Hopperstad Stave Church
Hopperstad Stave Church is a stave church, just outside the village of Vikøyri in Vik Municipality, Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. The church is owned by the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Norwegian Monuments; the two old parishes of Hopperstad and Hove was abolished in 1875, replaced by the new, Vik parish. The new Vik Church was finished in 1877, the two middle age churches of Hopperstad and Hove have since been museum churches. Vik parish is a part of Indre Sogn deanery in the Diocese of Bjørgvin; the stave church is assumed to have been built around 1130 and still stands at its original location. In 1997, a series of samples from the logs were collected for dendrochronological dating of the church. A total of seven samples produced an estimate for the construction ranging from 1034 to 1116 and resulted in no definite conclusion; the only possible conclusion is. About 700 years after its construction the church was abandoned and its exterior stripped; the church was in poor condition for many years until the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Norwegian Monuments purchased the building in 1880.
Using the Borgund Stave Church as a model, architect Peter Andreas Blix reconstructed the church between 1884 and 1891. During the reconstruction carved sections were found beneath the floor which indicates that the new church replaced an older church, built in the latter half of the 11th century; the church had not undergone any major changes until the 17th century. At that time the nave was lengthened to the west, a bell-tower was added above the new extension. To the east a log section was added, a new vestibule to the south with its own entrance; the largest addition came to the north with a log construction, named the new church. The constructions were finalized in the 18th century, but removed in around 1875. There are no known images of the interior from this time, but a story written by the priest Niels Dahl, assumed to have visited the church in 1824, describes the interior; the church has galleries at three levels around all of the walls, that the church with staircases up to the galleries.
And the font is placed under the medieval baldaquin. And the walls are painted by numerous quotes from the Holy Scripture in vivid colours; the church is a triple-nave stave church of. It has three portals, the western portal is an excellent example of Middle Age wood carving; the motifs are of a romance character associated with European influence. The nave is a raised central room with an aisle around it, the choir is apsidal and narrower than the nave; the church contains an altar dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 14th-century ciborium with a baldachin on the north side. The ciborium has four sculptured heads, that of Christ with a halo, a queen, a king, a monk; the roof of the baldachin bears a painting of the birth of Christ. There is a replica of the Hopperstad reconstruction at the Heritage Hjemkomst Center in the city of Moorhead in the state of Minnesota in the United States, it was consecrated in 1998. Hopperstad stave church at stavkirke.info Hopperstad stave church at Fortidsminneforeningen Fortidsminneforeninga's stave church pages
Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage
The Directorate for Cultural Heritage is a government agency responsible for the management of cultural heritage in Norway. Subordinate to the Norwegian Ministry of the Environment, it manages the Cultural Heritage Act of June 9, 1978; the directorate has responsibilities under the Norwegian Planning and Building Law. The directorate for Cultural Heritage Management is responsible for management on the national level. At the regional level the county municipalities are responsible for the management in their county; the Sami Parliament is responsible for management og Sámi heritage. On the island of Svalbard the Governor of Svalbard has management responsibilities. For archaeological excavations there are five chartered archeological museums; the work with cultural heritage started in the early 1900s, the first laws governing heritage findings came in 1905, with the first law protecting heritage buildings appearing in 1920. The post as National Antiquarian was established in 1912; when the Ministry of the Environment was created in 1972 the responsibility was transferred there, the current law for cultural heritage is dated June 9, 1978, replacing the two older laws.
The post was made a directorate on July 1, 1988. 1912–1913 Herman Major Schirmer 1913–1946 Harry Fett 1946–1958 Arne Nygård-Nilssen 1958–1977 Roar Hauglid 1978–1991 Stephan Tschudi-Madsen 1991–1997 Øivind Lunde 1997–2009 Nils Marstein 2009–2009 Sjur Helseth 2009–2018 Jørn Holme 2018 present Hanna Geiran
Nicolay Nicolaysen was a Norwegian archaeologist and Norway's first state employed antiquarian. He is arguably best known for his excavations of the ship burial at Gokstad in 1880. Nicolay Nicolaysen was a founding member of the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Norwegian Monuments, of which he was president from 1851 to 1899, he took active part in the restoration of the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim and of the Hall of Haakon IV in Bergen. He was active in the founding the National Museum of Art and Design and was a proponent of the Norwegian National Academy of Craft and Art Industry. In 1852, Nicolaysen led the first investigations at the Borre mound cemetery in Vestfold; the excavations uncovered an extensive selection of craft work of a stylistic form which has subsequently become known as the Borre style. Many of the artefacts recovered during these excavations are presently on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo. Nicolaysen carried out excavations of Munkeliv Abbey located at Nordnes in Bergen in 1857 and 1860.
Here, well-crafted structural fragments were recovered. These can be found on display in the Museum of Cultural History, part of Bergen Museum, include a marble head of Øystein Magnusson; the first excavations of the Kaupang area were undertaken in 1867. Nicolaysen mapped one of the mound cemeteries around the former town, he excavated 79 burial mounds, he did not, investigate the urban settlement associated with the cemeteries. Excavations indicate that Kaupang was one of the first urban settlements of some significance in Norway. Nicolay Nicolaysen is most famous for excavating the Gokstad ship burial at Gokstad farm in Sandar, Vestfold in 1880; the ship, together with a burial chamber, two small boats and two tent boards from the burial chamber are displayed in the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo. Kunst og Haandverk fra Norges Fortid, Foreningen til norske Mindesmærker af Middelalderens Kunst i Norge Norske Magasin. Skrifter og Optegnelser, angaaende Norge og forfattede efter Reformationen Norske Stiftelser.
Samling af Fundatser, Testamenter og Gavebreve, samt historisk-statistiske Efterretninger vedkommende milde Stiftelser i Kongeriget Norge Absalon Pederssøn. Liber Capituli Bergensis Norske Bygninger fra Fortiden Norske Fornlevninger Om Throndhjems Domkirke Bergens Borgerbog 1550–1751 Om den gamle Bygningsskik i Solør og Østerdalen, i Folkevennen Nicolaysen, Nicolay. "Udgravninger i Løiten 1881". Aarsberetning for 1881. Foreningen til Norske Fortidsmindesmerkers Bevaring: 68–80. Langskibet fra Gokstad ved Sandefjord Om Relikviegjemmer i norske Kirker Stavanger Domkirke og de nærmest omliggende Bygninger Lidén, Hans-Emil, Nicolay Nicolaysen, Et blad av norsk kulturminneverns historie, Oslo 2005. ISBN 82-7935-187-6
Urnes Stave Church
Urnes Stave Church is a 12th-century stave church at Ornes, along the Lustrafjorden in the municipality of Luster in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. It sits on the eastern side of the fjord, directly across the fjord from the village of Solvorn and about 5 kilometres east of the village of Hafslo, it has been owned by Fortidsminneforeningen since 1881. In 1979, the Urnes Stave Church was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO; the church was built around 1130 or shortly thereafter, still stands in its original location. It provides a link between Christian architecture and the architecture and artforms of the Viking Age with typical animal-ornamentation, the so-called "Urnes style" of animal-art. Archaeological investigations have discovered the remains of three churches on the site prior to the current building; the excavations uncovered holes in the ground from earth-bound posts which had belonged to an early post church, a type of church with walls supported by short sills inserted between free-standing posts.
It is not known if this church had a raised roof above the central space of the nave like the present church. The earliest possible dating of this church is the early eleventh century. In the 17th century the nave of the church, a raised central room surrounded by an aisle, was extended southwards. Other elements were added to the church, including a baptismal font, a wooden canopy above the altar and a pulpit; the altarpiece, which depicts Christ on the cross with the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist, dates from 1699. Windows were added to the church in the 18th century; the church has not been in ordinary use since 1881, when the parish of Urnes was abolished, it became a part of Solvorn parish in the Indre Sogn deanery of the Diocese of Bjørgvin. It is now only used for special occasions in the parish such as weddings; the portal and other details of the north wall of the present church, as well as the wall planks of the gables, are decorated in classic Urnes-style. They are relics from one of the earlier churches.
It has been speculated that the portal may have been the main portal, facing west. There have been numerous attempts to interpret the decoration of the church's most remarkable part, the old portal in the northern wall; the images are considered to represent a snake curling upwards. At the lower end there is an animal with four feet biting the snake. A common interpretation of this scene is that it portrays the eternal fight between evil; the animal is believed to be a stylised lion. In Christian iconography the lion is a symbol of Christ, fighting the evil symbolized by the snake, a common representation of Satan. On the other hand, it is possible that the decoration of the earlier church featured some scenes from Norse mythology, a reason for its premature reconstruction in the 12th century. In this context, the animal may be interpreted as Níðhöggr eating the roots of Yggdrasil. "The intertwined snakes and dragons represent the end of the world according to the Norse legend of Ragnarök." The church is built with a narrower choir.
The nave and choir both have raised central spaces. The choir was extended to the east in the 17th century, but this addition was removed; the drawing by Johan Christian Dahl depicts this, as well as the deteriorated state of the church at that time. During the 20th century the church underwent a restoration, the richly decorated wall planks were covered to stop further deterioration. A large number of medieval constructive elements remain in situ: ground beams, corner posts, wall planks and aisle wall plates; the construction of the raised central area with staves and cross braces, the roof itself date from medieval times. From the previous church on the site remain, in addition to the portal, two wall planks in the northern wall, the corner post of the choir, the western gable of the nave and the eastern gable of the choir. Krogh, Knud J.: Urnesstilens kirke – Forgængeren for den nuværende kirke på Urnes. Oslo. ISBN 978-82-530-3400-3 This article is based on a translation of the corresponding article from the Norwegian Wikipedia, retrieved on 14 April 2005 and updated on 15 October 2005.
Media related to Urnes stavkirke at Wikimedia Commons Urnes stave church in Stavkirke.info — in Norwegian Urnes stave church in Fortidsminneforeningen — in Norwegian Fortidsminneforeningens stave church pages — in Norwegian Description and pictures of Urnes stave church — in Dutch
Uvdal Stave Church
Uvdal Stave Church is situated at Uvdal in the valley Numedal in Nore og Uvdal in Buskerud, Norway. The stave church was constructed just after the year 1168, known through dendrochronological dating of the ore-pine used in the construction; the logs were not dry when the construction took place. An archeological excavation that took place during 1978 showed that the church was built on the remains of a previous church, it is thought to have been made with the use of embedded corner column technology at the beginning of the 11th century. Churches made during the 12th century were very small no more than 40 square meters, were therefore expanded during the Middle Ages and just before and after the Reformation, which took place during 1537 in Norway; the nave of the church was first expanded to the west during the Middle Ages, when the original apse of the chancel was removed and the chancel itself elongated. Again, during that period, an extra center column was added; the chancel was torn down again in 1684, when a new and wider chancel was made, with the same width as the nave.
During the period 1721–1723, the church was made into a cruciform. A new ridge turret had to be made. In 1819, a new vestry was added to the north wall of the chancel; the exterior walls were paneled in 1760. Benches with ornately decorated sidewalls were added to the nave in 1624; the oldest part of the interior was richly ornately decorated by painting during 1656, the expansions during 1684 and 1723. Two scary halfmasks are quite visible on the poles of the chancel, according to myth they were able to capture demons; the church survives today as museum piece, owned by Fortidsminneforeningen, which happens to own several other stave churches that survive. The church was taken out of use in 1893; as of June 2016, photographing of the decorated interior was allowed. In the late nineties the local internet site Numedalsnett was allowed to shoot a short interior video with minimum equipment and lightning; the video clip is available on YouTube. Leif Anker The Norwegian Stave Churches ISBN 978-8291399294 Uvdal Stave Church Uvdal Stave Church in Norwegian Uvdal Stave Church - interior shots on Youtube Uvdal Stave Church in a video about stave churches in Numedal — in English
Sunnmøre is the southernmost traditional district of the western Norwegian county of Møre og Romsdal. Its main city is Ålesund; the region comprises the municipalities of Giske, Herøy, Sande, Haram, Stranda, Sykkylven, Vanylven, Volda, Ørskog, Ørsta, Ålesund. Though it is one of the three traditional districts in Møre og Romsdal, Sunnmøre is home to more than half the population of the county—with 130,601 of the 247,313 residents; the district is made up of mainland as well as several large islands such as Gurskøy and Hareidlandet, plus many small islands. While Sunnmøre has no formal administration, many national organizations chose to have separate divisions for Sunnmøre. For example, the Football Association of Norway has a separate Regional Association for Sunnmøre, separate from Nordmøre and Romsdal; this is true for the national police. All municipalities in Sunnmøre have adopted Nynorsk as their form of the Norwegian language, with the exception of Ålesund municipality, which has declared itself to be "neutral", though all of the education in Ålesund is conducted using Bokmål.
There are many local newspapers throughout Sunnmøre, as well as one that aims to cover the entire region, published from Ålesund, called Sunnmørsposten. The major urban centres of Sunnmøre are: Ny-Sunnmøre Romsdal Nordmøre
Johan Christian Dahl
Johan Christian Claussen Dahl known as J. C. Dahl or I. C. Dahl, was a Norwegian artist, considered the first great romantic painter in Norway, the founder of the "golden age" of Norwegian painting, one of the greatest European artists of all time, he is described as "the father of Norwegian landscape painting" and is regarded as the first Norwegian Painter to reach a level of artistic accomplishment comparable to that attained by the greatest European artists of his day. He was the first to acquire genuine fame and cultural renown abroad; as one critic has put it, "J. C. Dahl occupies a central position in Norwegian artistic life of the first half of the 19th century. Although Dahl spent much of his life outside of Norway, his love for his country is clear in the motifs he chose for his paintings and in his extraordinary efforts on behalf of Norwegian culture generally. Indeed, if one sets aside his own monumental artistic creations, his other activities on behalf of art and culture would still have guaranteed him a place at the heart of the artistic and cultural history of Norway.
He was, for example, a key figure in the founding of the Norwegian National Gallery and of several other major art institutions in Norway, as well as in the preservation of Norwegian stave churches and the restoration of the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim and Håkonshallen in Bergen. Dahl came from a simple background – his father was a modest fisherman in Bergen, Norway – and he would look back at his youth with bitterness, he regretted that he never had a "real teacher" in his childhood and, despite all his spectacular success, he believed that if he had been more fortunate in his birth, he would have achieved more than he had. As a boy, Dahl was educated by a sympathetic mentor at the Bergen Cathedral who at first thought that this bright student would make a good priest, but recognizing his remarkably precocious artistic ability, arranged for him to be trained as an artist. From 1803 to 1809 Dahl studied with the painter Johan Georg Müller, whose workshop was the most important one in Bergen at the time.
Still, Dahl looked back on his teacher as having kept him in ignorance in order to exploit him, putting him to work painting theatrical sets and views of Bergen and its surroundings. Another mentor, Lyder Sagen, showed the aspiring artist books about art and awakened his interest in historical and patriotic subjects, it was Sagen who took up a collection that made it possible for Dahl to go to Copenhagen in 1811 to complete his education at the academy there. As important as Dahl's studies at the academy in Copenhagen were his experiences in the surrounding countryside and in the city's art collections. In 1812 he wrote to Sagen that the landscape artists he most wished to emulate were Ruisdahl and Everdingen, for that reason he was studying “nature above all,” Dahl's artistic program was already in place: he would become a part of the great landscape tradition, but he would be as faithful as possible to nature itself. Dahl held that a landscape painting should not just depict a specific view, but should say something about the land's nature and character – the greatness of its past and the life and work of its current inhabitants.
The mood was idyllic melancholy. When he added snow to a landscape he painted in the summer, it was not to show the light and colors of snow; as one critic has put it, “Unlike the radically Romantic works appearing at the time, Dahl softens his landscape, introducing elements of genre painting by imbuing it with anecdotal materials: In the background a wisp of smoke rises from a cabin the home of the hunter on the snow-covered field.” Thanks to Sagen's recommendations and to his own personal charm, Dahl soon gained access to the leading social circles in Copenhagen. Dahl took part in annual art exhibitions in Copenhagen beginning in 1812, but his real breakthrough came in 1815, when he exhibited no fewer than 13 paintings. Prince Christian Frederik of Denmark, who developed an early interest in Dahl's artistic genius and saw to it that his works were purchased for the royal collection, became a lifelong friend and patron of the artist. In 1816 C. W. Eckersberg returned from abroad with his paintings of Roman settings.
Dahl's 1817 painting “Den Store Kro i Fredensborg” marked the real beginning of his lifelong production of oil paintings depicting natural subjects. After his success in Copenhagen, Dahl realized that he wanted to live as an independent, self-supporting artist. One challenge facing him was that the academic preference of the day was for historical paintings with moral messages. Landscapes were considered the lowest kind of art, even not as art at all, but as a purely mechanical imitation of nature; the only landscapes that could be considered art, according to the academy, were ideal, imaginary landscapes in pastoral or heroic styles. In accordance with this reigning taste, Dahl attempted to give his Danish themes a certain atmospheric character in order to lift them up above what was considered a commercial level, but at the same time it was his deepest wish to provide a more faithful picture of Norwegian nature than were offered by the old-fashioned, dry paintings of Haas and Lorentzen. This desire was motivated by homesickness and patriotism, but it was suited to the public taste of the day for “picturesque” works.
Dahl traveled to Dresden in September 1818. He arrived with introductions to the city's leading citizens and to major artists such as Caspar David Friedrich, who helped him establish himself there and became his close fri