Socrates of Constantinople known as Socrates Scholasticus, was a 5th-century Christian church historian, a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret. He is the author of a Historia Ecclesiastica which covers the history of late ancient Christianity during the years 305 to 439, he was born in Constantinople. In ancient times nothing seems to have been known of his life except what can be gathered from notices in his Historia Ecclesiastica, which departed from its ostensible model, Eusebius of Caesarea, in emphasizing the place of the emperor in church affairs and in giving secular as well as church history. Socrates' teachers, noted in his prefaces, were the grammarians Helladius and Ammonius, who came to Constantinople from Alexandria, where they had been pagan priests. A revolt, accompanied by an attack on the pagan temples, had forced them to flee; this attack, in which the Serapeum was vandalized and destroyed, is dated about 391. It is not proved that Socrates of Constantinople profited by the teaching of the sophist Troilus.
No certainty exists as to Socrates' precise vocation, though it may be inferred from his work that he was a layman. In years he traveled and visited, among other places and Cyprus; the history covers the years 305 to 439, experts believe it was finished in 439 or soon thereafter, during the lifetime of Emperor Theodosius II, i.e. before 450. The purpose of the history is to continue the work of Eusebius of Caesarea, it relates in simple Greek language what the Church experienced from the days of Constantine to the writer's time. Ecclesiastical dissensions occupy the foreground, for when the Church is at peace, there is nothing for the church historian to relate. In the preface to Book 5, Socrates defends dealing with Arianism and with political events in addition to writing about the church; the Historia Ecclesiastica is one of the few sources of information about Hypatia, the female mathematician and philosopher of Alexandria. Socrates' account is in many respects well-balanced, he is careful not to use hyperbolic titles when referring to prominent personalities in the church and the government.
He is assumed to have been a follower of Novatianism, but this is based on the fact that he gives a lot of details about the Novatianists, speaks of them in generous terms, as he does of Arians and other groups. He speaks of himself as belonging to the Church. Socrates asserts that he owed the impulse to write his work to a certain Theodorus, alluded to in the proemium to the second book as "a holy man of God" and seems therefore to have been a monk or one of the higher clergy; the contemporary historians Sozomen and Theodoret were combined with Socrates in a sixth-century compilation, which has obscured their differences until when their individual portrayals of the series of Christian emperors were distinguished one from another and contrasted by Hartmut Leppin, Von Constantin dem Großen zu Theodosius II. The Historia Ecclesiastica was first edited in Greek by Robert Estienne, on the basis of Codex Regius 1443; the fundamental early modern edition, was produced by Henricus Valesius, who used the Codex Regius, a Codex Vaticanus, a Codex Florentinus, employed the indirect tradition of Theodorus Lector.
The text was edited in Patrologia Graeca vol. 67. The new critical edition of the text is edited by G. C. Hansen, published in the series Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller 1995. An English translation by A. C. Zenos was published in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 2. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wallace. (online editions: newadvent.org ccel.orgmunseys.com. More Socrates' History has been published in four bilingual volumes by Pierre Maraval in the Sources Chrétiennes collection. Theresa Urbainczyk, Socrates of Constantinople, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1997 ISBN 0-4721-0737-2 Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Σωκράτης ὁ Σχολαστικός Greek Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Graeca with analytical indexes
The Lancia Delta S4 is a Group B rally car manufactured by the Italian car company Lancia. The Delta S4 competed in the World Rally Championship in 1985 and 1986, until Group B class was disbanded and the cars were banned from competition by European sanctioning body FIA; the car replaced, was an evolution of the 037. The S4 took full advantage of the Group B regulations, featured a midship-mounted engine and all-wheel drive for superior traction on loose surfaces; the car's 1,759 cc Inline-four engine combined supercharging and turbocharging to reduce turbo lag at low engine speeds. The engine generated a maximum output of 490 PS but some sources claim that the engine was capable of generating 507 PS. In 1985, when Lancia engineers tested an S4 engine under extreme conditions, it developed around 1,014 PS at 5 bars of boost pressure. An engine capacity multiple of 1.4 was applied to forced induction engines by the FIA and the choice of 1,759 cc put the S4 in the under 2,500 cc class, which allowed for a minimum weight of 890 kg.
The combined super/turbocharger system was a development of the 037 engine that generated 325 hp with a supercharger only. Like Peugeot's earlier 205 T16, the mid-engine Lancia Delta S4 was a silhouette race car, shared nothing in terms of construction with the production front-engine Delta; the chassis was a tubular space frame construction much like the 037. It featured long travel double wishbone suspension front and rear, with a single large coil over at the front along with a separate spring and twin shock absorbers at the rear; the bodywork was made of a carbon fibre composite with front and rear bodywork detachable for fast replacement due to accident damage, allowing ease of access during on-event servicing. The bodywork featured several aerodynamic aids including bonnet opening behind the front-mounted water radiator with Gurney flap, front splitter and winglets moulded into the front bumper panel, flexible front skirt, rear deck lid wing that featured both a full aerofoil wind section twinned with a deflection spoiler.
The door construction style was brought from the 037 with a hollow shell all-Kevlar construction that had no inner door skin, no door handle or window winder. The door was opened with a small loop and the windows were fixed perspex with small sliding panels to allow ventilation and passing of time cards; the all-wheel drive system, developed in cooperation with English company Hewland, featured a centre differential which allowed for 60-75% of the torque to go to the rear wheels. The Group S Lancia ECV was to replace the Delta S4 in the 1987 season but the Group S was scrapped along with Group B and Lancia used the production-derived Delta for the 1987 season; the method of turbocharging and supercharging an engine is referred to as twincharging. The Delta S4 was the first example of this technology; the Delta S4 had a comparatively large KKK K27 turbo with a boost threshold of 4500rpm. The turbo technology of the time had quite marked boost thresholds, with little or no response below this; some people mistake this for turbo lag.
This phenomenon, known as boost threshold, negatively affects driveability, an important aspect of any car. The Abarth Volumex R18 supercharger was the twin of the turbo, providing low to mid range boost and improving engine response and driveability of the S4. Superchargers do not suffer from lag as they are powered directly from the engine's crankshaft, rather than by the exhaust gases. However, because of this direct mechanical connection, the supercharger presents a significant parasitic load to the engine at higher RPM. Lancia designed their twincharger system so the supercharger provides instantaneous boost in the lower RPM range, switching to the turbocharger for more efficient higher RPM engine operation. Between October 1985 and 1986 Lancia built 200 examples of a road-going version of the Delta S4 named Lancia Delta S4 but known as "Stradale", for the purpose of homologation in Group B. In Italy, the car was priced at about 100 million Lira: five times the price of the most expensive Delta of the time, the HF Turbo.
The Stradale's chassis was a space frame, similar to its rally counterpart, built out of CrMo steel tubes and aluminium alloy for the crash structures. Like the rally car, the 1.8-litre four-cylinder engine was longitudinally mid-mounted, equipped with Weber-Marelli IAW integrated electronic ignition and fuel injection, a supercharger, a turbocharger and two intercoolers. In road tune the 1.8 produced 250 PS at 291 N ⋅ m of torque at 4500 rpm. The "Stradale" kept a three differential four-wheel-drive system from the rally car. Lancia claimed the car could reach a top speed of 225 km/h and accelerate from standstill to 100 km/h in 6.0 seconds. In contrast to its bare bones racing sister, the S4 Stradale featured an Alcantara-upholstered interior, sound deadening, a suede steering wheel, was equipped with power steering, trip computer and air conditioning. While racing versions were built by Abarth, the Stradales were built by Torinese coachbuilders Savio. In competition, the car won its first event, the 1985 RAC Rally in the hands of Henri Toivonen and carried Markku Alén to second in the drivers' championship the following year.
For two weeks after the end of the 1986 season Alen was champion until the FIA annulled the results of the Sanremo Rally due to irregular technical scrutineering. Alén had won that event and the loss of
Viliami Ofahengaue known as Willie O, is a former rugby union player who earned 41 caps for the Australian Wallabies from 1990 to 1998, played in the World Cups of 1991 and 1995 as well as the 1993 World Cup Sevens. Ofahengaue attended Tupou College Toloa in Tonga, he was included in Toloas 1st XV team, undefeated throughout all the secondary schools in Tonga, it was after his years at Tupou College Toloa where he had the opportunities to travel around Australia and New Zealand through rugby. Ofahengaue participated in a tour to Australia. However, on the return trip, he was refused re-entry to New Zealand with his Tongan passport so he moved to Australia, it was while playing for the Manly Rugby Club that he was selected for Australian teams. He scored 11 Test tries for Australia from the back of the scrum before handing over the No.8 jersey to fellow Tongan Toutai Kefu at the end of 1998. He has the somewhat rare distinction of having beaten the All Blacks more times than losing to them. After finishing his playing career in Australia, Ofahengaue worked as player/coach in Japan for the next five years, visiting Fiji in 2001 to lend assistance to Tonga's Pacific Rim campaign.
He became head coach of the'Ikale Tahi in January 2004. He has coached Japanese and Manly club sides. Former Wallabies No.8 Wycliff Palu mentioned Ofahengaue as someone he looked up to during his early career. He now resides in the western suburbs of Melbourne in Sunshine, Victoria with his wife and children where he serves as the head minister for the state of Victoria for the Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga. Ofahengaue is the uncle of current Brisbane Broncos player Joe Ofahengaue. Willie Ofahengaue on Sporting Heroes Statistics - Scrum.com - Fox Sports Interview
Louis Fisher Vetter was an American businessman and politician in Los Angeles, noted for the number of social clubs in which he was active. He was a member of the Los Angeles City Council in 1898–1900. Vetter was born in Washington, Illinois, in 1857, in 1886 he came to Los Angeles to help open the R. G. Dun & Co. mercantile firm. He returned two years to manage it, he remained until leaving the firm in 1890 to go into the insurance business, he was "prominently associated with the business and political development of the Southland" and was head of the Louis F. Vetter bonding company in the Bradbury Building. In 1910 he was one of the incorporators of the Los Angeles Milling Company, he became its vice-president. A member of the Hollywood Blue Lodge and the Knights Templar of the Masonic brotherhood, Vetter was in the Los Angeles Country Club and the Bohemian Club of San Francisco, he was active in the California Club. He was once referred to as "the club man of club men... a composite of sagacity and good fellowship."The Los Angeles Times said of him: One of the exceptionally clever writers of the Scribes, Mr. Vetter was dramatic correspondent for the New York Clipper from 1891 to 1911 and his trenchant, though good-natured criticisms attracted attention throughout the country.
Vetter died January 1923, in his residence at the California Club. A funeral service was conducted at St. John's Episcopal Church by Bishop Joseph H. Johnson, cremation followed at Hollywood Cemetery. Active pallbearers were R. W. Burnham and Joseph Scott from the Sunset Club, R. W. Pridham and A. B. Cass from the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, J. E. Fishburn and Remson D. Bird, president of Occidental College, from the Bohemian Club. In October 1896 Vetter announced that he was a candidate for the office of mayor of Los Angeles in the December election, but instead the local Republican Party chose Julius H. Martin to run on its ticket, Vetter was elected chairman of the Republican City and Central Committee, which had charge of the overall county campaign. In February 1897 Vetter announced that he would leave his position on the Board of Fire Commissioners because he was taking part in the formation of a new corporation, the Home Telephone Company, the city charter did not allow a city official to compete for "any sort of franchise."He was elected to the City Council from the 3rd Ward on December 5, 1898, for a two-year term.
On the council, one of the projects he spoke for was the installation of "a suitable lavatory in Sixth Street or Central Park," the present Pershing Square. He said it could be done by "raising the bandstand and placing the rooms underneath it." He urged that the city electrician be requested "to see if some means cannot be devised" to dim the headlights of streetcars while they were "traveling the crowded streets of the city."Vetter failed of renomination by the local Republican Party convention after he opposed opening up a district surrounding Westlake Park, the present McArthur Park, for oil drilling. It was said that Vetter had thus earned the enmity of an influential "oil speculator and money lender," W. E. De Groot, quoted as saying he would spend ten thousand dollars to defeat Vetter if he were renominated; this disagreement led to a short bout of fisticuffs when the two men met by happenstance one night in the Hotel Wellington, Vetter knocked the "very abusive" De Groot to the floor with a blow to the side of the head.
His estate was estimated at a value of $300,000 at his death, of which the state of California was to receive about $43,000 in inheritance tax. He left most of his estate to Spencer Grant of San Francisco, "son of the late Mr. Grant's closest friend." He bequeathed more than $5,000 to Helen G. Currie, his secretary, $1,000 to Mary E. MacGowan, another employee
James Drew Anderson is a former Major League Baseball pitcher who pitched for five seasons in the majors. Anderson made his major league debut in 1999. In 2000, Anderson pitched in 27 games. In 2001, Anderson had career highs in wins, games started, innings strikeouts, he finished 9-17 with a 5.10 ERA. In 2002, Anderson regressed and lost control, walking 63 batters while striking out just 47 in 140 2⁄3 innings for the Pirates, he was signed with the Cincinnati Reds. He went 1-5 in 8 games for the Reds and was designated for assignment. Instead of choosing an outright assignment to AAA, Anderson became a free agent. Anderson signed a minor league deal with the Giants, for which he started 8 games, going 1-4 with a 6.44 ERA. In 2004, Anderson signed a minor league deal with the Chicago Cubs. Anderson pitched in 16 games at the AAA level before being called up by the Cubs. Anderson appeared in just 7 games for the Cubs, all relief appearances, notched his first career save. Anderson was traded to the Boston Red Sox for a minor league pitcher on July 2, 2004.
Despite not being on the World Series roster, he was rewarded for his contributions with a championship ring. In 2005, Anderson pitched in the Twins, Astros and Devil Rays minor league systems. Between all four, Anderson compiled an 8-10 record in 27 games, he had a 3.44 ERA despite a WHIP of 1.50 due to his hits in 144 innings. Anderson last played in the Florida Marlins organization in 2006, he was released after posting an ERA of 5.77 in 22 games. After his release, he retired from baseball; as of 2013, he works with Bobby McKinney in Western Branch Pitching Clinic. He is coaching a team called the Mid-Atlantic Pirates Scout team. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference
Dawn Gibbins MBE is a British entrepreneur who started commercial and industrial flooring company Flowcrete in 1982 in south Cheshire, with her late father, Peter Gibbins. She oversaw its international and domestic growth, covering 30 offices worldwide and 12 manufacturing sites in the UK, Sweden, South Africa, US and Brazil. Flowcrete was sold to New York Stock Exchange listed company RPM in April 2008. Since the sale, Gibbins has launched a flooring business aimed at homes, Barefoot Living, based in Congleton, South Cheshire, along with a social enterprise Barefoot Feng Shui. Gibbins is a keen feng shui practitioner, sees that the clear, uncluttered philosophy supports a holistic approach to UK lifestyles, both in the home and in business. Gibbins was featured in a 2009 episode of the Secret Millionaire Channel 4 TV series, donating £250,000 to three Bristol-based charities. Gibbins states that the experience of spending 8 days living amongst those in need "changed her life". Charities that received donations at the end of the program were'The One25 Project', a charity that seeks to enable women who are abused and trapped in a life of street sex-work, the'Wild Goose Café' who feed and care for the homeless, sex workers and those battling addiction and the'Teenage Parents Project' who offer support and guidance to young parents.
In 2010 Gibbins returned to Bristol to film The Secret Millionaire Changed My Life, a follow up to the original broadcast. In the program, broadcast on 11 January 2011, Gibbins explained that her experience working with her supported charities had changed her life. Talking about the £125,000 donation to the Wild Goose Café, Gibbins explained that she found Assistant Manager Lisa Mannion's'dream' compelling and she'wanted to make this girl's dream come true', her career achievements include the award of an honorary doctorate from Manchester Metropolitan University in 2004, the Veuve Clicquot Business Woman of the Year accolade in 2003 and an MBE in 1994. She has been made a ‘Pioneer to the Life of our Nation’ by Her Majesty The Queen in 2004. David Johnson, "Feng Shui is guiding Dawn into new start", The Sentinel, April 9, 2008 Rachel Elnaugh, "Life after the business nightmare",Sunday Telegraph, April 27, 2008 Matthew Rock, "Stars of the Stage", Real Business, September 1, 2008 Philip Beresford, "Not just business as usual", Management Today, January 1, 2009 Patrick O'Neill, "Congleton, the capital of feng shui", Cheshire Life, February 1, 2009 Dawn Gibbins' website Daily Record Interview, January 7, 2011