History of radio
The early history of radio is the history of technology that produces and uses radio instruments that use radio waves. Within the timeline of radio, many people contributed. Radio development began as "wireless telegraphy". Radio history involves matters of broadcasting; the idea of wireless communication predates the discovery of "radio" with experiments in "wireless telegraphy" via inductive and capacitive induction and transmission through the ground and train tracks from the 1830s on. James Clerk Maxwell showed in theoretical and mathematical form in 1864 that electromagnetic waves could propagate through free space, it is that the first intentional transmission of a signal by means of electromagnetic waves was performed in an experiment by David Edward Hughes around 1880, although this was considered to be induction at the time. In 1888 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz was able to conclusively prove transmitted airborne electromagnetic waves in an experiment confirming Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism.
After the discovery of these "Hertzian waves" many scientists and inventors experimented with wireless transmission, some trying to develop a system of communication, some intentionally using these new Hertzian waves, some not. Maxwell's theory showing that light and Hertzian electromagnetic waves were the same phenomenon at different wavelengths led "Maxwellian" scientist such as John Perry, Frederick Thomas Trouton and Alexander Trotter to assume they would be analogous to optical signaling and the Serbian American engineer Nikola Tesla to consider them useless for communication since "light" could not transmit further than line of sight. In 1892 the physicist William Crookes wrote on the possibilities of wireless telegraphy based on Hertzian waves and in 1893 Tesla proposed a system for transmitting intelligence and wireless power using the earth as the medium. Others, such as Amos Dolbear, Sir Oliver Lodge, Reginald Fessenden, Alexander Popov were involved in the development of components and theory involved with the transmission and reception of airborne electromagnetic waves for their own theoretical work or as a potential means of communication.
Over several years starting in 1894 the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi built the first complete, commercially successful wireless telegraphy system based on airborne Hertzian waves. Marconi demonstrated the application of radio in military and marine communications and started a company for the development and propagation of radio communication services and equipment; the meaning and usage of the word "radio" has developed in parallel with developments within the field of communications and can be seen to have three distinct phases: electromagnetic waves and experimentation. In an 1864 presentation, published in 1865, James Clerk Maxwell proposed theories of electromagnetism, with mathematical proofs, that showed that light and predicted that radio and x-rays were all types of electromagnetic waves propagating through free space. In 1886–88 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz conducted a series of experiments that proved the existence of Maxwell's electromagnetic waves, using a frequency in what would be called the radio spectrum.
Many individuals—inventors, engineers and businessmen—constructed systems based on their own understanding of these and other phenomena, some predating Maxwell and Hertz's discoveries. Thus "wireless telegraphy" and radio wave-based systems can be attributed to multiple "inventors". Development from a laboratory demonstration to a commercial entity spanned several decades and required the efforts of many practitioners. In 1878, David E. Hughes noticed that sparks could be heard in a telephone receiver when experimenting with his carbon microphone, he developed this carbon-based detector further and could detect signals over a few hundred yards. He demonstrated his discovery to the Royal Society in 1880, but was told it was induction, therefore abandoned further research. Thomas Edison came across the electromagnetic phenomenon while experimenting with a telegraph at Menlo Park, he noted an unexplained transmission effect while experimenting with a telegraph. He referred to this as etheric force in an announcement on November 28, 1875.
Elihu Thomson published his findings on Edison's new "force", again attributing it to induction, an explanation that Edison accepted. Edison would go on the next year to take out U. S. Patent 465,971 on a system of electrical wireless communication between ships based on electrostatic coupling using the water and elevated terminals. Although this was not a radio system, Edison would sell his patent rights to his friend Guglielmo Marconi at the Marconi Company in 1903, rather than another interested party who might end up working against Marconi's interests. Between 1886 and 1888 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz published the results of his experiments wherein he was able to transmit electromagnetic waves through the air, proving Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. Thus, given Hertz comprehensive discoveries, radio waves were referred to as "Hertzian waves". Between 1890 and 1892 physicists such as John Perry, Frederick Thomas Trouton and William Crookes proposed electromagnetic or Hertzian waves as a navigation aid or means of communication, with Crookes writing on the possibilities of wireless telegraphy based on Hertzian waves in 1892.
After learning of Hertz' demonstrations of wireless transmission, inventor Nikola Tesla began developing his own systems based on Hertz' and Maxwell's ideas working toward a means o
A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes; these data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables, or wireless media such as Wi-Fi. Network computer devices that originate and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes are identified by network addresses, can include hosts such as personal computers and servers, as well as networking hardware such as routers and switches. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered over other more general communications protocols; this formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably. Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers and fax machines, use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others.
Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network's size, traffic control mechanism and organizational intent. The best-known computer network is the Internet; the chronology of significant computer-network developments includes: In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the U. S. military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment. In 1959, Anatolii Ivanovich Kitov proposed to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union a detailed plan for the re-organisation of the control of the Soviet armed forces and of the Soviet economy on the basis of a network of computing centres, the OGAS. In 1960, the commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment went online with two connected mainframes. In 1963, J. C. R. Licklider sent a memorandum to office colleagues discussing the concept of the "Intergalactic Computer Network", a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users.
In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth College developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer to route and manage telephone connections. Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davies pioneered the implementation of the concept with the NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory using a line speed of 768 kbit/s. In 1965, Western Electric introduced the first used telephone switch that implemented true computer control. In 1966, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts published a paper on an experimental wide area network for computer time sharing. In 1969, the first four nodes of the ARPANET were connected using 50 kbit/s circuits between the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the University of Utah.
Leonard Kleinrock carried out theoretical work to model the performance of packet-switched networks, which underpinned the development of the ARPANET. His theoretical work on hierarchical routing in the late 1970s with student Farouk Kamoun remains critical to the operation of the Internet today. In 1972, commercial services using X.25 were deployed, used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks. In 1973, the French CYCLADES network was the first to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than this being a centralized service of the network itself. In 1973, Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at Xerox PARC describing Ethernet, a networking system, based on the Aloha network, developed in the 1960s by Norman Abramson and colleagues at the University of Hawaii. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper "Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks" and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978.
In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making Ethernet an open standard. In 1976, John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices. In 1995, the transmission speed capacity for Ethernet increased from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. Subsequently, higher speeds of up to 400 Gbit/s were added; the ability of Ethernet to scale is a contributing factor to its continued use. Computer networking may be considered a branch of electrical engineering, electronics engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines. A computer network facilitates interpersonal communications allowing users to communicate efficiently and via various means: email, instant messaging, online chat, video telephone calls, video conferencing. A network allows sharing of computing resources.
Users may access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer or use of a shared storage device. A network allows sharing of files, and
Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He is a professor of computer science at the University of Oxford and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he made a proposal for an information management system on March 12, 1989, he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol client and server via the internet in mid-November the same year. Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium, which oversees the continued development of the Web, he is the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com founders chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. He is a director of the Web Science Research Initiative, a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. In 2011, he was named as a member of the board of trustees of the Ford Foundation, he is a founder and president of the Open Data Institute, is an advisor at social network MeWe.
In 2004, Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his pioneering work. In April 2009, he was elected a foreign associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences. Named in Time magazine's list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century, Berners-Lee has received a number of other accolades for his invention, he was honoured as the "Inventor of the World Wide Web" during the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in which he appeared in person, working with a vintage NeXT Computer at the London Olympic Stadium. He tweeted "This is for everyone", spelled out in LCD lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience. Berners-Lee received the 2016 Turing Award "for inventing the World Wide Web, the first web browser, the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale". Berners-Lee was born in London, United Kingdom, one of four children born to Mary Lee Woods and Conway Berners-Lee, his parents worked on the first commercially built computer, the Ferranti Mark 1.
He attended Sheen Mount Primary School, went on to attend south west London's Emanuel School from 1969 to 1973, at the time a direct grant grammar school, which became an independent school in 1975. A keen trainspotter as a child, he learnt about electronics from tinkering with a model railway, he studied at The Queen's College, from 1973 to 1976, where he received a first-class bachelor of arts degree in physics. While he was at university, Berners-Lee made a computer out of an old television set, which he bought from a repair shop. After graduation, Berners-Lee worked as an engineer at the telecommunications company Plessey in Poole, Dorset. In 1978, he joined D. G. Nash in Ferndown, where he helped create type-setting software for printers. Berners-Lee worked as an independent contractor at CERN from June to December 1980. While in Geneva, he proposed a project based on the concept of hypertext, to facilitate sharing and updating information among researchers. To demonstrate it, he built a prototype system named ENQUIRE.
After leaving CERN in late 1980, he went to work at John Poole's Image Computer Systems, Ltd, in Bournemouth, Dorset. He ran the company's technical side for three years; the project he worked on was a "real-time remote procedure call" which gave him experience in computer networking. In 1984, he returned to CERN as a fellow. In 1989, CERN was the largest internet node in Europe, Berners-Lee saw an opportunity to join hypertext with the internet: I just had to take the hypertext idea and connect it to the Transmission Control Protocol and domain name system ideas and—ta-da!—the World Wide Web... Creating the web was an act of desperation, because the situation without it was difficult when I was working at CERN later. Most of the technology involved in the web, like the hypertext, like the internet, multifont text objects, had all been designed already. I just had to put them together, it was a step of generalising, going to a higher level of abstraction, thinking about all the documentation systems out there as being part of a larger imaginary documentation system.
Berners-Lee wrote his proposal in March 1989 and, in 1990, redistributed it. It was accepted by his manager, Mike Sendall, who called his proposals'vague, but exciting', he used similar ideas to those underlying the ENQUIRE system to create the World Wide Web, for which he designed and built the first Web browser. His software functioned as an editor, the first Web server, CERN HTTPd. Mike Sendall buys a NeXT cube for evaluation, gives it to Tim. Tim's prototype implementation on NeXTStep is made in the space of a few months, thanks to the qualities of the NeXTStep software development system; this prototype offers WYSIWYG browsing/authoring! Current Web browsers used in'surfing the internet' are mere passive windows, depriving the user of the possibility to contribute. During some sessions in the CERN cafeteria, Tim and I try to find a catching name for the system. I was determined that the name should not yet again be taken from Greek mythology..... Tim proposes'World-Wide Web'. I like this much, except that it is difficult to pronounce in French... by Robert Cailliau, 2 November 1995.
The first website was built at CERN. Despite this being an international organisation hosted by Switzerland, the office that Berners-Lee used was just across the border in France; the website was put online on 6 August 1991 for the first time: info.cern.ch was th
Claude Chappe was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that spanned all of France. His system consisted of a series of towers, each within line of sight of others, each supporting a wooden mast with two crossarms on pivots that could be placed in various positions; the operator in a tower moved the arms to a sequence of positions, spelling out text messages in semaphore code. The operator in the next tower read the message through a telescope passed it on to the next tower; this was the first practical telecommunications system of the industrial age, was used until the 1850s when electric telegraph systems replaced it. Chappe was born in Brûlon, France, the grandson of a French baron, he lost his sinecure during the French Revolution. He was educated at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen, his uncle was the astronomer Jean-Baptiste Chappe d'Auteroche famed for his observations of the Transit of Venus in 1761 and again in 1769. The first book Claude read in his youth was his uncle's journal of the 1761 trip, "Voyage en Siberie".
His brother, wrote "Reading this book inspired him, gave him a taste for the physical sciences. From this point on, all his studies, his pastimes, were focused on that subject." Because of his astronomer uncle, Claude may have become familiar with the properties of telescopes. He and his four unemployed brothers decided to develop a practical system of semaphore relay stations, a task proposed in antiquity, yet never realized. Claude's brother, Ignace Chappe was a member of the Legislative Assembly during the French Revolution. With his help, the Assembly supported a proposal to build a relay line from Paris to Lille, to carry dispatches from the war; the Chappe brothers determined by experiment that the angles of a rod were easier to see than the presence or absence of panels. Their final design had two arms connected by a cross-arm; each arm had seven positions, the cross-arm had four more permitting a 196-combination code. The arms were from three to thirty feet long and counterweighted, moved by only two handles.
Lamps mounted on the arms proved unsatisfactory for night use. The relay towers were placed from 12 to 25 km apart; each tower had a telescope pointing both down the relay line. Chappe first called his invention the tachygraph, meaning "fast writer". However, the Army preferred to use the word telegraph, meaning "far writer", coined by French statesman André François Miot de Mélito. Today, in order to distinguish it from subsequent telegraph systems, the French name for Chappe's semaphore telegraph system is named after him, thus is known as a télégraphe Chappe. Alternatively, Chappe coined the phrase semaphore, from the Greek elements σῆμα. In 1792, the first messages were sent between Paris and Lille. In 1794 the semaphore line informed Parisians of the capture of Condé-sur-l'Escaut from the Austrians less than an hour after it occurred. Other lines were built, including a line from Paris to Toulon; the system was copied by other European states, was used by Napoleon to coordinate his empire and army.
In 1805, Claude Chappe killed himself. He was said to be depressed by illness, claims by rivals that he had plagiarized from military semaphore systems. In 1824 Ignace Chappe attempted to increase interest in using the semaphore line for commercial messages, such as commodity prices. In 1846, the government of France committed to a new system of electric telegraph lines. Many contemporaries warned of the ease of interruption of service by cutting a wire. With the emergence of the electric telegraph the Chappe telegraph ended in 1852; the Chappe semaphore figures prominently in Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo. The Count bribes an underpaid operator to transmit a false message. A bronze sculpture of Claude Chappe was erected at the crossing of Rue du Bac and Boulevard Raspail, in Paris, it was removed and melted down during the Nazi occupation of Paris, in 1941 or 1942. Chappe code Beyer, The Greatest Stories Never Told, A&E Television Networks / The History Channel, ISBN 0-06-001401-6 French article: Les Télégraphes Chappe, l'Ecole Centrale de Lyon French article: Le télégraphe aérien, in Les merveilles de la science, de Louis Figuier, t.
2, pages 20–68 Italian article: Francesco Frasca, Il telegrafo ottico dalla Rivoluzione francese alla guerra di Crimea, in Informazioni della Difesa, n°1, 2000, Roma: Stato Maggiore della Difesa, pp. 44–51
History of broadcasting
It is recognised that the first radio transmission was made from a temporary station set up by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895. This followed on from pioneering work in the field by a number of people including Alessandro Volta, André-Marie Ampère, Georg Ohm and James Clerk Maxwell; the radio broadcasting of music and talk intended to reach a dispersed audience started experimentally around 1905-1906, commercially around 1920 to 1923. VHF stations started 30 to 35 years later. In the early days, radio stations broadcast on the long wave, medium wave and short wave bands, on VHF and UHF. However, in the United Kingdom, Hungary and some other places, from as early as 1890 there was a system whereby news, live theatre, music hall, fiction readings, religious broadcasts, etc. were available in private homes via the conventional telephone line, with subscribers being supplied with a number of special, personalised headsets. In Britain this system was known as Electrophone, was available as early as 1895 or 1899 and up until 1926.
In Hungary, it was called Telefon Hírmondó, in France, Théâtrophone ). The Wikipedia Telefon Hírmondó page includes a 1907 program guide which looks remarkably similar to the types of schedules used by many broadcasting stations some 20 or 30 years later. By the 1950s every country had a broadcasting system one owned and operated by the government. Alternative modes included commercial radio, as in the United States. Today, most countries have evolved into a dual system, including the UK. By 1955 every family in North America and Western Europe, as well as Japan, had a radio. A dramatic change came in the 1960s with the introduction of small inexpensive portable transistor radio, the expanded ownership and usage. Access became universal across the world. Argentina was a world pioneer in broadcasting, being the third country in the world to make its first regular broadcasts in 1920, having been the first Spanish-speaking country in Latin America to offer daily radio broadcasts; the main stations were in Buenos Córdoba.
Among the historical facts related to Argentine radio, it can be mentioned that the first radio broadcast was made with the live broadcast of Richard Wagner's opera Parsifal from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires, on August 27, 1920, in charge of the Radio Argentina Society of Enrique Susini, César Guerrico, Miguel Mugica, Luis Romero and Ignacio Gómez, who installed a transmitting device on the roof of the building, for which they are remembered as "The crazy people on the roof". In 1921, the transmission of classical music became a daily occurrence; the following year, the assumption of President Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear was broadcast live. In September 1923 the famous "fight of the century" was issued between Luis Ángel Firpo and Jack Dempsey from the Polo Grounds in New York, in October of the following year the match between the Argentine and Uruguayan national teams was broadcast. At that time the first advertisements, called "reclames", were put on the air. At the end of the decade the radio drama was born.
In those years several radio stations arose, Culture, Mitre, Belgrano, Del Pueblo -, America-, Municipal, Porteña and Stentor. The introduction of the loudspeakers modified the listening conditions; the receiving apparatus was gaining an important place in the home. Meanwhile, the multiplication of the stations generated the first conflicts over the airwaves, which led to the first regulations on emission frequencies at the end of the 20s; the History of broadcasting in Australia has been shaped for over a century by the problem of communication across long distances, coupled with a strong base in a wealthy society with a deep taste for aural communications. Australia developed its own system, through its own engineers, retailers, entertainment services, news agencies; the government set up the first radio system, business interests marginalized the hobbyists and amateurs. The Labor Party was interested in radio because it allowed them to bypass the newspapers, which were controlled by the opposition.
Both parties agreed on the need for a national system, in 1932 set up the Australian Broadcasting Commission, as a government agency, separate from political interference. The first commercial broadcasters known as "B" class stations, were on the air as early as 1925; the number of stations remained dormant throughout World War II and in the post-war era. Australian radio hams can be traced to the early 1900s; the 1905 Wireless Telegraphy Act whilst acknowledging the existence of wireless telegraphy, brought all broadcasting matters in Australia under the control of the Federal Government. In 1906, the first official Morse code transmission in Australia was by the Marconi Company between Queenscliff and Devonport, Tasmania; the first broadcast of music was made during a demonstration on 13 August 1919 by Ernest Fisk of AWA – Amalgamated Wireless. A number of amateurs commenced broadcasting music in 1920 and 1921. Many other amateurs soon followed. 2CM w
International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication Union the International Telegraph Union, is a specialized agency of the United Nations, responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. It is the oldest among all the 15 specialised agencies of UN; the ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, voice, TV broadcasting, next-generation networks; the agency organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU Telecom World, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas and technology.
ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group, has 12 regional and area offices in the world. ITU has been an intergovernmental public–private partnership organization since its inception, its membership includes 193 Member States and around 800 public and private sector companies, academic institutions as well as international and regional telecommunication entities, known as Sector Members and Associates, which undertake most of the work of each Sector. ITU was formed in Paris, at the International Telegraph Convention; the International Radiotelegraph Union was unofficially established at first International Radiotelegraph Convention in 1906. Both were merged into the International Telecommunication Union in 1932. ITU became a United Nations specialized agency in 1947; the ITU comprises three sectors, each managing a different aspect of the matters handled by the Union, as well as ITU Telecom. The sectors were created during the restructuring of ITU at its 1992 Plenipotentiary Conference.
Radio communication Established in 1927 as the International Radio Consultative Committee or CCIR, this sector manages the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources. In 1992, the CCIR became the ITU-R. Standardisation Standardisation was the original purpose of ITU since its inception. Established in 1956 as the International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee or CCITT, this sector standardizes global telecommunications. In 1993, the CCITT became the ITU-T. Development Established in 1992, this sector helps spread equitable and affordable access to information and communication technologies. ITU Telecom ITU Telecom organizes major events for the world's ICT community. A permanent General Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General, manages the day-to-day work of the Union and its sectors; the basic texts of the ITU are adopted by the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. The founding document of the ITU was the 1865 International Telegraph Convention, which has since been amended several times and is now entitled the "Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union".
In addition to the Constitution and Convention, the consolidated basic texts include the Optional Protocol on the settlement of disputes, the Decisions and Recommendations in force, as well as the General Rules of Conferences and Meetings of the Union. The ITU is headed by a Secretary-General, a Deputy Secretary General and the three directors of the Bureaux, who are elected to a four-year terms by the member states at the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. On 23 October 2014 Houlin Zhao was elected 19th Secretary-General of the ITU at the Plenipotentiary Conference in Busan, Republic of Korea, his four-year mandate started on 1 January 2015, he was formally inaugurated on 15 January 2015. Houlin Zhao was reelected at the 2018 Plenipotentiary Conference in Dubai. Membership of ITU is open to only Member States of the United Nations, which may join the Union as Member States, as well as to private organizations like carriers, equipment manufacturers, funding bodies and development organizations and international and regional telecommunication organizations, which may join ITU as non-voting Sector Members.
There are 193 Member States of the ITU, including all UN member states except the Republic of Palau, plus the Vatican City. The most recent member state to join the ITU is South Sudan, which became a member on 14 July 2011; the Republic of China was blocked from membership by the People's Republic of China, but received a country code, being listed as "Taiwan, China". Palestine was admitted as an observer in 2010. Six Regional Offices and seven Area Offices guarantee a regional presence of ITU: Regional Office for CSI Africa Regional Office in Addis Ababa, with Area Offices in Dakar and Yaoundé Arab States Regional Office in Cairo Asia-Pacific Regional Office in Bangkok, with Area Office in Jakarta America Regional Office in Brasilia, with Area Offices in Bridgetown and Tegucigalpa; the sixth is a Coordination office for Europe Region Europe at ITU Headquarters. Other Regional organizations, connected to ITU, are: Asia-Pacific Telecommunity Arab Spectrum Management Group African Telecommunications Union European Conference of Posta
The telautograph, an analog precursor to the modern fax machine, transmits electrical impulses recorded by potentiometers at the sending station to servomechanisms attached to a pen at the receiving station, thus reproducing at the receiving station a drawing or signature made by the sender. It was the first such device to transmit drawings to a stationary sheet of paper; the telautograph's invention is attributed to Elisha Gray, who patented it on July 31, 1888. Gray's patent stated that the telautograph would allow "one to transmit his own handwriting to a distant point over a two-wire circuit." It was the first facsimile machine in which the stylus was controlled by horizontal and vertical bars. The telautograph was first publicly exhibited at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago. While the patent schema's geometry implies vertical and horizontal coordinates, systems used in the 20th Century had a different coordinate scheme, based on transmitting two angles. In an 1888 interview in The Manufacturer & Builder Gray made this statement: By my invention you can sit down in your office in Chicago, take a pencil in your hand, write a message to me, as your pencil moves, a pencil here in my laboratory moves and forms the same letters and words in the same way.
What you write in Chicago is reproduced here in fac-simile. You may write in any language, use a code or cipher, no matter, a fac-simile is produced here. If you want to draw a picture it is the same, the picture is reproduced here; the artist of your newspaper can, by this device, telegraph his pictures of a railway wreck or other occurrences just as a reporter telegraphs his description in words. By the end of the 19th century, the telautograph was modified by Foster Ritchie. Calling it the telewriter, Ritchie's version of the telautograph could be operated using a telephone line for simultaneous copying and speaking; the telautograph became popular for the transmission of signatures over a distance, in banks and large hospitals to ensure that doctors' orders and patient information were transmitted and accurately. Teleautograph systems were installed in a number of major railroad stations to relay hand-written reports of train movements from the interlocking tower to various parts of the station.
The teleautograph network in Grand Central Terminal included a public display in the main concourse into the 1960s. A Telautograph was used in 1911 to warn workers on the 10th floor about the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire that had broken out two floors below. An example of a Telautograph machine writing script can be seen in the 1956 movie Earth vs the Flying Saucers as the output device for the mechanical translator. Telautograph Corporation changed its name several times. In 1971, it was acquired by Arden/Mayfair. In 1993, Danka Industries renamed it Danka/Omnifax. In 1999, Xerox corporation purchased the company and called it the Omnifax division, which has since been absorbed by the corporation. Archive of Xerox Omnifax Division website, the successor to Telautograph Corporation. Telautograph historical description "Telautograph"; the New Student's Reference Work. 1914. Patent images in TIFF format U. S. Patent 0,386,814 Art of Telegraphy, issued July 1888 U. S. Patent 0,386,815 Telautograph, issued July 1888 U.
S. Patent 0,461,470Telautograph, issued October 1891 U. S. Patent 0,461,472 Art of and Apparatus for Telautographic Communication, issued October 1891 U. S. Patent 0,491,347 Telautograph, issued February 1893 U. S. Patent 0,494,562 Telautograph, issued April 1893