Sodasa

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Sodasa
Indo-Scythian Northern Satraps king
Sodasa coin from Mathura.jpg
Coin of Sodasa from Mathura. Obv: Standing female and tree-like symbol. Mahakatapasa putasa Khatapasa Sodasa ie "Satrap Sodasa, son of the Great Satrap". Rev: Lakshmi with elephants pooring water over her.[1]
Reign c. 15 CE
Predecessor Rajuvula
Father Rajuvula
Mother Kamuia Ayasa
Coin of Sodasa. Reverse: Mahakshatrapa putasa Khatapasa Sodasasa "Satrap Sodasa, son of the Great Satrap".
Coin of Sodasa, satrap of Mathura, AE.
Obv: Lakshmi standing between two symbols on the obverse and inscription around "Mahakhatapasa putasa Khatapasa Sodasasa ".
Rev: Standing Abhiseka Lakshmi anointed by two elephants (Blurred).

Sodasa was an Indo-Scythian Northern Satrap and ruler of Mathura during the later part of the 1st century BCE or the early part of 1st century CE.[2] He was the son of the Great Satrap of Mathura Rajuvula, he is mentioned in the Mathura lion capital.

Rule[edit]

Sodasa reigned during the 1st century CE, and also took the title of Great Satrap at one point, probably in the area of Mathura as well, but possibly under the suzerainty of the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares, at the same time the Indo-Scythian Bhadayasa ruled in the eastern Punjab.[2] There were numerous cultural and political exchanges between the Indo-Scythians of the northwest and those of Mathura.[2]

Sodasa ruled in the Mathura portion of the Northern Satraps territory.

Sodasa may have been a contemporary of the Western Kshatrapa Nahapana and the Indo-Parthian Gondophares.[2] The Indo-Parthians may have destabilized Indo-Scythian rule in northern India, but there are no traces of Indo-Parthian presence in Mathura.[2] Sodasa may have been displaced in Mathura by the Kushan ruler Vima Kadphises, who erected a throne in his name in Mathura, but nothing is known of these interractions.[2]

At Mathura, Sodasa is the last of the Indo-Scythians to have left coins.[2] Later, under Kanishka, son of Vima Kadphises, the Great Satrap Kharapallana and the Satrap Vanaspara are said to rule in Mathura with Kanishka as suzerain, pointing to continued Indo-Scythian rule under Kushan suzerainty as least until the time of Kanishka.[3][4][5][6]

Coinage[edit]

The coinage of Sodasa is found in Mathura, it does not follow traditional Indo-Scythian coinage patterns, but rather follow the designs of local rulers of Mathura. His coins show on the obverse a standing female and tree-like symbol, with the legend Mahakatapasa putasa Khatapasa Sodasa ie "Satrap Sodasa, son of the Great Satrap". On the reverse, a Lakshmi with elephants pooring water over her.[7]

One coin type of Sodasa bears the mention "son of Rajuvula".[2]

Inscriptions[edit]

Numerous inscription from Mathura mentionning Sodasa's rule are known, the Mirzapur village inscription (in the vicinity of Mathura) refers to the erection of a water tank by Mulavasu and his consort Kausiki, during the reign of Sodasa, assuming the title of "Svami (Lord) Mahakshatrapa (Great Satrap)".[8]

The Mathura lion capital mentions the reign of his father and predecessor Rajuvula as Mahaksatrapa while Sodasa is referred to as Ksatrapa.

A large stone slab, the Kankali Tila tablet of Sodasa, discovered in Kankali (area of Mathura) bears a three line epigraph mentioning that in the year 42 or 72 of "Lord Mahaksatrapa Sodasa," a monument for worship was set up by a certain Amohini.[9] A recent date for Sodasa's reign was given as 15 CE, meaning that the regnal date of the inscription would start from the Vikrama era (Bikrami calendar (starting in 57 BCE)+72=15 CE),[10][11] this would put the long reign of his father Rajuvula in the last quarter of the 1st century BCE, which is probable.[11]

Another inscription of Sodasa in Mathura records the gifts of a Brahman named Gajavara of the Segrava-gotra during the time of Saudasa the Great Satrap of the lord (paramount, whose name is lost) of tanks called Kshayawada, besides a western tank, a well, a garden, and a pillar.[12]

Mathura inscription mentioning the rule of Sodasa as Kshatrapa (Satrap) or Mahakshatrapa (Great Satrap).

External links[edit]

Indo-Scythian kings, territories and chronology
Territories/
dates
Western India Western Pakistan
Balochistan
Paropamisadae
Arachosia
Bajaur Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura
INDO-GREEK KINGDOM
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Azes II
Apollophanes Indo-Scythian dynasty of the
NORTHERN SATRAPS
Hagamasha
25 BCE – 10 CE Indo-Scythian dynasty of the
APRACHARAJAS
Vijayamitra
(ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE)[17]
Liaka Kusulaka
Patika Kusulaka
Zeionises
Kharahostes
(ruled 10 BCE– 10 CE)[18]
Mujatria
Strato II and Strato III Hagana
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Gondophares
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20-30 CE Ubouzanes
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(ruled c.0-20 CE)[19]
Sarpedones Bhadayasa Sodasa
30-40 CE KUSHAN EMPIRE
Kujula Kadphises
Indravarma Abdagases ... ...
40-45 CE Aspavarma Gadana ... ...
45-50 CE Sasan Sases ... ...
50-75 CE ... ...
75-100 CE Indo-Scythian dynasty of the
WESTERN SATRAPS
Chastana
Vima Takto ... ...
100-120 CE Abhiraka Vima Kadphises ... ...
120 CE Bhumaka
Nahapana
PARATARAJAS
Yolamira
Kanishka I Great Satrap Kharapallana
and Satrap Vanaspara
for
Kanishka I
130-230 CE

Jayadaman
Rudradaman I
Damajadasri I
Jivadaman
Rudrasimha I
Satyadaman
Jivadaman
Rudrasena I


Bagamira
Arjuna
Hvaramira
Mirahvara


Vāsishka (c. 140 – c. 160)
Huvishka (c. 160 – c. 190)
Vasudeva I (c. 190 – to at least 230)


230-280 CE

Samghadaman
Damasena
Damajadasri II
Viradaman
Isvaradatta
Yasodaman I
Vijayasena
Damajadasri III
Rudrasena II
Visvasimha

Miratakhma
Kozana
Bhimarjuna
Koziya
Datarvharna
Datarvharna

INDO-SASANIANS
Ardashir I, Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 230 – 250)
Peroz I, "Kushanshah" (c. 250 – 265)
Hormizd I, "Kushanshah" (c. 265 – 295)

Kanishka II (c. 230 – 240)
Vashishka (c. 240 – 250)
Kanishka III (c. 250 – 275)


280-300 Bhratadarman Datayola II

Hormizd II, "Kushanshah" (c. 295 – 300)

Vasudeva II (c. 275 – 310)
300-320 CE

Visvasena
Rudrasimha II
Jivadaman

Peroz II, "Kushanshah" (c. 300 – 325)

Vasudeva III
Vasudeva IV
Vasudeva V
Chhu (c. 310? – 325)

320-388 CE

Yasodaman II
Rudradaman II
Rudrasena III
Simhasena
Rudrasena IV

Shapur II Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 325)
Varhran I, Varhran II, Varhran III "Kushanshahs" (c. 325 – 350)
Peroz III "Kushanshah" (c. 350 –360)
HEPHTHALITE/ HUNAS invasions

Shaka I (c. 325 – 345)
Kipunada (c. 345 – 375)

GUPTA EMPIRE
Chandragupta I Samudragupta


388-396 CE Rudrasimha III Chandragupta II
  1. ^ Catalogue Of The Coins In The Indian Museum Calcutta. Vol.1 by Smith, Vincent A. p.196
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h The Dynastic art of the Kushans, Rosenfield, University of California Press, 1967 p.136
  3. ^ Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India, Ram Sharan Sharma, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1991 p.295 [1]
  4. ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization, Sailendra Nath Sen New Age International, 1999, p.198 [2]
  5. ^ Foreign Influence on Ancient India, Krishna Chandra Sagar, Northern Book Centre, 1992 p.167 [3]
  6. ^ Source: "A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc..." Rapson, p ciii
  7. ^ Catalogue Of The Coins In The Indian Museum Calcutta. Vol.1 by Smith, Vincent A. p.196
  8. ^ Buddhist art of Mathurā , Ramesh Chandra Sharma, Agam, 1984 Page 26
  9. ^ a b The Jain stûpa and other antiquities of Mathurâ by Smith, Vincent Arthur Plate XIV
  10. ^ Image Problems: The Origin and Development of the Buddha's Image in Early South Asia Robert Daniel DeCaroli, University of Washington Press, 2015 p.205
  11. ^ a b Indian Studies, Volume 7, Ramakrishna Maitra, 1966 p.67
  12. ^ Report For The Year 1871-72 Volume III, Alexander Cunningham [4]
  13. ^ Buddhist art of Mathurā , Ramesh Chandra Sharma, Agam, 1984 Page 26
  14. ^ History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE by Sonya Rhie Quintanilla p.260
  15. ^ Epigraphia Indica, Vol 40
  16. ^ Report For The Year 1871-72 Volume III, Alexander Cunningham [5]
  17. ^ From the dated inscription on the Rukhana reliquary
  18. ^ An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Richard Salomon, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 442 [6]
  19. ^ A Kharosthī Reliquary Inscription of the Time of the Apraca Prince Visnuvarma, by Richard Salomon, South Asian Studies 11 1995, Pages 27-32, Published online: 09 Aug 2010 [7]