Thomas W. Laqueur
Thomas Walter Laqueur is an American historian and writer. He is the author of Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation and Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud as well as many articles and reviews, he is the winner of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation's 2007 Distinguished Achievement Award, is the Helen Fawcett Distinguished Professor of History at the University of California, located in Berkeley, California. Laqueur wrote that there was an ancient "one-sex model", in which the woman was only described as imperfect man / human and he postulates that definitions of sex/gender were different and changeable; this argument has been challenged by some historians of science, notably Katharine Park and Robert A. Nye, they encourage a more differentiated perception that makes clear that gender theories of natural philosophy as well as biology and medicine, are embedded and constructed in certain social contexts. List of non-fiction writers List of University of California, Berkeley faculty University of California, Berkeley Department of History Faculty: Thomas W. Laqueur Works by or about Thomas W. Laqueur in libraries
A social movement is a type of group action. There is no single consensus definition of a social movement, they are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues. In other words, they resist, or undo a social change, they provide a way of social change from the bottom within nations. Social movements can be defined as "organizational structures and strategies that may empower oppressed populations to mount effective challenges and resist the more powerful and advantaged elites". Political science and sociology have developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements. For example, some research in political science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new political parties as well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to agenda setting and influence on politics. Sociologists distinguish between several types of social movement examining things such as scope, type of change, method of work, type of change and timeframe.
Modern Western social movements became possible through education and increased mobility of labor due to the industrialization and urbanization of 19th-century societies. It is sometimes argued that the freedom of expression and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern Western culture are responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary social movements. Many of the social movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the Mau Mau in Kenya, to oppose Western colonialism. Social movements have been and continue to be connected with democratic political systems. Social movements have been involved in democratizing nations, but more they have flourished after democratization. Over the past 200 years, they have become part of a global expression of dissent. Modern movements utilize technology and the internet to mobilize people globally. Adapting to communication trends is a common theme among successful movements. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy organizations linked to social movements in the U.
S. and Canada use social media to facilitate collective action. The systematic literature review of Buettner & Buettner analyzed the role of Twitter during a wide range of social movements. Mario Diani argues that nearly all definitions share three criteria: "a network of informal interactions between a plurality of individuals, groups and/or organizations, engaged in a political or cultural conflict, on the basis of a shared collective identity" Sociologist Charles Tilly defines social movements as a series of contentious performances and campaigns by which ordinary people make collective claims on others. For Tilly, social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people's participation in public politics, he argues that there are three major elements to a social movement: Campaigns: a sustained, organized public effort making collective claims of target authorities. Sidney Tarrow defines a social movement as "collective challenges by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites and authorities."
He distinguishes social movements from political parties and advocacy groups. The sociologists John McCarthy and Mayer Zald define as a social movement as "a set of opinions and beliefs in a population which represents preferences for changing some elements of the social structure and/or reward distribution of a society." According to Paul van Seeters and Paul James defining a social movement entails a few minimal conditions of ‘coming together’: the formation of some kind of collective identity. Thus we define a social movement as a form of political association between persons who have at least a minimal sense of themselves as connected to others in common purpose and who come together across an extended period of time to effect social change in the name of that purpose; the early growth of social movements was connected to broad economic and political changes in England in the mid-18th century, including political representation, market capitalization, proletarianization. The first mass social movement catalyzed around the controversial political figure John Wilkes.
As editor of the paper The North Briton, Wilkes vigorously attacked the new administration of Lord Bute and the peace terms that the new government accepted at the 1763 Treaty of Paris at the end of the Seven Years' War. Charged with seditious libel, Wilkes was arrested after the issue of a general warrant, a move that Wilkes denounced as unlawful - the L
Sociology of race and ethnic relations
The sociology of race and ethnic relations is the study of social and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society. This area encompasses the study of systemic racism, like residential segregation and other complex social processes between different racial and ethnic groups; the sociological analysis of race and ethnicity interacts with other areas of sociology such as, but not limited to, stratification and social psychology, as well as with postcolonial theory. At the level of political policy, ethnic relations is discussed in terms of either assimilationism or multiculturalism. Anti-racism forms another style of policy popular in the 1960s and 1970s. At the level of academic inquiry, ethnic relations is discussed either by the experiences of individual racial-ethnic groups or else by overarching theoretical issues. Marx described society as having nine "great" classes, the capitalist class and the working class, with the middle classes falling in behind one or the other as they see fit.
He hoped for the working class to rise up against the capitalist class in an attempt to stop the exploitation of the working class. He blamed part of their failure to organize on the capitalist class, as they separated black and white laborers; this separation between Blacks and Whites in America, contributed to racism. Marx attributes capitalism's contribution to racism through segmented labor markets and a racial inequality of earnings. Weber laid the foundations for a micro-sociology of ethnic relations beginning in 1906. Weber argued that biological traits could not be the basis for group foundation unless they were conceived as shared characteristics, it was this shared perception and common customs that create and distinguish one ethnicity from another. This differs from the views of many of his contemporaries who believed that an ethnic group was formed from biological similarities alone apart from social perception of membership in a group. W. E. B. Du Bois is well known as one of the most influential black scholars and activists of the 20th century.
Du Bois educated himself on his people, sought academia as a way to enlighten others on the social injustices against his people. Du Bois research "revealed the Negro group as a symptom, not a cause. Du Bois believed that Black Americans should embrace higher education and use their new access to schooling to achieve a higher position within society, he referred to this idea as the Talented Tenth. With gaining popularity, he preached the belief that for blacks to be free in some places, they must be free everywhere. After traveling to Africa and Russia, he recanted his original philosophy of integration and acknowledged it as a long term vision. Booker T. Washington was considered one of the most influential black educators of the 19th and 20th centuries. Born in 1856 as a slave in Virginia, Washington came of age. Just as slavery ended, however, it was replaced by a system of sharecropping in the South that resulted in black indebtedness. With growing discrimination in the South following the end of the Reconstruction era, Washington felt that the key to advancing in America rested with getting an education and improving one's economic well-being, not with political advancement.
In 1881, he founded the Tuskegee Institute, now Tuskegee University, in order to provide individuals with an education that would help them to find employment in the growing industrial sector. By focusing on education for blacks, rather than political advancement, he gained financial support from whites for his cause. Secretly, however, he pursued legal challenges against disfranchisement of blacks. Patricia Hill Collins is a Distinguished University Professor Emerita at the University of Maryland, College Park, she received her PhD in sociology in 1984 from Brandeis University. Collins was the president-elect for the American Sociological Association, where she was the 100th president and the first African-American woman to be president of the organization. Collins is a social theorist whose work and research focuses on race, social class and gender, she has written a number of articles on said topics. Collins work focuses by looking at issues through the lens of women of color. In her work, she writes "First, we need new visions of what oppression is, new categories of analysis that are inclusive of race and gender as distinctive yet interlocking structures of oppression".
Eduardo Bonilla-Silva is a professor of sociology at Duke University and is the 2018 president of the American Sociological Association. He received his PhD in 1993 from University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he met his mentor, Professor Charles Camic, of which he said "Camic believed in me and told me, just before graduation, that I should stay in the states as I would contribute to American sociology." Bonilla-Silva did not start off his work as a "race scholar," but was trained in class analysis, political sociology, sociology of development. It was not until the late 1980s when he joined a student movement calling for racial justice at the University of Wisconsin that he began his work in race. In his book, Racism without Racists, Bonilla-Silva discusses less overt racism, which he refers to as "new racism," which disguises itself "under the cloak of legality" in order to accomplish the same things, he discusses "color-blind racism,", when people go off the basis that we have achieved equality and deny past and present discriminations.
Denise Ferreira da Sil
Bibliography of sociology
This bibliography of sociology is a list of works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of sociology. Some of the works are selected from general anthologies of sociology. Sociology studies society using various methods of empirical investigation to understand human social activity, from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and social structure. Comte, Auguste. Discours sur l'ensemble du positivisme. Translated by J. H. Bridges. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-00064-2. Marx, Karl; the German Ideology. Including Theses on Feuerbach and introduction to The critique of political economy. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-258-6. Marx, Karl. Das Kapital. Gardners Books. ISBN 978-1-934568-43-9. Weber, Max. Die protestantische Ethik und der'Geist' des Kapitalismus. Translated by Peter Baehr. Wells. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-043921-2. Puts forward a thesis that Puritan ethic and ideas had influenced the development of capitalism; however religious devotion was accompanied by rejection of mundane affairs including economic pursuit.
Why was that not the case with Protestantism? Weber addresses that paradox in that work. Durkheim, Emile. De La Division Du Travail Social. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-83638-6. —. Le Suicide; the Free Press. ISBN 0-684-83632-7. A case study of suicide rates amongst Catholic and Jewish populations, distinguished sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy. A major contribution to structural functionalism.—. Cladis, Mark S. ed. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Translated by Carol Cosman. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-954012-9. —. Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique. Transl. by W. D. Halls with an introduction by Steven Lukes. New York, N. Y.: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-907940-9. Demography is the statistical study of human population, it encompasses the study of the size and distribution of these populations, spatial and/or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration and death. Thomas Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population with A Summary View, Introduction by Professor Antony Flew.
Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-043206-X. Gunnar Myrdal and Alva Myrdal. Crisis in the Population Question Economic sociology attempts to explain economic phenomena, it concentrates on the roles of social relations and institutions. Tocqueville, Alexis De. Zunz, Olivier, ed. Democracy in America. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer; the Library of America. ISBN 1-931082-54-5. —. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Translated by Stuart Gilbert. New York: Anchor Books. Durkheim, Emile. De La Division Du Travail Social. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-83638-6. Simmel, George; the Philosophy of Money. Translated by David Frisby. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-34172-1. Weber, Max. Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press. Polanyi, Karl; the Great Transformation: the political and economic origins of our time. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-5643-1. Hirschman, Albert O. "Rival Interpretations of Market Society: Civilizing, Destructive, or Feeble?". Journal of Economic Literature. 20: 1463–1484. Granovetter, Mark.
"Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness". The American Journal of Sociology. 91: 481–510. Doi:10.1086/228311. White, Harrison C. 2002. Markets from Networks: Socioeconomic Models of Production. Princeton: Princeton University Press Smelser and Richard Swedberg. 2005. The Handbook of Economic Sociology. Boltanski, Luc; the New Spirit of Capitalism. Verso. Boltanski, Luc. On Justification; the Economies of Worth. Princeton University Press. Industrial sociology is the sociology of technological change, labor markets, work organization, managerial practices and employment relations. Daniel Bell The Coming of Post-Industrial Society Harry Braverman Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century Michael Burawoy Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labor Process under Monopoly Capitalism Ronald P. Dore British factory, Japanese factory. Hannigan, John A.. Environmental sociology: a social constructionist perspective. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-11255-0.
Argues that a society's willingness to recognize and solve environmental problems depends more upon the way these claims are presented by a limited number of interest groups than upon the severity of the threat they pose. Schnaiberg, Alan. Environment and society: the enduring conflict. Caldwell, NJ: Blackburn. ISBN 1-930665-00-8
History of sociology
Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged out of the Enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society. Its genesis owed to various key movements in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of knowledge. Social analysis in a broader sense, has origins in the common stock of philosophy and pre-dates the field. Modern academic sociology arose as a reaction to modernity, urbanization, secularization and imperialism. Late-19th-century sociology demonstrated a strong interest in the emergence of the modern nation state. An emphasis on the concept of modernity, rather than the Enlightenment distinguishes sociological discourse from that of classical political philosophy. Various quantitative social research techniques have become common tools for governments and organizations, have found use in the other social sciences. Divorced from theoretical explanations of social dynamics, this has given social research a degree of autonomy from the discipline of sociology.
"social science" has come to be appropriated as an umbrella term to refer to various disciplines which study humans, society or culture. The sociological reasoning may be traced back at least as far as the ancient Greeks. Proto-sociological observations are to be found in the founding texts of Western philosophy, as well as in the non-European thought of figures such as Confucius; the characteristic trends in the sociological thinking of the ancient Greeks can be traced back to their social environment. Because there was any extensive or centralized political organization within states this allowed the tribal spirit of localism and provincialism to have free play; this tribal spirit of localism and provincialism pervaded most of the Greek thinking upon social phenomena. The origin of the survey can be traced back to the Domesday Book ordered by king William I in 1086. In the 13th century, Ma Tuan-Lin, a Chinese historian, first recognized patterns of social dynamics as an underlying component of historical development in his seminal encyclopedia, Wenxian Tongkao or "Comprehensive Examination of Literature".
There is evidence of early Muslim sociology from the 14th century. Some consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Tunisian, Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. Ibn Khaldun, in his Muqaddimah, the introduction to a seven volume analysis of universal history, was the first to advance social philosophy and social science in formulating theories of social cohesion and social conflict, he is thus considered by some to be the forerunner of sociology. Concerning the discipline of sociology, he conceived a dynamic theory of history that involved conceptualizations of social conflict and social change, he developed the dichotomy of sedentary life versus nomadic life as well as the concept of a "generation", the inevitable loss of power that occurs when desert warriors conquer a city. Following a contemporary Arab scholar, Sati' al-Husri, the Muqaddimah may be read as a sociological work: six books of general sociology. Topics dealt with in this work include politics, urban life and knowledge.
The work is based around Ibn Khaldun's central concept of'asabiyyah, translated as "social cohesion", "group solidarity", or "tribalism". This social cohesion arises spontaneously in other small kinship groups. Ibn Khaldun's analysis looks at how this cohesion carries groups to power but contains within itself the seeds – psychological, economic, political – of the group's downfall, to be replaced by a new group, dynasty or empire bound by a stronger cohesion; the term was first coined by the French essayist Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, from the Latin: socius, "companion". In 1838, the French-thinker Auguste Comte gave sociology the definition that it holds today. Comte had earlier expressed his work as "social physics", but that term had been appropriated by others, such as Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Saint-Simon published Physiologie sociale in 1813 and devoted much of his time to the prospect that human society could be steered toward progress if scientists would form an international assembly to influence its course.
He argued that scientists could distract groups from war and strife, by focusing their attention to improving their societies living conditions. In turn, this would prevent conflict. Saint-Simon took the idea that everyone had encouraged from the Enlightenment, the belief in science, spun it to be more practical and hands-on for the society. Saint-Simon's main idea was, he saw that people had been seeing progress as an approach for science, but he wanted them to see it as an approach to all aspects of life. Society was making a crucial change at the time; this new path could provide the basis for solving all the old problems society had encountered. He was more concerned with the participation of
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others. In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific method; the terms thoughts and behavior refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that humans are malleable to social influences when alone, such as when watching television or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and social situations. Social psychologists examine factors that cause behaviors to unfold in a given way in the presence of others, they study conditions under which certain behavior and feelings occur. Social psychology is concerned with the way these feelings, beliefs and goals are cognitively constructed and how these mental representations, in turn, influence our interactions with others.
Social psychology traditionally bridged the gap between sociology. During the years following World War II there was frequent collaboration between psychologists and sociologists; the two disciplines, have become specialized and isolated from each other in recent years, with sociologists focusing on "macro variables" to a much greater extent than psychologists. Sociological approaches to psychology remain an important counterpart to psychological research in this area. In addition to the split between psychology and sociology, there has been a somewhat less pronounced difference in emphasis between American social psychologists and European social psychologists; as a generalization, American researchers traditionally have focused more on the individual, whereas Europeans have paid more attention to group level phenomena. Although there were some older writings about social psychology, such as those by Islamic philosopher Al-Farabi, the discipline of social psychology, as its modern-day definition, began in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century.
By that time, the discipline had developed a significant foundation. Following the 18th century, those in the emerging field of social psychology were concerned with developing concrete explanations for different aspects of human nature, they attempted to discover concrete cause and effect relationships that explained the social interactions in the world around them. In order to do so, they believed that the scientific method, an empirically based scientific measure, could be applied to human behavior; the first published study in this area was an experiment in 1898 by Norman Triplett, on the phenomenon of social facilitation. During the 1930s, many Gestalt psychologists, most notably Kurt Lewin, fled to the United States from Nazi Germany, they were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time, social psychology has always maintained the legacy of their interests in perception and cognition. Attitudes and small group phenomena were the most studied topics in this era.
During World War II, social psychologists studied persuasion and propaganda for the U. S. military. After the war, researchers became interested in a variety of social problems, including gender issues and racial prejudice. Most notable and contentious of these were the Stanley Milgram shock experiments on obedience to authority. In the sixties, there was growing interest in new topics, such as cognitive dissonance, bystander intervention, aggression. By the 1970s, social psychology in America had reached a crisis. There was heated debate over the ethics of laboratory experimentation, whether or not attitudes predicted behavior, how much science could be done in a cultural context; this was the time when a radical situationist approach challenged the relevance of self and personality in psychology. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s social psychology reached a more mature level. Two of the areas social psychology matured in were methods. Careful ethical standards now regulate research. Pluralistic and multicultural perspectives have emerged.
Modern researchers are interested in many phenomena, but attribution, social cognition, the self-concept are the greatest areas of growth in recent years. Social psychologists have maintained their applied interests with contributions in the social psychology of health, education and the workplace. In social psychology, attitudes are defined as learned, global evaluations of a person, place, or issue that influence thought and action. Put more attitudes are basic expressions of approval or disapproval, favorability or unfavorability, or as Bem put it, likes and dislikes. Examples would include liking chocolate ice cream, or endorsing the values of a particular political party. Social psychologists have studied attitude formation, the structure of attitudes, attitude change, the function of attitudes, the relationship between attitudes and behavior; because people are influenced by the situation, general attitudes are not always good predictors of specific behavior. For example, for a variety of reasons, a person may value the environment but not recycle a can on a particular day.
In recent times, research on attitudes has examined the distinction between traditional, self-reported attitude measures and "implicit" or unconscious attitudes. For example, experiments using the Implicit Association Test have found that people demonstrate implicit bias against other races when their explicit responses
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor