Bloomberg L. P. is a held financial, software and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was founded by Michael Bloomberg in 1981, with the help of Thomas Secunda, Duncan MacMillan, Charles Zegar, a 30% ownership investment by Merrill Lynch. Bloomberg L. P. provides financial software tools such as an analytics and equity trading platform, data services, news to financial companies and organizations through the Bloomberg Terminal, its core revenue-generating product. Bloomberg L. P. includes a wire service, a global television network, radio stations, subscription-only newsletters, two magazines: Bloomberg Businessweek and Bloomberg Markets. In 2014, Bloomberg L. P. launched Bloomberg Politics, a multiplatform media property that merged the company's political news teams, has recruited two veteran political journalists, Mark Halperin and John Heilemann, to run it. In 1981, Salomon Brothers was acquired, Michael Bloomberg, a general partner, was given a $10 million partnership settlement.
Bloomberg, having designed in-house computerized financial systems for Salomon, used his $10 million severance cheque to start Innovative Market Systems. Bloomberg developed and built his own computerized system to provide real-time market data, financial calculations and other financial analytics to Wall Street firms. In 1983, Merrill Lynch invested $30 million in IMS to help finance the development of "the Bloomberg" terminal computer system and by 1984, IMS was selling machines to all of Merrill Lynch's clients. In 1986, the company was renamed Bloomberg L. P. and 5,000 terminals had been installed in subscribers' offices. Within a few years, ancillary products including Bloomberg Tradebook, the Bloomberg Messaging Service, the Bloomberg newswire were launched. Bloomberg launched its news services division in 1990. Bloomberg.com was first established on September 29, 1993, as a financial portal with information on markets, currency conversion and events, Bloomberg Terminal subscriptions. In late 1996, Bloomberg bought back one-third of Merrill Lynch's 30 percent stake in the company for $200 million, valuing the company at $9 billion.
In 2008, facing losses during the financial crisis, Merrill Lynch agreed to sell its remaining 20 percent stake in the company back to Bloomberg Inc. majority-owned by Michael Bloomberg, for a reported $4.43 billion, valuing Bloomberg L. P. at $22.5 billion. Bloomberg L. P. has remained a private company since its founding. To run for the position of Mayor of New York against Democrat Mark Green in 2001, Bloomberg gave up his position of CEO and appointed Lex Fenwick as CEO in his stead. Peter Grauer is the chairman. In 2008, Fenwick became the CEO of a new venture capital division. Daniel Doctoroff, former deputy mayor in the Bloomberg administration, serves as president and CEO. In September 2014, it was announced that Michael Bloomberg would be taking the reins of his eponymous market data company from Doctoroff, chief executive of Bloomberg for the past six years after his term as deputy mayor. In September 2014, Bloomberg sold its Bloomberg Sports analysis division to the data analysis firm STATS LLC for a fee rumored to be between $15 million and $20 million.
Since its founding, Bloomberg L. P. has made several acquisitions including the radio station WNEW, BusinessWeek magazine, research company New Energy Finance, the Bureau of National Affairs and the financial software company Bloomberg PolarLake. On July 9, 2014, Bloomberg L. P. acquired RTS Realtime Systems, a global provider of low-latency connectivity and trading support services. In 1992, Bloomberg L. P. purchased New York Radio station WNEW for $13.5 million. The station was converted into an all-news format, known as Bloomberg Radio, the call letters were changed to WBBR. Bloomberg L. P. bought a weekly business magazine, BusinessWeek, from McGraw-Hill in 2009. The company acquired the magazine—which was suffering from declining advertising revenue and limited circulation numbers—to attract general business to its media audience composed of terminal subscribers. Following the acquisition, BusinessWeek was renamed Bloomberg Businessweek. Joel Weber edits the magazine. In 2010, Bloomberg L. P. acquired Eagle Eye Publishing, a Fairfax, Virginia-based company that publishes data about procurement by the Federal Government.
This acquisition became part of Bloomberg Government, launched in early 2011. In 2009, Bloomberg L. P. purchased New Energy Finance, a data company focused on energy investment and carbon markets research based in the United Kingdom. New Energy Finance was created by Michael Liebreich in 2004, to provide news and analysis on carbon and clean energy markets. Bloomberg L. P. acquired the company to become an industry resource for information to support low-carbon energy solutions. It was renamed to BNEF for short. Liebreich continued to lead the company, serving as the chief executive officer until 2014, when he stepped down as CEO but remained involved as Chairman of the Advisory Board. Bloomberg L. P. purchased Arlington, Virginia-based Bureau of National Affairs in August 2011, for $990 million to bolster its existing Bloomberg Government and Bloomberg Law services. BNA publishes specialized online and print news and information for professionals in business and government; the company produces more than 350 news publications in topic areas that include corporate law and business, employee benefits and labor law, environment and safety, health care, human resources, intellectual property and tax and acco
The Columbus Dispatch
The Columbus Dispatch is a daily newspaper based in Columbus, Ohio. Its first issue was published on July 1, 1871, has been the only mainstream daily newspaper in the city since The Columbus Citizen-Journal ceased publication in 1985. In a sale announced on June 3, 2015, ownership of the Dispatch was transferred to GateHouse Media; the Dispatch Broadcast Group, comprising WBNS-AM-FM-TV in Columbus and WTHR in Indianapolis, will remain in the hands of the Wolfe family. As of October 26, 2015, Bradley M. Harmon is the newspaper's publisher. Alan D. Miller is the editor; the paper was founded in June 1871 by a group of 10 printers with US$900 in financial capital. The paper published its first issue as The Daily Dispatch on July 1, 1871, as a four-page paper which cost 4¢ per copy; the paper was an afternoon paper for the city of Columbus, which at the time had a population of 32,000. For its first few years, the paper rented a headquarters on North High Street and Lynn Alley in Columbus, it began with 800 subscribers.
On April 2, 1888, the paper published its first full-page advertisement, for the Columbus Buggy Company. In 1895, the paper moved its headquarters to the northeast corner of Gay and High streets, a larger building on a site, a grocer. On April 10, the paper published a 72-page edition to mark the move. On December 17, 1899, the paper published its first Sunday edition, a 36-page paper which cost 3¢, the daily editions were reduced in price to 2¢. Two years on March 3, 1901, the paper published its first color comic strips; the paper, renamed The Columbus Evening Dispatch, changed hands several times in its early years. In 1905, it was purchased by brothers Harry Preston Wolfe and Robert Frederick Wolfe, who ran a shoe company, it was not the Wolfes' first entry into journalism. The Dispatch would remain in the hands of the Wolfe family for 110 years. On December 16, 1906, the paper published its first color ad, for Beggs Store. On April 9, 1907, the Dispatch offices were destroyed in a fire, the building was demolished and rebuilt.
In the interlude, the paper ran its offices out of 34/36 North High Street. The paper's editorial staff traditionally has had a conservative slant; until it endorsed Hillary Clinton over Donald Trump, the paper's last endorsement of a Democrat as a Presidential candidate had been for the re-election of Woodrow Wilson in 1916. The Dispatch endorsed Democratic gubernatorial candidate Ted Strickland in the 2006 Ohio elections, but endorsed John Kasich, the Republican candidate running against his reelection, in 2010A competing paper, The Columbus Citizen-Journal was beholden to the Columbus Dispatch for its printing facilities, controversy surrounded the C-J's demise in 1985. On June 16, 2015, the Dispatch was purchased by the New Media Investment Group; the sections of the Dispatch include the Front Section, Nation & World, Metro & State, Business and Life & Arts. The Food section is included in the Wednesday paper; the Weekender section is included in the Thursday paper. A Faith & Values section is included in the Friday paper.
Sunday sections include Arts & Leisure, At Home and comics. The Columbus Dispatch owns the magazines Columbus Monthly, Columbus CEO, Columbus Weddings, Columbus Monthly Home & Garden, Columbus Alive, Columbus Parent. James Thurber Official website
First Amendment to the United States Constitution
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution prevents the government from making laws which respect an establishment of religion, prohibit the free exercise of religion, or abridge the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or the right to petition the government for redress of grievances. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights; the Bill of Rights was proposed to assuage Anti-Federalist opposition to Constitutional ratification. The First Amendment applied only to laws enacted by the Congress, many of its provisions were interpreted more narrowly than they are today. Beginning with Gitlow v. New York, the Supreme Court applied the First Amendment to states—a process known as incorporation—through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Everson v. Board of Education, the Court drew on Thomas Jefferson's correspondence to call for "a wall of separation between church and State", though the precise boundary of this separation remains in dispute.
Speech rights were expanded in a series of 20th and 21st-century court decisions which protected various forms of political speech, anonymous speech, campaign financing and school speech. The Supreme Court overturned English common law precedent to increase the burden of proof for defamation and libel suits, most notably in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan. Commercial speech, however, is less protected by the First Amendment than political speech, is therefore subject to greater regulation; the Free Press Clause protects publication of information and opinions, applies to a wide variety of media. In Near v. Minnesota and New York Times v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint—pre-publication censorship—in all cases; the Petition Clause protects the right to petition all branches and agencies of government for action. In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, the Court has ruled that the amendment implicitly protects freedom of association.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. In 1776, the second year of the American Revolutionary War, the Virginia colonial legislature passed a Declaration of Rights that included the sentence "The freedom of the press is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty, can never be restrained but by despotic Governments." Eight of the other twelve states made similar pledges. However, these declarations were considered "mere admonitions to state legislatures", rather than enforceable provisions. After several years of comparatively weak government under the Articles of Confederation, a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia proposed a new constitution on September 17, 1787, featuring among other changes a stronger chief executive. George Mason, a Constitutional Convention delegate and the drafter of Virginia's Declaration of Rights, proposed that the Constitution include a bill of rights listing and guaranteeing civil liberties.
Other delegates—including future Bill of Rights drafter James Madison—disagreed, arguing that existing state guarantees of civil liberties were sufficient and that any attempt to enumerate individual rights risked the implication that other, unnamed rights were unprotected. After a brief debate, Mason's proposal was defeated by a unanimous vote of the state delegations. For the constitution to be ratified, nine of the thirteen states were required to approve it in state conventions. Opposition to ratification was based on the Constitution's lack of adequate guarantees for civil liberties. Supporters of the Constitution in states where popular sentiment was against ratification proposed that their state conventions both ratify the Constitution and call for the addition of a bill of rights; the U. S. Constitution was ratified by all thirteen states. In the 1st United States Congress, following the state legislatures' request, James Madison proposed twenty constitutional amendments, his proposed draft of the First Amendment read as follows: The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any manner, or on any pretext, infringed.
The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments. The people shall not be restrained from peaceably consulting for their common good; this language was condensed by Congress, passed the House and Senate with no recorded debate, complicating future discussion of the Amendment's intent. The First Amendment, along with the rest of the Bill of Rights, was submitted to the states for ratification on September 25, 1789, adopted on December 15, 1791. Thomas Jefferson wrote with respect to the First Amendment and its restriction on the legislative branch of the federal government in an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptists: Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies between Ma
Mount St. Mary's University
Mount St. Mary's University is a Catholic liberal arts university near Emmitsburg, Maryland; the campus includes the second largest Catholic seminary in the United States. Lay students can pursue a Master of Arts in Theology at the seminary; the undergraduate university is divided into three schools: the College of Liberal Arts, the Richard J. Bolte School of Business, the School of Natural Science and Mathematics; the university has more than 40 majors, minors and special programs, including bachelor's/master's combinations in partnership with other universities. The university offers eight master's degree programs and six postgraduate certificate programs. Mount Saint Mary's was founded by French émigré Father John DuBois. In 1805, Father DuBois bought land near Emmitsburg, Maryland on the mountain that Catholic colonists had christened "St. Mary's Mountain," and laid the cornerstone for Saint-Mary's-on-the-Hill church. Parishioners from two local congregations built a one-story, two room log cabin for Father DuBois, that cabin was the first structure of Mount Saint Mary's.
The church was completed in 1807. Father DuBois first opened a boarding school for children. In 1808, the Society of St. Sulpice closed Pigeon Hill, its preparatory seminary in Pennsylvania, transferred all the seminarians to Emmitsburg; this marked. Father DuBois was appointed president of the college. Father Simon Bruté, whom President John P. Quincy Adams called "the most learned man of his day in America," joined Mount St. Mary's as teacher and vice-president in 1812; the small faculty of Mount St. Mary's strove to offer a full high school and college course to lay students and potential priests and developed Mount St. Mary's into "one of the most important ecclesiastical institutions of the country." DuBois Hall, named for Father DuBois, was completed in 1826 in what had been a swampy thicket on the mountain. The first charter for a university was obtained in 1830; until the early 1900s, Mount St. Mary's acted as a boarding school; some remnants of the boarding school, such as Bradley Hall, still exist.
The Mount was known as Mount Saint Mary's College and Seminary until June 7, 2004, when the name was changed to Mount Saint Mary's University. Elizabeth Ann Seton, founder of the Sisters of Charity and the first native born United States citizen to be canonized as a saint, came to Emmitsburg in 1809, she lived on the campus of Mount St. Mary's. For a while, she lived in the same log cabin, built for Father DuBois. In June 1809, Mother Seton established Saint Joseph's Academy and Free School for girls, the first free Catholic parochial school in the United States; this school is considered to be the foundation of the entire Catholic parochial school system in the United States. Mother Seton wrote classroom textbooks and trained her Catholic sisters to become teachers, accepted all students regardless of ability to pay. Saint Joseph's Academy and Free School developed into Saint Joseph College High School, Saint Joseph's High School, Saint Joseph College, a four-year liberal arts college for women.
There was a long shared history between Mount St. Mary's. In 1815, Mother Seton sent several of the Sisters of Charity to manage the Infirmary at Mount St. Mary's; as enrollment at Saint Joseph's Academy grew in the 1800s, some professors from Mount St. Mary's were added to the Saint Joseph's faculty. And, since the campuses of the all-female Saint Joseph College and the all-male Mount St. Mary's were just a couple of miles apart, the schools depended on each other for social life. In 1967, female students at Saint Joseph College began taking some classes at Mount St. Mary's, men from Mount St. Mary's began taking some classes at Saint Joseph. In 1973, with declining enrollment numbers and rising operating costs, Saint Joseph College closed its doors and merged with Mount St. Mary's, co-educational since then. During World War II, Mount Saint Mary's College was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
In January 2016, The Washington Post reported on plans by university president Simon P. Newman to use a questionnaire administered to freshman students to dismiss 20 to 25 freshman in the first weeks of school to improve the school's retention statistics; the questionnaire included questions about students' mental health and financial support. The story appeared in the university's student newspaper, The Mountain Echo. Newman was quoted as saying, in response to criticism and questions from colleagues, "...you think of the students as cuddly bunnies, but you can’t. You just have to drown the bunnies … put a Glock to their heads." Two professors who objected to the president's policies were abruptly terminated without severance. One, Ed Egan, was the faculty adviser of The Mountain Echo, while the other, Thane Naberhaus, was a tenured professor who had publicly questioned the president's actions; the two were told. University provost David Rehm objected to the president's plan and was asked to resign as provost but allowed to keep his faculty position.
Professors throughout America denounced them as retribution. Over 8,000 scholars digitally signed a petition for them to be reinstated, while organizations such as the American Association of University Professors, Student Press Law Center, Foundation for Individual Rights in Education issued statements condemning Newman's
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Eugene S. Pulliam
Eugene Smith Pulliam was the publisher of the Indianapolis Star and the Indianapolis News from 1975 until his death. Pulliam was born to Eugene C. Pulliam and his first wife, who died in 1917, his father had two more children. Pulliam began his journalism career as a child, delivering The Lebanon Reporter and The Indianapolis News, he had an apprenticeship at the Reporter. After graduating from DePauw University in 1935, Pulliam worked for the United Press news service—in Chicago, Illinois, he returned to Indianapolis to serve as news director of WIRE-AM. He was in the Navy and Naval Reserve during World War II and retired in 1948 as a lieutenant commander. Pulliam returned to the Star, serving as aviation editor, assistant city editor, city editor, he was named managing editor of the News in 1948 and became assistant publisher of both papers in 1962 under his father, Eugene C. Pulliam. Eugene C. Pulliam died on June 1975, leaving his son to take over the helm; the Star won two Pulitzer Prizes during the younger Pulliam's tenure—one for a series on police corruption in 1975 and another on Indiana's medical malpractice system in 1991.
Unlike his father, "Young Gene" was quiet and calm and did not allow his conservative views to leak into the news columns. But he was a penny-pincher and kept a close eye on the company's budget, except when the accountants suggested charging for obituaries. "People get mentioned in the paper only when they are born and when they die," he once said, "so we're not going to charge them for dying." Pulliam was married to the former Jane Bleecker until his death, they had three children. Pulliam's half nephew, Dan Quayle, served as Vice President of the United States, from 1989 to 1993. Pulliam died on January 20, 1999. Both he and his wife are buried at Crown Hill Cemetery in Indianapolis; the Eugene S. Pulliam First Amendment Award is awarded annually by the Society of Professional Journalists in honor of Pulliam's dedication to First Amendment rights and values; the award seeks "to honor a person or persons who have fought to protect and preserve one or more of the rights guaranteed by the First Amendment."
Indianapolis Star library biography of Pulliam "Star in the Hoosier Sky: The Indianapolis Star in the Years the City Came Alive 1950-1990" by Lawrence S. "Bo" Connor Crown Hill Cemetery - http://crownhill.org/
The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by the McClatchy Company and headquartered in Doral, Florida, a city in western Miami-Dade County and the Miami metropolitan area, several miles west of downtown Miami. Founded in 1903, it is the second largest newspaper in South Florida, serving Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties, it circulates throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The newspaper employs over 800 people in Miami and across several bureaus, including Bogotá, Tallahassee, Vero Beach, Key West, another shared space in McClatchy's Washington bureau, its newsroom staff of about 450 includes 144 reporters, 69 editors, 69 copy editors, 29 photographers, five graphic artists, 11 columnists, sixteen critics, 48 editorial specialists, 18 news assistants. The newspaper has been awarded 22 Pulitzer Prizes since beginning publication in 1903. Well-known columnists include Pulitzer-winning political commentator Leonard Pitts, Jr. Pulitzer-winning reporter Mirta Ojito, humorist Dave Barry and novelist Carl Hiaasen.
Other columnists sportswriters Edwin Pope, Dan Le Batard and Greg Cote. Alexandra Villoch is the publisher, Aminda Marqués Gonzalez is the executive editor; the newspaper averages 88 pages 212 pages on Sundays. The Miami Herald's coverage of Latin American and Hispanic affairs is considered among the best of U. S. newspapers. The Miami Herald participates in "Politifact Florida", a website that focuses on the truth about Florida issues, along with the Tampa Bay Times, which created the Politifact concept; the Herald and the Times share resources on news stories related to Florida. The first edition was published September 1903, as The Miami Evening Record. After the recession of 1907, the newspaper had severe financial difficulties, its largest creditor was Henry Flagler. Through a loan from Henry Flagler, Frank B. Shutts, the founder of the law firm Shutts & Bowen, acquired the paper and renamed it the Miami Herald on December 1, 1910. Although it is the longest continuously published newspaper in Miami, the earliest newspaper in the region was The Tropical Sun, established in 1891.
The Miami Metropolis, which became The Miami News, was founded in 1896, was the Herald's oldest competitor until 1988, when it went out of business. During the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the Miami Herald was the largest newspaper in the world, as measured by lines of advertising. During The Great Depression in the 1930s, the Herald recovered. On October 25, 1939, John S. Knight, son of a noted Ohio newspaperman, bought the Herald from Frank B. Shutts. Knight became editor and publisher, made his brother, James L. Knight, the business manager; the Herald had 383 employees. Lee Hills arrived as city editor in September 1942, he became the Herald's publisher and the chairman of Knight-Ridder Inc. a position he held until 1981. The Miami Herald International Edition, printed by partner newspapers throughout the Caribbean and Latin America, began in 1946, it is available at resorts in the Caribbean countries such as the Dominican Republic, though printed by the largest local newspaper Listín Diario, it is not available outside such tourist areas.
It was extended to Mexico in 2002. The Herald won its first Pulitzer Prize for its reporting on Miami's organized crime, its circulation was 204,000 on Sundays. On August 19, 1960, construction began on the Herald building on Biscayne Bay. On that day, Alvah H. Chapman, started work as James Knight's assistant. Chapman was promoted to Knight-Ridder chairman and chief executive officer; the Herald moved into its new building at One Herald Plaza without missing an edition on March 23–24, 1963. The paper won a landmark press freedom decision in Miami Herald Publishing Tornillo. In the case, a political candidate, Pat Tornillo Jr. had requested that the Herald print his rebuttal to an editorial criticizing him, citing Florida's "right-to-reply" law, which mandated that newspapers print such responses. Represented by longtime counsel Dan Paul, the Herald challenged the law, the case was appealed to the Supreme Court; the Court unanimously overturned the Florida statute under the Press Freedom Clause of the First Amendment, ruling that "Governmental compulsion on a newspaper to publish that which'reason' tells it should not be published is unconstitutional."
The decision showed the limitations of a 1969 decision, Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. Federal Communications Commission, in which a similar "Fairness Doctrine" had been upheld for radio and television, establishing that broadcast and print media had different Constitutional protections. Publication of a Spanish-language supplemental insert named El Herald began in 1976, it was renamed El Nuevo Herald in 1987, in 1998 became an independent publication. In 2003, the Miami Herald and El Universal of Mexico City created an international joint venture, in 2004 they together launched The Herald Mexico, a short-lived English-language newspaper for readers in Mexico, its final issue was published in May 2007. On July 27, 2005, former Miami city commissioner Arthur Teele walked into the main lobby of the Herald's headquarters and phoned Herald columnist Jim DeFede to say that he had a package for DeFede, he asked a security officer to tell his wife Stephanie that he loved her, before pulling out a gun and committing suicide.
This happened the day the Miami New Times, a weekly newspaper, published salacious details of Teele's alleged affairs, including allegations that he had had sex and used cocaine with a transsexual prostitute. The day before committing suicide, T