Mongul is the name of two fictional supervillains that appear in comic books published by DC Comics. Writer Len Wein and artist Jim Starlin created the first version of the character, who debuted in DC Comics Presents #27. Writer Peter J. Tomasi and artist Scot Eaton created the second version, who first appeared in Showcase'95 #8 as an infant. Debuting in the Bronze Age of comic books, Mongul has been featured in other DC Comics-endorsed products such as animated television series. Mongul debuted in the title DC Comics Presents and was created by writer Len Wein and artist Jim Starlin. Starlin receives credit as creator of the character, but Wein in an interview stated "Well, had Starlin visuals, but he was my creation." Wein said he conceived Mongul as a villain to physically challenge Superman. Mongul was the ruler of his own alien race until a revolution occurred, he was exiled into outer space. In his first appearance, Mongul kidnaps Superman's friends, threatening to kill them unless the hero brings him the key that can activate the artificial planet Warworld.
After Superman retrieves the key, is forced to fight the Martian Manhunter, protecting it, Mongul activates Warworld. Psychically linked with its controls, Mongul tries to destroy Supergirl. Mongul is rendered unconscious by a massive mental strain caused from using its controls, but manages to escape before the heroes destroy Warworld. Mongul tries to conquer Throneworld, the home planet of Prince Gavyn, one of the heroes who have used the name Starman. Mongul murders Gavyn's sister and forces Gavyn's lover into marrying him in order to usurp the throne of the empire for himself, he uses Throneworld's planet-destroying weapon to blackmail other planets into obedience. Superman battles Mongul, while Starman disables the weapon. Mongul retreats. Now wanting revenge on Superman, Mongul kills a Controller and steals the Sun-Eater to devour the Earth's sun. While the Justice League of America and Legion of Super-Heroes battle Mongul, Superman defeats him as the Legion destroys the Sun-Eater. Mongul attacks Superman on his birthday and ensnares him with a Black Mercy, an alien plant that feeds off a victim's "bio-aura" while rendering the victim incapable of fighting back, giving them their own perfect "dream world" in return.
In the end, thanks to Batman and Wonder Woman, Mongul becomes the plant's next victim and dreams of himself as ruler of the universe. The story "For the Man Who Has Everything" was written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Dave Gibbons. After the 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC Comics retconned the histories of some major characters to update them for contemporary audiences; the original stories involving Mongul were no longer in continuity, the character was reintroduced as the ruler of Warworld, a space empire where Mongul entertains the citizens with gladiatorial games. Mongul captures Superman for use in the games, but Superman joins forces with an alien warrior called Draaga and makes Mongul flee. Mongul is persuaded via torture to serve the Cyborg Superman to gain vengeance on Superman and to try to turn the Earth into another Warworld. In the process, Green Lantern Hal Jordan's home, Coast City, is destroyed, which leads to Jordan joining Superman and his allies to defeat Mongul.
After his defeat, Mongul is imprisoned in a prison for intergalactic criminals, only to break out during a riot. His first target is Green Lantern. Mongul is defeated. Mongul is re-imprisoned. Mongul breaks out of the lunar penal colony, killing everyone there, including prisoners who are left to die in the vacuum of space, his ship is wrecked and he is near death. In return, he takes over the planet and ends up being left alone as the inhabitants prefer dying due to a virus than his tyranny, until he ends up finding two babies immune to the virus. Mongul is defeated on Earth by Wally West when Mongul tries to unearth a starship left from one of the Darkstars' enemies underneath Keystone City; the Flash defeats Mongul. The Flash uses Mongul to test his new upgraded powers. During the battle, Wally is only hit one time by hulking Mongul. Flash uses his super speed to confuse and defeat Mongul and has him imprisoned in the Slab, a prison for supervillains. During the Underworld Unleashed storyline, the demon-lord Neron offers various supervillains enhanced power in exchange for their souls, all by lighting a carved black candle.
Mongul's pride causes him to threaten Neron. In response, Neron beats Mongul to death for his defiance. Mongul's son named Mongul, appears to assist and train Superman, in preparation for the arrival of Imperiex; this Mongul seems to be more powerful than his father. He appears to have been killed in the Our Worlds at War crossover, but returns during Infinite Crisis after learning from Despero that the Justice League has been destroyed, his intention is to loot their Watchtower headquarters but he ends up fighting Batman and Wonder Woman. He is killed by Wonder Woman before escaping via a working teleporter; the teleportation transports him to Earth, to menace Hal Jordan
Green Lantern Corps
The Green Lantern Corps is the name of a fictional intergalactic military/police force appearing in comics published by DC Comics. They patrol the farthest reaches of the DC Universe at the behest of the Guardians, a race of immortals residing on the planet Oa. According to DC continuity, the Green Lantern Corps has been in existence for three billion years, surviving multiple conflicts both internal and foreign. Operating divided as pairs amongst the 3600 "sectors" of the universe, there are 7202 members, two lanterns for every sector, except for sector 2814, which has six members; each Green Lantern is given a power ring, a weapon granting the use of incredible abilities that are directed by the wearer's own willpower. In 1959, during a revival of the popularity of superhero comics in America, DC Comics' editor Julius Schwartz decided to reinvent the 1940s superhero character Green Lantern as a science fiction hero. Schwartz's new conception of Green Lantern had a different name and origin story, no connection to the original Green Lantern.
Whereas the Green Lantern of the 1940s was a lone vigilante who only had adventures on Earth, the new Green Lantern was but one of a group of interstellar lawmen who all called themselves Green Lanterns. The group is first mentioned in Showcase #22 when a dying Green Lantern passes on his ring to Hal Jordan. Over the years, writers have introduced a large cast of Green Lanterns in both supporting and starring roles; the Guardians of the Universe are one of several races that originated on the planet Maltus and were among the first intelligent life forms in the universe. At this time they were short greyish blue humanoids with black hair, they became thinkers, experimenting on the worlds around them. In a pivotal moment billions of years ago, a Maltusian named Krona used time-bending technology to observe the beginning of the universe. However, this experiment unleashed disaster upon all existence; the experiment splintered the universe into the multiverse and created the evil anti-matter universe.
Following the retroactive destruction of the Multiverse, it was revealed that Krona flooded the beginning of the universe with entropy causing it "to be born old". Krona's experiment drew Volthoom a traveler from the multiverse looking to save his Earth, he bought with him the Travel Lantern powered by the Emotional Spectrum. Through working with Volthoom the future Guardians shed their emotions into The Great Heart and inadvertently created the First Ring. Volthoom received this ring and had the Great Heart implanted in his chest, controlling the whole emotional spectrum made him dangerous; the future guardians destroyed his Travel Lantern further escalating the situation. Future Guardian Rami used the pieces of the Travel Lantern to create the first seven green lantern rings and imprison the First Lantern Volthoom. Soon after it was decided that the emotional spectrum was at present too dangerous to wield; the male Maltusians argued about. One group decided to dedicate their eternal existences to contain evil.
A single male Guardian would become the Pale Bishop and found The Paling, an anti-emotion faith. The females, saw no need to involve themselves and, since the Oans were by immortal and had no more need to reproduce, left their mates and became known as the Zamarons founding the Star Sapphires. Relocating to the planet Oa at "the center of the universe", the Guardians dedicated themselves to combatting evil and creating an orderly universe. During this period they evolved into their current appearance. A Green Lantern's only weakness is the yellow energy of fear, opposite to the green energy of will. After the Green Lantern Sinestro betrayed the Green Lantern Corps and created the Sinestro Corps, a prophecy was fulfilled that Lantern Corps of the other cosmic energies of emotion shall form, such as Red, Black, Indigo and Violet. In their first attempt to enforce their will and guard against all menaces, about 3.5 billion years ago the Guardians of the universe created a legion of robotic sentinels called the Manhunters.
At first serving faithfully to enforce order, in time the Manhunters came to resent their servitude and the moral restrictions the Guardians decreed of them. They were found to be inherently flawed due to their inability to recognize or feel emotions, they rebelled against the Guardians and fought a millennia-long war that culminated with an attack on the planet Oa. The Guardians overcame their android servants, stripped them of their power, banished them across the universe; the surviving Manhunters formed their own robotic society and pursued their own interpretation of their original mission. In the Martian Manhunter series, the Guardians first get the idea for an intergalactic police force from the Martians' own Manhunters, they offer the Martian race the opportunity to be that force. The Martians turn it down. In Geoff Johns' 2008 storyline "Green Lantern: Secret Origin", it is revealed that the Manhunters suffered from a malfunction in their logic that led them to believe that order could only be achieved by eliminating all life.
They rampaged through Sector 666. The only survivors banded together to form the Five Inversions, swearing revenge on the Guardians for the actions of their creations. One of the five, would become the leader of the Red Lantern Corps, it was discovered that the Manhunters
Soranik Natu is a fictional character, current leader of the Sinestro Corps, a former member of the Green Lantern Corps in the DC Comics Universe. She first appears in Green Lantern Corps: Recharge #1, was created by writers Geoff Johns, Dave Gibbons, artist Patrick Gleason. Soranik is an extraterrestrial from the planet Korugar, she has been revealed as a daughter of the villain Sinestro, her mother is Sinestro's late wife Arin Sur, which makes her the niece of Hal Jordan's predecessor, Abin Sur. Soranik was the love interest of Green Lantern Kyle Rayner before ending the relationship after uncovering his continued affections for his deceased former love interest Jade. A neurosurgeon by trade, like the rest of her race, saw the Green Lanterns and everything associated with them as a symbol of oppression because the first Korugaran to have been a Green Lantern was the renegade Sinestro. Sinestro, unbeknownst to his superiors, the Guardians of the Universe who recruit members of and administrate the Green Lantern Corps, used his power ring to enslave his people and rule over them as a dictator.
As a result, he is known among Korugarans as “The Wicked.” Although Sinestro’s crimes were exposed to the Guardians by Earth's Green Lantern Hal Jordan and he was imprisoned as a result, the Green Lantern power ring and logo became symbols of evil. When another Korugaran, Katma Tui, subsequently became a Green Lantern, this did nothing to restore the Green Lanterns' image. Rather, Tui was seen as a monster by her own people for allying herself with the Corps after she gave her life in the line of duty, is known among the Korugarans as “The Lost.” The Corps suffered devastation when the demonic parasitic entity known as Parallax took control of Hal Jordan, turning him into a psychotic mass-murderer, killing all the other members of the Corps including all the Guardians but one, Ganthet. The ranks of the Guardians were restored by Jordan's replacement, Kyle Rayner, after the Parallax entity was removed from Jordan and Jordan restored as a Green Lantern, the Guardians set about to repopulate the ranks of the Corps, searching for 7,200 new Green Lanterns.
When Tarkus Whin, the Green Lantern of Space Sector 1417 was killed on his first day as a Green Lantern after Star 196 collapsed into a black hole, his ring sought out a replacement and found Dr. Natu in the middle of delicate neurosurgery on her home planet, Korugar. Natu was horrified at the appearance of the ring and rejected it, but when her patient’s condition began to worsen before her, desperate to save him, takes it, she uses it to conjure an elaborate medical apparatus that saved him, though her comrades in the operating room felt that by accepting the ring, she has damned herself. Although she allows the ring to take her to the planet Oa, which serves as the headquarters of the Guardians, she soon left, refusing to be inducted. However, on her way back to Korugar, she is haunted by thoughts of Tarkus Whin, because the rites of death are sacred on Korugar, her ring takes her to the black hole, star 1417.196, which sucks her in as it had Whin. She finds herself somewhere devoid of light, along with Whin's body.
Sensing Whin's killers and realizing they are able to defeat a ringbearer, Natu swallows her ring. She orders it to alter her body so she appears to be a lump of dead matter to the nearby spider-killers; the ring is programmed to react to other rings. Fellow Lanterns Kyle Rayner and Guy Gardner convince her to stay in the Corps. Natu and Gardner rendezvous with Corps trainer Kilowog and new recruits Vath Sarn and Isamot Kol, it is learned that the recent rash of stars collapsing into black holes is caused by the subspace web created by the inhabitants of the Vega star system known as the Spider Guild. Natu demonstrates powerful emotional control against many bounty hunters, she works past the Parallax Fear Anomaly, which makes Green Lantern power rings ineffective against anything yellow during times of fear or panic and unless the Lantern can muster his or her courage. With her fellow Green Lanterns’ power rings depleted in power, it fell to Natu to save them, which she did by encasing them all in an energy sphere and retreating from the Spider Guild’s nest.
Natu and a small grouping of other Lanterns defeat the Guild's attempt to destroy Oa's sun. Natu realized that not all Green Lanterns are as corrupt as Sinestro as her people believed, but feels that her ring, which once belonged to Sinestro, is tainted by his evil. In Infinite Crisis #7, Natu participates in the defense of Oa from the murderous attacks of Superboy-Prime, she helps form the wall of emerald energy. She arrives on the planet Mogo in time to assist in destroying the kryptonite threatening the life of Superman; as of the "One Year Later" timeframe, Natu has completed her training and become an active member of the Corps. After seeking advice from Mogo, she elects to return to her homeworld and continue her work as a surgeon along with her Green Lantern duties; this has met with considerable resistance from her former colleagues, who find her use of the Green Lantern power offensive. After using her power ring in a surgery room again, she is forbidden to practice medicine on her home planet forever.
Soon after, she is evicted from her things thrown into the street. She burns her old belongings, proclaiming that Korugar had killed Soranik Natu, left her home in tears. Natu is forced into living on the streets. However, after using her ring to surgically save a dying homeless man, the poor underclass of Korugar begins coming to her f
Guardians of the Universe
The Guardians of the Universe are a fictional race of extraterrestrials appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics in association with Green Lantern. They first appeared in Green Lantern Vol. 2, Issue 1, were created by John Broome and Gil Kane. The Guardians of the Universe have been adapted to a number of films, television programs, video games; the Guardians of the Universe are the founders and leaders of the interstellar law enforcement agency known as the Green Lantern Corps, which they administer from their homeworld Oa at the center of the Universe. The Guardians resemble short humans with white hair, they are depicted as being immortal and are the oldest living beings created in the Universe, but not the first. The Guardians evolved on the planet Maltus, being among the first intelligent life forms in the universe. At this time they were tall greyish blue humanoids with black hair, who resembled humans except for their skin color, they became thinkers, experimenting on the worlds around them.
One experiment led to the creation of the Psions. In a pivotal moment, billions of years ago, a Maltusian named Krona used time-bending technology to observe the beginning of the Universe. However, this experiment, attempts to stop it, unleashed disaster upon all existence; the experiment splintered the Universe into the Multiverse and created the evil Anti-Matter Universe of Qward. Following the retroactive destruction of the Multiverse, it was revealed that Krona flooded the beginning of the Universe with entropy causing it "to be born old". Feeling responsible for this, the evolved Maltusians relocated to the planet Oa and became the Guardians, their goal was simple: combat evil and create an orderly universe. They acted on that goal. During this period they evolved into their current appearance, losing about half of their height and having their skulls grow larger, they now act as the leaders of the Green Lantern Corps, an interstellar police force which patrols the universe. Desiring to bring order and harmony to all the universe, they created a mechanized police force composed of powerful, self-aware androids known as Manhunters.
These Manhunters, resembling uniformed, blue-skinned humanoids, operated as cosmic police officers, much like the Green Lanterns. They protected civilization and maintained peace in the Universe for millions of years, patrolling 3600 sectors into which the cosmos had been divided. One day, the Manhunters collectively changed their directives and set out on a campaign to eradicate all organic life. Starting with Sector 666, they killed the people they had been created to protect, eradicating all life in the entire sector before the Guardians stopped them. Most Manhunters were decommissioned after the massacre of Sector 666, but the ones that escaped became the sworn enemies of their former masters and remained so until modern times; the Manhunter rebellion caused the Guardians to split into groups with different goals. The Controllers believe the only way to protect; the Zamarons, consisting of female Oans, felt no need to involve themselves in the Universe's problems at all. Over the years, both groups evolved to look dissimilar to the Guardians.
Other groups left the Guardians. The Apokolips campaign ended with the Guardians forced to abandon a soldier to Darkseid. Fearing dissension, they ordered all records of the Campaign expunged. Survivors of the massacre of Sector 666 – beings labelled demons – banded together to form a nation called the Empire of Tears, which opposed the Guardians’ efforts and philosophy, they used dark magic to create a galaxy-spanning realm of evil. The Guardians defeated the Empire and imprisoned its leaders, the Five Inversions, on the bleak world of Ysmault; the Guardians decided that magic was chaotic and posed a threat to the balance they desired to achieve. They labored to suppress or imprison its users throughout the Universe, they succeeded in compacting much of the chaotic magic energy of the Cosmos and imprisoning it inside a star. The Guardians were wiped out in the events of Emerald Twilight, the only survivor being Ganthet, they sacrificed themselves to create one final power ring, a power ring more powerful than all others before it.
Oa was itself destroyed in a battle between Parallax and Kyle Rayner, but rebuilt in the events of "Legacy" as the final wish of Hal Jordan's former power ring. The Guardians have since been restored when Kyle Rayner, as Ion, recharged the Central Power Battery. Rayner lost his power and role as Ion but this sacrifice released all the Guardian's life forces from the dormancy in his ring; the Immortals first appeared as children but aged and many seem to have returned to the identities they had before they created Kyle Rayner's power ring. Unlike before however, the Guardians are female, rather than just male. While Kyle had made them children in order for them to grow up and become less cold than their predecessors, this had not worked. Instead, the Guardians were as cold and manipulative as they were before the Emerald Twilight, with the exception of Ganthet and Sayd. One of them, seemed to have reverted to the original Maltusian appearance in the process. Many of the Guardians revived by Kyle Rayner seemed to have disappeared as only a handful now appear in the current Green Lantern issues, while dozens were revived by Kyle Rayner.
Female Guardians appear in flashbacks to Hal Jordan's rookie days as a Green Lant
The Martian Manhunter is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Joseph Samachson and designed by artist Joe Certa, the character first appeared in the story "The Manhunter from Mars" in Detective Comics #225. Martian Manhunter is one of the seven original members of the Justice League of America and one of the most powerful beings in the DC Universe. Martian Manhunter has been featured in other DC Comics-endorsed products, such as video games, television series, animated films, merchandise like action figures and trading cards; the character was ranked #43 on IGN's greatest comic book hero list. Martian Manhunter was played by David Ogden Stiers in the 1997 Justice League of America live-action television pilot. Phil Morris portrayed him in the television series Smallville. David Harewood portrays the human guise of Martian Manhunter on Supergirl; the Martian Manhunter debuted in the back-up story "The Strange Experiment of Dr. Erdel" in Detective Comics #225, written by Joseph Samachson and illustrated by Joe Certa.
The character is a green-skinned extraterrestrial humanoid from the planet Mars, pulled to Earth by an experimental teleportation beam constructed by Dr. Saul Erdel; the Martian tells Erdel where he is from, is told that to send him back will require the computer brain's thinking plot to be changed. The shock of the encounter leaves J'onzz with no way of returning home; the character decides to fight crime while waiting for Martian technology to advance to a stage that will enable his rescue. To that end, he adopts the identity of John Jones, a detective in the fictional Middletown, U. S. A. During this period, the character and his back story differ in some minor and some significant ways from modern treatments. Firstly, as with his counterpart, the Silver Age Superman, J'onzz's power range is poorly defined, his powers expand over time as the plot demands; the addition of precognitive abilities is followed by telepathy and flight, "atomic vision", super-hearing, many other powers. In addition, his customary weakness to fire is only manifested when he is in his native Martian form.
A more significant difference is that in this version of him, there is no suggestion that Mars is a dead planet or that the character is the last of his kind. Many of the tales of the time feature either Martian technology or the appearance of other Martian characters. Detective Comics #236, for example, features the character making contact with the planet Mars and his parents. J'onzz reveals his existence to the world, after which he operates as a superhero and becomes a charter member of the Justice League. During the character's initial few years as a member of the Justice League, he is used as a substitute for Superman in stories as DC Comics were worried about using their flagship characters too in Justice League stories, fearing overexposure; the Martian and the archer inaugurated the team-up format of the Bold. J'onzz appears there one other time, working with the Flash. In some stories he is shown travelling through space to other planets; the detective John Jones is ostensibly killed in action by the Idol Head of Diabolu, an artifact which generates supernatural monsters.
J'onzz abandons the civilian identity as he decides fighting this new menace will take a great deal of his time. At this point his feature moves to House of Mystery, where J'onzz spends the next few years in battle against the Idol Head. Shortly after its defeat, he takes the persona of Marco Xavier in order to infiltrate the international crime cartel known as VULTURE, which he defeats in the final installment of his original series; as Superman was allowed by DC to become a active member of the Justice League, J'onzz's appearances there dwindled. He last participated in a mission in his original tenure in #61, shortly before his solo series was discontinued. In #71, his people came to Earth for him, he left with them to found and become leader of New Mars. Over the next 15 years, J'onzz appeared sporadically in various DC titles. In 1972, Superman was teleported to New Mars. J'onzz returned to Earth by spaceship in 1975. J'onzz made another trip to Earth shortly thereafter, leading to Superman and Batman fighting alongside him on New Mars.
Three years he was discovered playing cosmic-level chess with Despero, using JLA-ers as the pieces. The Martian again encountered Superman in outer space, he permanently resurfaced in the DC Universe in 1984. Shortly thereafter, the League had several members resign, leaving an opening for the Manhunter to take. In staying on Earth, he decided to revive his John Jones identity, this time as a private detective, but had to explain his 20-year "disappearance". In early 1987, DC revamped its struggling Justice League of America series by re-launching the title as Justice League; this new series, written by Keith Giffen and J. M. DeMatteis with art by Kevin Maguire, added quirky humor to the team's stories. J'onzz is present from the first issue and within the stories is used as a straight man for other characters in comical situations; the series added a number of elements to his back story that have remained to the present. The 1988 four-issue miniseries Martian Manhunter by J. M. DeMatteis and Mark Badger further redefined the character and changed a number of important
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth's atmosphere, is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon; when the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light; the World Meteorological Organization uses the term "sunshine duration" to mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun of at least 120 watts per square meter. Other sources indicate an "Average over the entire earth" of "164 Watts per square meter over a 24 hour day"; the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight has both positive and negative health effects, as it is both a requisite for vitamin D3 synthesis and a mutagen. Sunlight takes about 8.3 minutes to reach Earth from the surface of the Sun.
A photon starting at the center of the Sun and changing direction every time it encounters a charged particle would take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to get to the surface. Sunlight is a key factor in photosynthesis, the process used by plants and other autotrophic organisms to convert light energy from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be used to synthesize carbohydrates and to fuel the organisms' activities. Researchers can measure the intensity of sunlight using a sunshine recorder, pyranometer, or pyrheliometer. To calculate the amount of sunlight reaching the ground, both the eccentricity of Earth's elliptic orbit and the attenuation by Earth's atmosphere have to be taken into account; the extraterrestrial solar illuminance, corrected for the elliptic orbit by using the day number of the year, is given to a good approximation by E e x t = E s c ⋅, where dn=1 on January 1st. In this formula dn–3 is used, because in modern times Earth's perihelion, the closest approach to the Sun and, the maximum Eext occurs around January 3 each year.
The value of 0.033412 is determined knowing that the ratio between the perihelion squared and the aphelion squared should be 0.935338. The solar illuminance constant, is equal to 128×103 lux; the direct normal illuminance, corrected for the attenuating effects of the atmosphere is given by: E d n = E e x t e − c m, where c is the atmospheric extinction and m is the relative optical airmass. The atmospheric extinction brings the number of lux down to around 100 000 lux; the total amount of energy received at ground level from the Sun at the zenith depends on the distance to the Sun and thus on the time of year. It is 3.3 % lower in July. If the extraterrestrial solar radiation is 1367 watts per square meter the direct sunlight at Earth's surface when the Sun is at the zenith is about 1050 W/m2, but the total amount hitting the ground is around 1120 W/m2. In terms of energy, sunlight at Earth's surface is around 52 to 55 percent infrared, 42 to 43 percent visible, 3 to 5 percent ultraviolet. At the top of the atmosphere, sunlight is about 30% more intense, having about 8% ultraviolet, with most of the extra UV consisting of biologically damaging short-wave ultraviolet.
Direct sunlight has a luminous efficacy of about 93 lumens per watt of radiant flux. Multiplying the figure of 1050 watts per square metre by 93 lumens per watt indicates that bright sunlight provides an illuminance of 98 000 lux on a perpendicular surface at sea level; the illumination of a horizontal surface will be less than this if the Sun is not high in the sky. Averaged over a day, the highest amount of sunlight on a horizontal surface occurs in January at the South Pole. Dividing the irradiance of 1050 W/m2 by the size of the Sun's disk in steradians gives an average radiance of 15.4 MW per square metre per steradian. Multiplying this by π gives an upper limit to the irradiance which can be focused on a surface using mirrors: 48.5 MW/m2. The spectrum of the Sun's solar radiation is close to that of a black body with a temperature of about 5,800 K; the Sun emits EM radiation across most of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although the Sun produces gamma rays as a result of the nuclear-fusion process, internal absorption and thermalization convert these super-high-energy photons to lower-energy photons before they reach the Sun's surface and are emitted out into space.
As a result, the Sun does not emit gamma rays from this process, but it does emit gamma rays from solar flares. The Sun emits X-rays, vis
Kyle Rayner is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character is depicted as being associated with the Green Lantern Corps, an extraterrestrial police force of which he has been a member. Rayner's original design was based on actor Keanu Reeves. In 2013, Kyle Rayner was placed 14th on IGN's list of the "Top 25 Heroes of DC Comics". Created by writer Ron Marz and artist Darryl Banks, Kyle Rayner first appeared in Green Lantern vol. 3, #48, as part of the "Emerald Twilight" storyline, in which DC Comics replaced Green Lantern Hal Jordan with Rayner, the sole Green Lantern for years until the late 1990s. He was DC's star Green Lantern into the mid-2000s. During this period he was briefly known as Ion. Following Jordan’s return to Green Lantern status in the 2004–2005 limited series Green Lantern: Rebirth, the 2005 crossover storyline "Infinite Crisis", Rayner returned to his alias of Ion. After the events of the "Sinestro Corps War", Rayner returned to his original role as a Green Lantern officer, along with a promotion to Honor Guard Illustres of the Corps.
On, he becomes a White Lantern following the mastery of all seven lantern rings. Before he acquired a Green Lantern power ring, Kyle Rayner was a struggling-but-gifted freelance comic book artist, raised in North Hollywood and lived and worked in Los Angeles. Kyle was raised by his mother as an only child, it was revealed that his father was a Mexican-American CIA agent named Gabriel Vasquez and that Aaron Rayner was an alias. Kyle and his mother lived a modest lifestyle until he reached adulthood. After Hal Jordan, grief-stricken over the destruction of his home town of Coast City, went on a mad rampage killing various members of the Green Lantern Corps and the Guardians of the Universe, Rayner was found by the last surviving Guardian of the Universe, Ganthet. Ganthet gave Kyle the last working Green Lantern power ring that would allow him to conjure any form of matter or energy through sheer force of will. Ganthet's reasons for choosing Kyle to bear the ring have never been made apparent, aside from Rayner having been in the right place at the right time: prior to bequeathing the ring upon Rayner, Ganthet utters, "You will have to do."
Ganthet revealed that humans make great Green Lanterns. Several sources, imply that Ganthet was following a deeper reason: Kyle Rayner was not chosen because he was fearless but because he was able to feel and overcome fear, thus making him, all the future Lanterns, less susceptible to Parallax's influence; the New Guardians retelling goes so far as to replace the scowling "You will have to do" with a smiling "It would seem I chose well." At first Kyle took possession of the ring lightly. His girlfriend, Alexandra DeWitt, encouraged him to be more responsible, create his own version of the Green Lantern uniform, helped him train for his new role as a superhero, but she was murdered and stuffed in a refrigerator by the supervillain Major Force; the guilt over this event drove Rayner to take his role more and as a result he strove to be the best Green Lantern he could be in honor of Alex's memory. Rayner moved to New York City, since Los Angeles reminded him of Alex and he needed a fresh start.
Rayner grew up enamored with Superman and Batman, though he had only a passing knowledge of Earth's various Green Lanterns. This soon changed, he found that the Green Lantern ring was the ultimate expression of his fertile imagination. While in battle, he used the ring's power to create constructs of just about anything his artistic mind could imagine: other superheroes, anime characters, mystical characters, futuristic weapons, original characters from his comic books. While other members of the Green Lantern Corps questioned the practicality of those constructs, they made Rayner an unpredictable and formidable opponent. After relocating to New York City, Rayner joined the superhero group the Titans for a brief time, during which he dated Donna Troy, but became a member of the Justice League, he clashed with the Flash early in his career. West had worked with Jordan since childhood and had reservations about Kyle as the new Green Lantern, but he became one of Rayner's best friends and biggest supporters.
Another of Kyle's biggest supporters amongst the League was Batman, who treated him with more respect than he showed certain other League members, most due to the fact that Kyle was willing to learn from others where other Lanterns focused on their rings and pre-existing skills. Rayner entered a romantic relationship with Jade and formed friendships with the Golden Age Green Lantern, Green Arrow, Arsenal and John Stewart. During his superhero career Rayner accumulated a rogues gallery that included characters from his predecessors' pasts such as Dr. Polaris and Dr. Light. During the Fifth-week event "Circle of Fire", it is discovered that a cosmic entity named Oblivion is coming to Earth after he attacked the planet Rann; this shocked Rayner because the villain is strikingly identical to the character of a story Rayner made when he was seven during his period of struggling with his fear and anger of growing up without a father, as a nemesis to the adventurer the Cannoneer. The Justice League tries to stop Oblivion, during the battle, Kyle