Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms and context, on the way language is used, society's effect on language. It differs from sociology of language. Sociolinguistics overlaps with pragmatics, it is related to linguistic anthropology. It studies how language varieties differ between groups separated by certain social variables and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individuals in social or socioeconomic classes; as the usage of a language varies from place to place, language usage varies among social classes, it is these sociolects that sociolinguistics studies. The social aspects of language were in the modern sense first studied by Indian and Japanese linguists in the 1930s, by Louis Gauchat in Switzerland in the early 1900s, but none received much attention in the West until much later; the study of the social motivation of language change, on the other hand, has its foundation in the wave model of the late 19th century.
The first attested use of the term sociolinguistics was by Thomas Callan Hodson in the title of his 1939 article "Sociolinguistics in India" published in Man in India. Sociolinguistics in the West first appeared in the 1960s and was pioneered by linguists such as William Labov in the US and Basil Bernstein in the UK. In the 1960s, William Stewart and Heinz Kloss introduced the basic concepts for the sociolinguistic theory of pluricentric languages, which describes how standard language varieties differ between nations. For example, a sociolinguist might determine through study of social attitudes that a particular vernacular would not be considered appropriate language use in a business or professional setting. Sociolinguists might study the grammar, phonetics and other aspects of this sociolect much as dialectologists would study the same for a regional dialect; the study of language variation is concerned with social constraints determining language in its contextual environment. Code-switching is the term given to the use of different varieties of language in different social situations.
William Labov is regarded as the founder of the study of sociolinguistics. He is noted for introducing the quantitative analysis of language variation and change, making the sociology of language into a scientific discipline; the sociolinguistic interview is an integral part of collecting data for sociolinguistic studies. There is an interviewer, conducting the study, a subject, or informant, the interviewee. In order to get a grasp on a specific linguistic form and how it is used in the dialect of the subject, a variety of methods are used to elicit certain registers of speech. There are five different styles; the most formal style would be elicited by having the subject read a list of minimal pairs. Minimal pairs are pairs of words that differ in only one phoneme, such as bat. Having the subject read a word list will elicit a formal register, but not as formal as MP; the reading passage style is next down on the formal register, the interview style is when an interviewer can get into eliciting a more casual speech from the subject.
During the IS the interviewer can converse with the subject and try to draw out of them an more casual sort of speech by asking him to recall childhood memories or maybe a near death experience, in which case the subject will get involved with the story since strong emotions are attached to these memories. Of course, the most sought-after type of speech is the casual style; this type of speech is difficult to elicit because of the Observer's Paradox. The closest one might come to CS in an interview is when the subject is interrupted by a close friend or family member, or must answer the phone. CS is used in a unmonitored environment where the subject feels most comfortable and will use their natural vernacular without overtly thinking about it. While the study of sociolinguistics is broad, there are a few fundamental concepts on which many sociolinguistic inquiries depend. Speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that describes a distinct group of people who use language in a unique and mutually accepted way among themselves.
This is sometimes referred to as a Sprechbund. To be considered part of a speech community, one must have a communicative competence; that is, the speaker has the ability to use language in a way, appropriate in the given situation. It is possible for a speaker to be communicatively competent in more than one language. Speech communities can be members of a profession with a specialized jargon, distinct social groups like high school students or hip hop fans, or tight-knit groups like families and friends. Members of speech communities will develop slang or jargon to serve the group's special purposes and priorities. Community of Practice allows for sociolinguistics to examine the relationship between socialization and identity. Since identity is a complex structure, studying language socialization is a means to examine the micro-interactional level of practical activity; the learning of a language is influenced by family but it is supported by the larger local surroundings, such as school, sports teams, or religion.
Curriculum development is a process of improving the curriculum. Various approaches have been used in developing curricula. Used approaches consist of analysis, selecting formation and review. Analysis Design Selecting Formation Review There is no single curriculum that is'best' for all situations. Not only does geographic location depends on the type of curriculum taught, but the demographics of the population matters as well; some curriculums are based heavy of science and technology while another is focused on the arts. However, a comparison of different curricula shows certain approaches to be more effective than others. Comprehensive programmes addressing health and development have proven to be the most effective in early childhood in programmes directed at young and vulnerable children; this requires a genuine commitment from agencies and individuals to work together, to plan projects collaboratively, to involve parents and communities. A humanistic curriculum is a curriculum based on intercultural education that allows for the plurality of society while striving to ensure a balance between pluralism and universal values.
Glenn Andrew Ryan is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer who played for Manly-Warringah and the Canberra Raiders in the NSWRL competition. Ryan was born in Australia. Ryan debuted for Manly in 1983 and started on the bench in that year's grand final loss to Parramatta, in what was his sixth first-grade appearance. A second-rower, he became a regular fixture in the Manly team in 1984 and 1985, before injury struck, he missed the entire 1986 season with a groin injury and made only three first-grade appearances in 1987 missing out on playing in the premiership winning team that year, after which he spent the off season in England playing for Hull Kingston Rovers. Ryan, who in 1989 represented NSW City in the annual City vs Country Origin fixture, continued playing for Manly until 1990, he joined Canberra after only one season left to captain-coach local club Tuggeranong. Glenn Ryan at Rugby League project