather than fill the entire block.
The building's diamond shape relates to the geometry of the city's diagonally intersecting street grids where nearby Live Oak Street intersects downtown's grid at a 30-degree angle. Placement of the building was considered to relate to nearby structures and provide green space around building entrances. Two Dallas Center, never constructed, was to be a chevron-shaped building integrating unique angles; the two triangular notches on the sides of One Dallas Center create added interest and provide four additional corner offices on each floor. The exterior of the building was designed with two-thirds of the facade covered in aluminum instead of highly-reflective glass; this helps conserve energy while complementing the style of the adjacent Republic Center. One Design Center has an extensive permanent collection of art which includes works by Dallas-based artist, JD Miller. List of tallest buildings and structures in Dallas Patriot Tower on Emporis Patriot Tower on SkyscraperPage
Town Center East
Town Center East is an apartment complex in the Southwest quadrant of Washington, D. C. built in 1960–1961. The twin apartment buildings are across the street from Town Center West. Town Center East, as well as the plaza as a whole, was designed by I. M. Pei on behalf of William Zeckendorf, who worked with the firm Webb and Knapp; the development of Town Center East was part of a broader redevelopment of Southwest Washington, D. C. that included the construction of L'Enfant Plaza. The city's Redevelopment Land Agency had awarded Zeckendorf an exclusive-rights agreement to redevelop Southwest in 1954, in 1956 the original plans were developed; the plan changed in the following years, due in part to operational difficulties at Webb and Knapp, the plan for a more grandiose development was scaled back to the two apartment complexes and one building of the retail center, the retail center not being built until the early 1970s. Town Center East was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 15, 2014
American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D. C. the AIA offers education, government advocacy, community redevelopment, public outreach to support the architecture profession and improve its public image. The AIA works with other members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry; the AIA is headed by Robert Ivy, FAIA as EVP/Chief Executive Officer and William J. Bates, FAIA as 2019 AIA President; the American Institute of Architects was founded in New York City in 1857 by a group of 13 architects to "promote the scientific and practical perfection of its members" and "elevate the standing of the profession." This initial group included Charles Babcock, Henry W. Cleaveland, Henry Dudley, Leopold Eidlitz, Edward Gardiner, Richard Morris Hunt, Fred A. Petersen, Jacob Wrey Mould, John Welch, Richard M. Upjohn and Joseph C. Wells, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president.
They met on February 23, 1857, decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Walter, Calvert Vaux. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect, as there were no schools of architecture or architectural licensing laws in the United States, they drafted a constitution and bylaws by March 10, 1857, under the name New York Society of Architects. Thomas U. Walter, of Philadelphia suggested the name be changed to American Institute of Architects; the members signed the new constitution on April 15, 1857, having filed a certificate of incorporation two days earlier. The constitution was amended the following year with the mission "to promote the artistic and practical profession of its members. Architects in other cities were asking to join in the 1860s, by the 1880s chapters had been formed in Albany, Boston, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Rhode Island, San Francisco, St. Louis, Washington, D. C; as of 2008, AIA had more than 300 chapters.
The AIA is headquartered at 1735 New York Avenue, NW in Washington, D. C. A design competition was held in the mid-1960s to select an architect for a new AIA headquarters in Washington. Mitchell/Giurgola won the design competition but failed to get approval of the design concept from the United States Commission of Fine Arts; the firm resigned the commission and helped select The Architects Collaborative to redesign the building. The design, led by TAC principals Norman Fletcher and Howard Elkus, was approved in 1970 and completed in 1973. In honor of the 150th anniversary of the organization, the building was formally renamed in 2007 the "American Center for Architecture" and is home to the American Institute of Architecture Students, the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture and the National Architectural Accrediting Board. More than 90,000 licensed architects and associated professionals are members. AIA members adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct intended to assure clients, the public, colleagues of an architect's dedication to the highest standards in professional practice.
There are five levels of membership in the AIA: Architect members are licensed to practice architecture by a licensing authority in the United States. Associate members are not licensed to practice architecture but they are working under the supervision of an architect in a professional or technical capacity, have earned professional degrees in architecture, are faculty members in a university program in architecture, or are interns earning credit toward licensure. International associate members hold an architecture license or the equivalent from a licensing authority outside the United States. Emeritus members have been AIA members for 15 successive years and are at least 70 years of age or are incapacitated and unable to work in the architecture profession. Allied members are individuals whose professions are related to the building and design community, such as engineers, landscape architects, or planners. Allied membership is a partnership with the American Architectural Foundation. There is no National AIA membership category for students, but they can become members of the American Institute of Architecture Students and many local and state chapters of the AIA have student membership categories.
The AIA's most prestigious honor is the designation of a member as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. This membership is awarded to members who have made contributions of national significance to the profession. More than 2,600, or 2% of all members, have been elevated to the AIA College of Fellows. Foreign architects of prominence may be elected to the College as Honorary Fellows of the AIA; the AIA has a staff of more than 200 employees. Although the AIA functions as a national organization, its 217 local and state chapters provide members with programming and direct services to support them throughout their professional lives; the chapters cover the entirety of its territories. Components operate in the United Kingdom, Continental Europe, the Middle East, Hong Kong and Canada. By speaking with a united voice, AIA architects influence government practices that affect the practice of the profession and the quality of American life; the AIA monitors legislative and regulator