Extraversion and introversion
The trait of extraversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories. The terms introversion and extraversion were popularized by Carl Jung, although both the popular understanding and psychological usage differ from his original intent. Extraversion tends to be manifested in outgoing, energetic behavior, whereas introversion is manifested in more reserved and solitary behavior. All comprehensive models of personality include these concepts in various forms. Examples include the Big Five model, Jung's analytical psychology, Hans Eysenck's three-factor model, Raymond Cattell's 16 personality factors, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator. Extraversion and introversion are viewed as a single continuum, so to be high in one necessitates being low in the other. Carl Jung and the developers of the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator provide a different perspective and suggest that everyone has both an extraverted side and an introverted side, with one being more dominant than the other.
Rather than focusing on interpersonal behavior, Jung defined introversion as an "attitude-type characterised by orientation in life through subjective psychic contents" and extraversion as "an attitude type characterised by concentration of interest on the external object". Extraversion is the state of obtaining gratification from outside oneself. Extraverts tend to enjoy human interactions and to be enthusiastic, talkative and gregarious. Extraverts thrive off being around other people, they take pleasure in activities that involve large social gatherings, such as parties, community activities, public demonstrations, business or political groups. They tend to work well in groups. An extraverted person is to enjoy time spent with people and find less reward in time spent alone, they tend to be energized when around other people, they are more prone to boredom when they are by themselves. Introversion is the state of being predominantly interested in one's own mental self. Introverts are perceived as more reserved or reflective.
Some popular psychologists have characterized introverts as people whose energy tends to expand through reflection and dwindle during interaction. This is similar to Jung's view. Few modern conceptions make this distinction. Introverts take pleasure in solitary activities such as reading, using computers, hiking, or fishing; the archetypal artist, sculptor, engineer and inventor are all introverted. An introvert is to enjoy time spent alone and find less reward in time spent with large groups of people, though they may enjoy interactions with close friends. Trust is an issue of significance: a virtue of utmost importance to introverts is choosing a worthy companion, they prefer to concentrate on a single activity at a time and like to observe situations before they participate observed in developing children and adolescents. They are more analytical before speaking. Introverts are overwhelmed by too much stimulation from social gatherings and engagement, introversion having been defined by some in terms of a preference for a quiet, more minimally stimulating external environment.
Mistaking introversion for shyness is a common error. Introversion is a preference. Introverts prefer solitary to social activities, but do not fear social encounters like shy people do. Susan Cain argues that modern Western culture misjudges the capabilities of introverted people, leading to a waste of talent and happiness. Cain describes how society is biased against introverts, that, with people being taught from childhood that to be sociable is to be happy, introversion is now considered "somewhere between a disappointment and pathology". In contrast, Cain says that introversion is not a "second-class" trait but that both introverts and extraverts enrich society, with examples including the introverts J. K. Rowling, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Seuss, W. B. Yeats, Steven Spielberg and Larry Page. Although many people view being introverted or extraverted as mutually exclusive, most contemporary trait theories measure levels of extraversion-introversion as part of a single, continuous dimension of personality, with some scores near one end, others near the half-way mark.
Ambiversion is falling less directly in the middle. An ambivert is moderately comfortable with groups and social interaction, but relishes time alone, away from a crowd. In simpler words, an ambivert is a person whose behaviour changes according to the situation they are in. In face of authority or in presence of strangers, the person may be introverted. However, in the presence of family or close friends, the person may be energetic or extraverted. Susan Cain's 2012 book Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking reports that studies indicate 33–50% of the American population are introverts. Particular subpopulations have higher prevalence, with a 6000-subject MBTI-based survey indicating that 60% of attorneys, 90% of intellectual property attorneys, are introverts; the extent of extraversion and introversion is most assessed through self-report measures, although peer-reports and third-party observation can be used. Self-report measures are either lexical or based on statements.
The type of measure is determined by an assessment of psychometric properties and the time and space constraints of the research being undertaken. Lexical measures use individual adjectives that refl
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others. In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific method; the terms thoughts and behavior refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that humans are malleable to social influences when alone, such as when watching television or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and social situations. Social psychologists examine factors that cause behaviors to unfold in a given way in the presence of others, they study conditions under which certain behavior and feelings occur. Social psychology is concerned with the way these feelings, beliefs and goals are cognitively constructed and how these mental representations, in turn, influence our interactions with others.
Social psychology traditionally bridged the gap between sociology. During the years following World War II there was frequent collaboration between psychologists and sociologists; the two disciplines, have become specialized and isolated from each other in recent years, with sociologists focusing on "macro variables" to a much greater extent than psychologists. Sociological approaches to psychology remain an important counterpart to psychological research in this area. In addition to the split between psychology and sociology, there has been a somewhat less pronounced difference in emphasis between American social psychologists and European social psychologists; as a generalization, American researchers traditionally have focused more on the individual, whereas Europeans have paid more attention to group level phenomena. Although there were some older writings about social psychology, such as those by Islamic philosopher Al-Farabi, the discipline of social psychology, as its modern-day definition, began in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century.
By that time, the discipline had developed a significant foundation. Following the 18th century, those in the emerging field of social psychology were concerned with developing concrete explanations for different aspects of human nature, they attempted to discover concrete cause and effect relationships that explained the social interactions in the world around them. In order to do so, they believed that the scientific method, an empirically based scientific measure, could be applied to human behavior; the first published study in this area was an experiment in 1898 by Norman Triplett, on the phenomenon of social facilitation. During the 1930s, many Gestalt psychologists, most notably Kurt Lewin, fled to the United States from Nazi Germany, they were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time, social psychology has always maintained the legacy of their interests in perception and cognition. Attitudes and small group phenomena were the most studied topics in this era.
During World War II, social psychologists studied persuasion and propaganda for the U. S. military. After the war, researchers became interested in a variety of social problems, including gender issues and racial prejudice. Most notable and contentious of these were the Stanley Milgram shock experiments on obedience to authority. In the sixties, there was growing interest in new topics, such as cognitive dissonance, bystander intervention, aggression. By the 1970s, social psychology in America had reached a crisis. There was heated debate over the ethics of laboratory experimentation, whether or not attitudes predicted behavior, how much science could be done in a cultural context; this was the time when a radical situationist approach challenged the relevance of self and personality in psychology. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s social psychology reached a more mature level. Two of the areas social psychology matured in were methods. Careful ethical standards now regulate research. Pluralistic and multicultural perspectives have emerged.
Modern researchers are interested in many phenomena, but attribution, social cognition, the self-concept are the greatest areas of growth in recent years. Social psychologists have maintained their applied interests with contributions in the social psychology of health, education and the workplace. In social psychology, attitudes are defined as learned, global evaluations of a person, place, or issue that influence thought and action. Put more attitudes are basic expressions of approval or disapproval, favorability or unfavorability, or as Bem put it, likes and dislikes. Examples would include liking chocolate ice cream, or endorsing the values of a particular political party. Social psychologists have studied attitude formation, the structure of attitudes, attitude change, the function of attitudes, the relationship between attitudes and behavior; because people are influenced by the situation, general attitudes are not always good predictors of specific behavior. For example, for a variety of reasons, a person may value the environment but not recycle a can on a particular day.
In recent times, research on attitudes has examined the distinction between traditional, self-reported attitude measures and "implicit" or unconscious attitudes. For example, experiments using the Implicit Association Test have found that people demonstrate implicit bias against other races when their explicit responses
Aaron T. Beck
Aaron Temkin Beck is an American psychiatrist, professor emeritus in the department of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania. He is regarded as the father of cognitive therapy, his pioneering theories are used in the treatment of clinical depression. Beck developed self-report measures of depression and anxiety, notably the Beck Depression Inventory which became one of the most used instruments for measuring depression severity. Beck is noted for his research in psychotherapy, psychopathology and psychometrics, he has published more than 600 professional journal articles, authored or co-authored 25 books. He has been named one of the "Americans in history who shaped the face of American Psychiatry", one of the "five most influential psychotherapists of all time" by The American Psychologist in July 1989, his work at the University of Pennsylvania inspired Martin Seligman to refine his own cognitive techniques and work on learned helplessness. Beck is the President Emeritus of the non-profit Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy which he and his psychologist daughter, Judith S. Beck, set up in 1994.
Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, US, the youngest child of four siblings to Russian Jewish immigrants. Beck was married in 1950 to Phyllis W. Beck, the first woman judge on the appellate court of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, they have four adult children: Roy, Judy and Alice. Beck's daughter Judith is a prominent cognitive behavioral therapy educator and clinician, who wrote the basic text in the field, she is President of the non-profit Beck Institute. Beck attended Brown University, graduating magna cum laude in 1942. At Brown he was elected a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, was an associate editor of The Brown Daily Herald, received the Francis Wayland Scholarship, William Gaston Prize for Excellence in Oratory, Philo Sherman Bennett Essay Award. Beck attended Yale Medical School, graduating with an MD in 1946, he began to specialize in neurology liking the precision of its procedures. However, due to a shortage of psychiatry residents he was instructed to do a six-month rotation in that field, became absorbed in psychoanalysis, despite initial wariness.
After completing his medical internships and residencies from 1946 to 1950, Beck became Fellow in psychiatry at the Austen Riggs Center, a private mental hospital in the mountains of Stockbridge, until 1952. At that time it was a center of ego psychology with unusually cross-disciplinary work between psychiatrists and psychologists, including David Rapaport. Beck completed military service as assistant chief of neuropsychiatry at Valley Forge Army Hospital in the United States Military. Beck joined the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania in 1954; the department chair was Kenneth Ellmaker Appel, a psychoanalyst, president of the American Psychiatric Association, whose efforts to expand the presence and connections of psychiatry had a big influence on Beck's career. At the same time, Beck began formal training in psychoanalysis at the Philadelphia Institute of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Beck's closest colleague was Marvin Stein, a friend since their army hospital days to whom Beck looked up for his scientific rigor in psychoneuroimmunology.
Beck's first research was with Leon Saul, a psychoanalyst known for unusual methods such as therapy by telephone or setting homework, who had developed inventory questionnaires to quantify ego processes in the manifest content of dreams. Beck and a graduate student developed a new inventory they used to assess "masochistic" hostility in manifest dreams, published in 1959; this study found themes of loss and rejection related to depression, rather than inverted hostility as predicted by psychoanalysis. Developing the work with NIMH funding, Beck came up with what he would call the Beck Depression Inventory, which he published in 1961 and soon started to market, unsupported by Appel. In another experiment, he found that depressed patients sought encouragement or improvement following disapproval, rather than seeking out suffering and failure as predicted by the Freudian anger-turned-inwards theory. Through the 1950s, Beck adhered to the department's psychoanalytic theories while developing his experimentation and harboring some private doubts.
In 1961, controversy over whom to appoint as the new chair of psychiatry—specifically, fierce psychoanalytic opposition to the favored choice of biomedical researcher Eli Robins—brought matters to a head, an early skirmish in a power shift away from psychoanalysis nationally. Beck, with Albert J. Stunkard, opposed a petition to block Robins. Stunkard, a behaviorist who specialized in obesity and who had dropped out of psychoanalytic training, was appointed department head in the face of sustained opposition which again Beck would not engage in, putting him at bitter odds with his friend Stein. On top of this, despite having graduated from his Philadelphia training, the American Psychoanalytic Institute rejected Beck's membership application in 1960, skeptical of his claims of success from brief therapy and advising he conduct further supervised therapy on the more advanced or termination phases of a case, again in 1961 when he had not done so but outlined his clinical and research work; such deferments were a tactic used by the Institute to maintain the orthodoxy in teaching, but Beck did not know this at the time and has described the decision as stupid and dumb.
Beck explains his increasing belief in his cognitive model by reference to a patient he had been listening to for a year at the Penn clin
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals. It is a scientific study which aims to show how people are individually different due to psychological forces, its areas of focus include: construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processes investigation of individual psychological differences investigation of human nature and psychological similarities between individuals"Personality" is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, emotions and behaviors in various situations. The word personality originates from the Latin persona, which means "mask". Personality refers to the pattern of thoughts, social adjustments, behaviors exhibited over time that influences one's expectations, self-perceptions and attitudes. Personality predicts human reactions to other people and stress. Gordon Allport described two major ways to study personality: the idiographic.
Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization or the trait of extraversion. Idiographic psychology is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual; the study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology with an abundance of theoretical trad. The major theories include dispositional perspective, humanistic, behaviorist and social learning perspective. However, many researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and instead take an eclectic approach. Research in this area is empirically driven, such as dimensional models, based on multivariate statistics, such as factor analysis, or emphasizes theory development, such as that of the psychodynamic theory. There is a substantial emphasis on the applied field of personality testing. In psychological education and training, the study of the nature of personality and its psychological development is reviewed as a prerequisite to courses in abnormal psychology or clinical psychology.
Many of the ideas developed by historical and modern personality theorists stem from the basic philosophical assumptions they hold. The study of personality is not a purely empirical discipline, as it brings in elements of art and philosophy to draw general conclusions; the following five categories are some of the most fundamental philosophical assumptions on which theorists disagree: Freedom versus determinism – This is the question whether humans have control over their own behavior and understand the motives behind it or if their behavior is causally determined by forces beyond their control. Behavior is categorized as being either unconscious, environmental or biological by various theories. Heredity versus environment – Personality is thought to be determined either by genetics and biology, or by environment and experiences. Contemporary research suggests that most personality traits are based on the joint influence of genetics and environment. One of the forerunners in this arena is C. Robert Cloninger, who pioneered the Temperament and Character model.
Uniqueness versus universality – This question discusses the extent of each human's individuality or similarity in nature. Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers were all advocates of the uniqueness of individuals. Behaviorists and cognitive theorists, in contrast, emphasize the importance of universal principles, such as reinforcement and self-efficacy. Active versus reactive – This question explores whether humans act through individual initiative or through outside stimuli. Traditional behavioral theorists believed that humans are passively shaped by their environments, whereas humanistic and cognitive theorists believe that humans are more active in their role. Most modern theorists agree that both are important, with aggregate behavior being determined by traits and situational factors being the primary predictor of behavior in the short term. Optimistic versus pessimistic – Personality theories differ with regard to whether humans are integral in the changing of their own personalities.
Theories that place a great deal of emphasis on learning are more optimistic than those that do not. Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of people. Personality types are distinguished from personality traits. There are many types of theories regarding personality, but each theory contains several and sometimes many sub theories. A "theory of personality" constructed by any given psychologist will contain multiple relating theories or sub theories expanding as more psychologists explore the theory. For example, according to type theories, there are two types of people and extroverts. According to trait theories and extroversion are part of a continuous dimension with many people in the middle; the idea of psychological types originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung in his 1921 book Psychologische Typen and William Marston. Building on the writings and observations of Jung during World War II, Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine C. Briggs, delineated personality types by constructing the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator.
This model was used by David Keirsey with a different understanding from Jung and Myers. In the former Soviet Union, Lithuanian Aušra Augustinavičiūtė independently derived a model of personality type from Jung's called socionics. Theories could be co