Soekarno–Hatta International Airport

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Soekarno-Hatta International Airport
Bandar Udara Internasional Jakarta
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport logo.png
Soekarno-Hatta Airport aerial view.jpg
Aerial view of Terminal 1 (above) and Terminal 2 (below)
Summary
Airport type Public / International
Owner Government of Indonesia
Operator PT Angkasa Pura II
Serves Jabodetabek
Location Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia and Cengkareng, Jakarta, Indonesia
Opened May 1, 1985 (1985-05-01)
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 32 ft / 10 m
Coordinates 06°07′32″S 106°39′21″E / 6.12556°S 106.65583°E / -6.12556; 106.65583Coordinates: 06°07′32″S 106°39′21″E / 6.12556°S 106.65583°E / -6.12556; 106.65583
Website http://www.soekarnohatta-airport.co.id/
Map
CGK is located in Java
CGK
CGK
CGK is located in Indonesia
CGK
CGK
Location within Java Island, Indonesia
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
07R/25L 12,008 3,660 Paved
07L/25R 11,811 3,600 Paved
07C/25C (Planned for 2018) 12,631 3,850 Asphalt Concrete
Statistics (2016)
Passengers 58,700,000
Aircraft Movements 369,740
Cargo (metric tonnes) 342,473
Economic & Social impact $5.1 billion & 705 thousand[1]
Source: List of the busiest airports in Indonesia,[2] Passenger and Aircraft Movements from ACI[3]
Cargo from Angkasa Pura II Airports Company[4]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (Indonesian: Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno–Hatta) (IATA: CGKICAO: WIII), abbreviated SHIA[5] or Soetta,[6] is the primary airport serving the Greater Jakarta area on the island of Java in Indonesia. Named after the first president and vice-president of Indonesia, Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta, the airport is located at Benda, Tangerang, approximately 20 km northwest of central Jakarta. Due to its proximity to the neighbourhood of Cengkareng in West Jakarta, the airport is also known as Cengkareng Airport, with the assigned three-letter IATA designator "CGK". The airport is the busiest and the largest airport in Indonesia, as well as being the busiest in the southern hemisphere, the airport was ranked as 8th busiest airport in the world by Airports Council International in 2013.[7]According to air travel intelligence company OAG, the airport ranked as the 7th most connected airport in the world & ranked 1st as 'megahub' airport in Asia-Pacific region as per connectivity index, ahead of Japan's Tokyo Haneda Airport and Australia's Sydney Airport .[8] The airport ranked as the 7th most connected airport as 'megahub' in the world in 2017 again by air travel intelligence company OAG .[9]

The airport commenced domestic operations in 1985 replacing the old over capacity Kemayoran Airport, the airport was expanded by 1991 to replace Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport for international flights, with Halim only having been commissioned as a temporary solution until Soekarno–Hatta was completed. Kemayoran Airport has since been demolished and is now a planned mixed development neighborhood. Halim still serves charter, VIP, and private flights, and re-opened as second commercial airport for domestic flights to relieve Soekarno–Hatta which is running over capacity, due to the rapid growth of airline travel in Indonesia.

The airport often struggles to accommodate all flights at its current limit of 81 aircraft movements per hour,[10] although over capacity, after a survey from April 23 to May 3 the Airport Council International (ACI) stated on May 4, 2012 that Soekarno–Hatta International Airport is being operated safely.[11] The two existing runways suffer from pavement and strength issues, which limits the airport's capacity to serve large aircraft.To reduce congestion & to achieve a target to handle 100 flights/hour, works for a 3rd runway is currently going on, which is expected to open in 2018. Upgrading of existing two runways are almost completed for safe operation & accommodation of wide-bodied aircraft at the airport.[12]

History[edit]

Used between 1928 and 1985, Kemayoran Airfield was considered unsatisfactory[when?] because it was too close to the major Halim Perdanakusuma Indonesian military airport. The civil airspace in the area became increasingly restricted, while air traffic increased rapidly, posing problems for international air traffic; in 1969, a senior communication officers meeting in Bangkok expressed these concerns.[citation needed]

Departure area at Terminal 2

In the early 1970s, with the help of USAID, eight potential locations were analyzed for a new international airport, namely Kemayoran, Malaka, Babakan, Jonggol, Halim, Curug, South Tangerang and North Tangerang.[citation needed] Finally, the North Tangerang site was chosen; it was also noted that Jonggol could be used as an alternative airfield. Meanwhile, as an interim step, the Indonesian government upgraded the Halim Perdanakusumah airfield for use for passenger services, the old Kemayoran site was closed in 1985, and the land was later used for commercial and housing purposes.[13]

Between 1974 and 1975, a Canadian consultant/consortium, consisting of Aviation Planning Services Ltd., ACRESS International Ltd., and Searle Wilbee Rowland (SWR), won a bid for the new airport feasibility project. The feasibility study started on February 20, 1974, with a total cost of 1 million Canadian dollars, the one-year project proceeded with an Indonesian partner represented by PT Konavi. By the end of March 1975, the study revealed a plan to build three inline runways, three international terminal buildings, three domestic buildings and one building for Hajj flights. Three stores for the domestic terminals would be built between 1975 and 1981 at a cost of US$465 million and one domestic terminal including an apron from 1982–1985 at a cost of US$126 million. A new terminal project, named the Jakarta International Airport Cengkareng, began.[14]

Design[edit]

Tropical garden fill the spaces between Javanese-styled pendopo waiting and boarding pavilions.

The airport's terminal 1 and 2 was designed by Paul Andreu, a French architect who also designed Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport. One of the characteristics of the airport is the incorporation of the local architecture into the design, and the presence of tropical gardens between the waiting lounges, these unique characteristics earned the airport the 1995 Aga Khan Award for Architecture.[15] The runways run northeast–southwest. There are two parallel runways, on the north and south side, the airport terminal took the plan of spanning fan, with the main entrances of terminals connected to a series of waiting and boarding pavilions via corridors. These waiting and boarding pavilions are connected to the airplanes through boarding bridges. Terminal 1 is in the southern side of the airport, while Terminal 2 and 3 are on the north side.

The airport concept is described as "garden within the airport" or "airport in the garden", as tropical decorative and flower plants fill the spaces between corridors, waiting and boarding pavilions, the boarding pavilions demonstrate local Indonesian vernacular architecture, particularly the roof, in the Javanese stepped-roof pendopo and joglo style. The interior design displays the diversity of Indonesian art and culture, with ethnic decorative elements taken from wooden carvings of Java, Bali, Sumatra, Dayak, Toraja to Papua. Another example is the railings of stairs, doors and gates, which show the kala-makara (giant head and mythical fish-elephant creature) theme typical in ancient Indonesian temples such as Borobudur. Terminal 3, however, has a different architectural style—unlike the ethnic-inspired Indonesian vernacular architecture of terminals 1 and 2, terminal 3 uses the contemporary modern style of large glass windows with metal frames and columns.

Project phases[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta ticket office

To allocate the land and also determine the provincial border,[clarification needed] time was needed. Authorities at Amsterdam Schiphol airport were consulted about the airport plans, and concluded that the proposal was rather expensive and over-designed, the cost rose because of using a decentralized system. The centralized system was seen as a more suitable option.

The team chose a decentralized system similar to Orly Airport, Lyon Satolas, Hannover Airport and Kansas City Airport due to its simplicity and effectiveness.

On November 12, 1976, the building project tender was won by the French Aeroport de Paris.

On May 18, 1977, the final design was agreed on by the Indonesian government and Aeroport de Paris with a fixed cost of about 22,323,203 French francs and Rp177,156,000 equivalent to 2,100,000 francs, the work was scheduled to take 18 months. The government appointed PT. Konavi as the local partner, the plan included 2 runways with taxiways, one access road in the east and one in the west (closed to public use) for airport services, 3 terminals capable of accommodating 3 million passengers per year, and 1 module for international flights and 2 for domestic. "An airport inside a garden" was chosen as the design idea.

On May 20, 1980, a four-year contract was signed. Sainraptet Brice, SAE, Colas together with PT. Waskita Karya were chosen to be the developers. Ir. Karno Barkah MSc. was appointed the project director, responsible for the airport's construction.[16]

On December 1, 1980, the Indonesian government signed a contract for Rp. 384.8 billion with developers. The cost structure was: Rp140,450,513,000 from the state budget, 1,223,457 francs donated by France and US$15,898,251 from the USA.

On December 1, 1984, the airport structure was completed.

The new airport opened on May 1, 1985 for domestic flights.

The second circular terminal was opened on May 1, 1991 for international operations.

Phases of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport Project
Phase Year Description Status
Phase 1 1985 Opening of Terminal 1 with a capacity of 9 million passengers per annum Completed
Phase 2 1991 Opening of Terminal 2 with a capacity of 18 million passengers per annum Completed
Phase 3 2011 Construction of Terminal 3 phase 1 with a capacity of 22 million passengers per annum Completed
Refurbishing of Terminal 2 to increase capacity to 53 million passengers per annum In progress
Fully built new Freight Terminal Pending
Phase 4 2017 Completion of Terminal 3 with a capacity of 43 million passengers per annum In progress
Construction of Airport Railway Completed
Construction of third runway In progress
Fully built integrated building[clarification needed] In Progress
Construction of Terminal 4 Pending
Phase 5 2022 Refurbishment of Terminal 1 to increase capacity to 62 million passengers per annum Pending

Plans[edit]

In the newest masterplan, the capacity of the airport is to be increased from 22 million passengers per year to 62 million per annum in 2014, the airport will use new theme "Modern Airport With Traditional Sense" for the project. Angkasa Pura II, as the operator, designed Soekarno–Hatta Airport to have 3 passenger terminals, 1 new freight terminal (cargo village) and an 'Integrated Building' (designed to unite terminal one and two) in 2014. Also, there will be an increase in apron capacity from 125 airplanes to 174 airplanes. By 2015, additional upgrades are expected to increase the airport's capacity to 75 million passengers.[17] An airport train from Manggarai Station and a people mover for ground transportation to/from and inside the airport are also in planning.

Angkasa Pura II will spend Rp.11.7 trillion ($1.36 billion) to change the airport into a 'world class' airport which will be called 'aerotropolis', by 2014. In the first stage, Terminal 3 will be expanded and thereafter Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 will be integrated with green walls[clarification needed] and the airport will have a convention hall, shopping center, hotel, playground, recreational facilities and parking area for 20,000 vehicles.[18]

To anticipate a surge in passenger numbers, at least a ten percent increase each year, the government is preparing to build a third runway, this was planned to be completed in 2017. If the airport has 3 runways, the service capacity will rise to 623,420 movements per year and it will be able to anticipate growth at least until 2030, the expansion will use about 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) from 10 villages in the Teluk Naga and Kosambi subdistricts.[19][20] The expansion plan has been rejected by Tangerang Municipal Government because the residents living around the airport wouldn't be able to earn income for their family, the local government offered another location such as in Balaraja, but Angkasa Pura II corporate secretary said that building a new airport would not be an easy task, as it requires a thorough study.[21] Finally, Angkasa Pura II only use 134 hectares land and appraisal will be used for buy the land,[22] it can be done due to new design for third runway is cross-runway between runway-1 and runway-2, instead of 3 parallel runways.

To accommodate 86 aircraft movements per hour from current 72 movements per hour, so since 2016, the airport authority is developing east cross taxiway with cost Rp 1,150 billion ($86.1 million) to connect existing runway-1 and runway-2 and predicted can be used in 2018.[23]

Terminals[edit]

Airport layout

The land area of the airport is 18 square kilometers (6.9 sq mi). It has two independent parallel 3,600-meter (11,800 ft) long runways connected by two cross taxiways. There are three main terminal buildings; Terminal 1 (domestic flights only), Terminal 2 and Terminal 3. There is also a freight terminal for domestic and international cargo.

After renovations and expansions of Terminal 3, current capacity of Soekarno–Hatta is 51 million,[24] but the airport served 54 million passengers in 2015, making it the 18th busiest airport in the world, and the busiest airport in the Southern Hemisphere. There are nonstop flights to a large number of destinations in Asia and Australia, and several flights to Europe daily, ranking as the 17th most connected airport in the world, and the largest megahub in Asia according to OAG.[25]

Terminal 1[edit]

Terminal 1 is the first terminal built, finished in 1985, it is located on the south side of the airport, across from Terminal 2. Terminal 1 has 3 sub-terminals, each equipped with 25 check-in counters, 5 baggage carousels and 7 gates, it has the capacity to handle 9 million passengers per annum.

The gates in Terminal 1 have a prefix of A, B or C, the gates are A1–A7, B1–B7 and C1–C7. In the newest masterplan, Terminal 1 will have its capacity increased to 18 million passengers per annum. Terminal 1 is used for domestic flights except for those operated by Sriwijaya Air, NAM Air and Indonesia AirAsia. Terminal 1A is home to Lion Air domestic flights (except to Sumatra & Bali). Terminal 1B is home to Lion Air domestic flights (only to Sumatra and Bali) and Xpress Air. Terminal 1C is home to Batik Air (domestic flights), Citilink (domestic flights) and other Indonesian domestic flights.

Terminal 2[edit]

Check In Area Terminal 2

Terminal 2 is the second terminal built, completed in 1991, and is located on the west-northern side of the airport, across from Terminal 1. Like Terminal 1, it has three sub-terminals, labeled as D, E and F, each of which has seven gates and 25 check-in counters. Terminal 2D is home to most international operations out of Indonesia, while Terminal 2E are home to SkyTeam members,[26] Lion Air, Batik Air, Citilink and AirAsia Group international flights. Terminal 2F is home to Sriwijaya Air, NAM Air, Indonesia Airasia and Indonesia AirAsia X domestic flights.[27][28]

With a capacity of 9 million passengers per annum, Terminal 2 is struggling to keep up with the increasing number of passengers that travel through it each day. Expansions and upgrades will increase the capacity to 19 million per annum, while the opening of Terminal 3 Ultimate, which will house Garuda Indonesia and SkyTeam, will help to relieve the over-capacity problem at Terminal 2.

Terminal 3[edit]

Terminal 3 Departure area

Newly built Terminal 3 is opened in 2016, which is located on the east-northern side of the airport, the terminal has a different style than terminals 1 and 2, using an eco-friendly contemporary modern design with a traditional sense. It currently houses all Garuda Indonesia flights, both domestic and international, as well as all flights from China Airlines, China Southern[29], Korean Air, Saudia, Vietnam Airlines and XiamenAir until further completion when all international flights (except budget carriers) will be moved here.

The former Terminal 3 was officially opened for international flights on November 15, 2011, when Indonesia AirAsia started using Terminal 3 as its new base for international flights as well as domestic flights,[30] the New Terminal 3 (known as "Terminal 3 Ultimate") was formally opened on August 9, 2016. The floor area of the new terminal covers 422,804 m2 (4,551,020 sq ft)[31] with 10 international gates, 18 domestic gates, 112 check-in counters 48 aerobridges and 10 bus gates.[32][33] It is slated to be larger than Changi Airport Terminal 3, Singapore which is the benchmark for SHIA.[34][35]There is a Tourist Information Center at Terminal 3 Ultimate to serve international tourists.[36]At present the New Terminal 3 has no connection with the building of the old Terminal 3, the older Terminal 3 will be renovated with a connection to be built between the old and new terminals.

Terminal 3 is equipped with BHS level 5 to detect bombs, an Airport Security System (ASS) which can control up to 600 CCTVs to detect faces who are available in the security register, an Intelligence Building Management System (IBMS) which can control uses of water and electricity (ecogreen), rain water system to produce clean water from rain, a recycled water system to produce toilet water from used toilet water, and illumination technology control to illuminate the terminal depending on the weather surrounding the terminal.[37] Terminal 3 will be able to serve 60 airplanes from the current 40 airplanes.[38]

Terminal 4[edit]

Angkasa Pura II- the operator of the airport has undertaken a plan to build Terminal 4, which will be located on the north side of runway 2,[39][40] the terminal will be located north of Terminal 3, and northeast of Terminal 2, which is also on the north of the airport. Terminal 4 will be built at the 4th stage, the terminal will be designed in the form of 'H' and use eco-friendly and modern design, same as Terminal 3 design.The terminal is expected to be operational by 2022.

Freight Terminal[edit]

The freight terminal is located on the east side of terminal 1, this terminal was used to handle cargo at the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, both domestic and international cargo. In the newest master plan, the freight terminal will move to the west side of terminal 2 and have a larger capacity than the current terminal.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

Airlines Destinations
AirAsia Johor Bahru, Kuala Lumpur–International
Air China Beijing–Capital
Airfast Indonesia Surabaya
All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
Azur Air Seasonal Charter: Moscow–Domodedovo
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon
Aviastar Ketapang
Batik Air Ambon, Balikpapan, Banda Aceh, Bandar Lampung, Banjarmasin, Batam, Denpasar/Bali, Gorontalo, Jambi, Jayapura, Kendari, Kota Kinabalu (Begins December 20, 2017)[41], Kuala Lumpur–International, Kupang, Labuan Bajo (Begins December 15, 2017)[42], Lubuklinggau, Makassar, Manado, Manokwari, Mataram–Lombok, Medan, Palembang, Palu, Pekanbaru, Pontianak, Semarang, Silangit [43], Singapore, Sorong, Surabaya, Tarakan, Ternate, Yogyakarta
Charter: Guilin
Beijing Capital Airlines Haikou
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong
Cebu Pacific Manila
China Airlines Hong Kong, Taipei–Taoyuan
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai–Pudong
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou, Shenzhen
Citilink Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Batam, Bengkulu, Dili, Denpasar/Bali, Jambi, Makassar, Malang, Manado, Medan, Padang, Palembang, Pangkal Pinang, Pekanbaru, Pontianak, Semarang, Surabaya, Tanjung Pandan, Yogyakarta
Emirates Dubai–International
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
EVA Air Taipei–Taoyuan
Flynas Charter: Jeddah
Garuda Indonesia Ambon, Amsterdam, Balikpapan, Banda Aceh, Bandar Lampung, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Banjarmasin, Batam, Beijing–Capital, Bengkulu, Biak, Denpasar/Bali, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Jambi, Jayapura, Jeddah, Kuala Lumpur–International, London–Heathrow, Makassar, Manado, Malang, Mataram–Lombok, Medan, Medina, Melbourne, Merauke, Mumbai, Osaka–Kansai, Padang, Palangkaraya, Palembang, Palu, Pangkal Pinang, Pekanbaru, Perth, Pontianak, Semarang, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Surakarta/Solo, Surabaya, Sydney, Tanjung Pinang, Ternate, Tokyo–Haneda, Timika, Yogyakarta
Charter: Guilin
Garuda Indonesia
operated by Explore Jet
Banyuwangi, Kupang, Labuan Bajo, Sibolga, Silangit, Tanjung Pandan, Tarakan
Charter: Christmas Island
Indonesia AirAsia Bangkok–Don Mueang, Denpasar/Bali, Kuala Lumpur–International, Macau, Medan (resumes February 9, 2018),[44] Penang, Singapore, Surabaya, Yogyakarta
Indonesia AirAsia X Bangkok–Don Mueang, Denpasar/Bali, Kuala Lumpur–International, Penang, Surabaya
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Narita
Jet Asia Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Jetstar Asia Airways Singapore
KLM Amsterdam, Kuala Lumpur–International
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon
Kunming Airlines Wuhan
Lion Air Ambon, Balikpapan, Bandar Lampung, Banjarmasin, Batam, Bengkulu, Denpasar/Bali, Jambi, Jayapura, Kendari, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kupang, Makassar, Malang, Manado, Mataram–Lombok, Medan, Padang, Palangkaraya, Palembang, Pangkal Pinang, Palu, Pekanbaru, Pontianak, Semarang, Singapore, Surakarta/Solo, Surabaya, Tanjung Pandan, Tanjung Pinang, Tarakan, Ternate, Yogyakarta
Charter: Haikou, Sanya[45]
Lucky Air Kunming, Nanning
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International
Malindo Air Kuala Lumpur–International
Nam Air Banyuwangi, Bengkulu, Lubuklinggau, Palembang, Pangkal Pinang, Pangkalan Bun, Pontianak, Sampit, Semarang, Surakarta/Solo, Surabaya, Sorong, Tanjung Pandan
Oman Air Muscat
Philippine Airlines Manila
Philippines AirAsia Manila (begins January 9, 2018)[46]
Qantas Sydney
Qatar Airways Doha
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan
Saudia Jeddah, Medina, Riyadh
Scoot Singapore
Shenzhen Airlines Fuzhou
Shandong Airlines Hangzhou
Singapore Airlines Singapore
SriLankan Airlines Colombo
Sriwijaya Air Balikpapan, Bandar Lampung, Batam, Denpasar/Bali, Jayapura, Jambi, Makassar, Malang, Medan, Padang, Palembang, Pangkal Pinang, Pontianak, Semarang, Silangit, Surakarta/Solo, Surabaya, Tanjung Pandan, Tanjung Pinang, Ternate, Yogyakarta
Charter:Zhangjiajie
Thai Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Thai Lion Air Bangkok–Don Mueang
Tibet Airlines Xi'an
Trigana Air Service Pangkalan Bun
Turkish Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk
VietJet Air Ho Chi Minh City (begins 20 December 2017)[47]
Vietnam Airlines Ho Chi Minh City
XiamenAir Fuzhou, Xiamen
XpressAir Sorong

Cargo[edit]

Airlines Destinations
Aerotrans Cargo Hong Kong, Trabzon
AirBridgeCargo Airlines Moscow-Sheremetyevo
Air Atlanta Icelandic Reykjavik-Keflavik
ANA Cargo Tokyo–Narita[48]
Asialink Cargo Airlines Pangkal Pinang[49]
Cardig Air Balikpapan, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Padang, Pekanbaru, Medan, Seoul–Incheon, Singapore
Cathay Pacific Cargo Hanoi, Hong Kong, Penang
China Airlines Cargo Singapore, Taipei–Taoyuan
FedEx Express Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Singapore
Gading Sari Kuala Lumpur–International
Garuda Indonesia Cargo Batam, Osaka–Kansai, Singapore
K-Mile Air Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Korean Air Cargo Ho Chi Minh City, Penang, Seoul–Incheon
Lufthansa Cargo Frankfurt
MASkargo Kuala Lumpur–International
Qantas Freight operated by Atlas Air Sydney
Republic Express Airlines Balikpapan, Kuala Lumpur–International, Makassar, Singapore, Surabaya, Surakarta/Solo
Singapore Airlines Cargo Singapore
Raya Airways Kuala Lumpur–International
Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines Batam, Kuala Lumpur–International, Singapore

Traffic and statistics[edit]

Busiest routes[edit]

Jakarta – Singapore is one of the world's busiest international air routes ; passenger numbers of this route is growing fast. It was the 2nd busiest international route in Asia after Hong Kong – Taipei in 2015.[50] Singapore Airlines alone operates more than 70 weekly flights between Jakarta & Singapore . Jakarta Soekarno–Hatta–Surabaya route is ranked 9th busiest in the world by IATA in 2016.[51]

New traffic procedure[edit]

To ease congestion, the airport authority implemented a new traffic procedure, the 72 Improved Runway Capacity (IRC 72), to handle 72 planes per hour, this limited a plane to 30–45 minutes only for arrival and unloading of passengers, to allow other planes to use the parking space. Gradually it has been implemented and on June 26, 2014 IRC 72 has been implemented full for the period of 00:00am to 01:30am, 02:00am to 10:00am and 11:30pm to 00:00am with occupancy periods for aircraft are reduced from 110 seconds to 90 seconds of takeoff and from 65 seconds to 50 seconds for landing, the low time is from 04:00pm to 10:00pm with only maximum 32 flights/hour.[52] By 2015, IRC 72 will become IRC 86 with the opening of the new terminal,[53] as a comparison, London Heathrow Airport, which has 2 runways like SHIA, can handle 100 flights per hour, so the target for SHIA has been revised to 92 flights per hour by 2015.[54] As of July 2017, maximum flight frequency at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport had been increased to 81 take-offs and landings per hour to accommodate increasing demand from aviation companies.[55]

Airport facilities[edit]

Terminals 1 and 2 were designed to resemble a traditional joglo Javanese construction, the approach has been emphasized by the inclusion of well-maintained gardens located near all boarding areas. Terminal 3 and other new airport buildings use an eco-friendly and modern design.

Aircraft maintenance[edit]

Maintenance facilities for aircraft in Soekarno–Hatta International Airport are supported by GMF AeroAsia (Garuda Maintenance Facility), they include 480,000 square meters (5,200,000 sq ft) of built-up structures, including four hangars, a spares warehouse, workshops, utility buildings, a ground support equipment building, chemical stores, an engine test cell, and management offices. In addition, GMF AeroAsia has an apron capable of handling up to 50 aircraft, taxiways, a run-up bay and a waste treatment area, taking up 1,150,000 square meters (12,400,000 sq ft).

Hangar 1 was built in 1991 and was designed for Boeing 747's, it has two full docks and is 22,000 square meters (240,000 sq ft). Hangar 2 is 23,000 square meters (250,000 sq ft) and has 3 aircraft bays. It can perform minor A and B checks, it can hold up to one narrow body and one wide body jet. Hangar 3 is also 23,000 square meters (250,000 sq ft). It normally holds up to 3 narrow body aircraft, but can be configured to hold up to one wide body and one narrow body, it has 7 bays with 4 full docks, 6 roof-mounted cranes and one bay designed for McDonnell Douglas MD-11's, McDonnell Douglas DC-10's, and wide body Airbus A330's aircraft. Hangar 4 is 67,022 square meters (721,420 sq ft). The Hangar 4 was opened in 2015 and was designed for narrow body aircraft like B737s and A320s, it can handle 16 narrow body aircraft in one time.

Golf course[edit]

There is a golf course at the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport supported by the Cengkareng Golf Club, the golf course has been open since 1999. It is located on the left side of the airport main gate by the Sheraton Bandara Hotel, the Cengkareng Golf Club is in the 102-hectare (250-acre) Soewarna Business Park at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. In 2005 and 2008, this golf course was used for Indonesia Open, a part of the PGA European Tour. There are 18 holes in the golf course.

Airport hotel[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport has a hotel, the Sheraton Airport Hotel, the Sheraton Airport Hotel, which is located on the left side of the main exit road from the airport, has 4 floors with 220 guest rooms. The airport now has other hotels, including budget such as Ibis Styles, Pop! Hotels, Swiss-Belhotel, Orchard Hotel, Swiss-Belinn, Ibis Budget and Amaris as an alternative.[citation needed]

Shopping area at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport

Lounges[edit]

There are five airport lounges in the departure area, the Jasa Angkasa Semesta (JAS) Lounge is available for first and business class passengers of Cathay Pacific, Qantas, EVA Air, Saudia, and Singapore Airlines. The Pura Indah Lounge is available for first and business class passengers of Singapore Airlines, KLM, Malaysia Airlines, Emirates, Cathay Pacific, and China Airlines. The new Garuda Indonesia lounge is available for their business class and first class passengers only, as well as GECC and GarudaMiles gold and above cardholders, the BNI Executive Lounge is located next to the Garuda Indonesia Lounge, the lounge serve passengers from all airlines. Other lounges are available outside of the departures area, operated by companies such as Indosat, Sapphire, PT Mandara Jasindo Sena, Telkomsel, and XL Axiata. Since 2013, the only lounge in Terminal 1 was opened named Batik Air Business Class Lounge inside the waiting room C7.

Shopping area[edit]

There are shopping areas available in all terminals at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. Duty-free shops, souvenir shops, restaurants and a cafeteria can be found there. There is a new "Shopping Arcade" located in terminal 1C. There are no shops in the arrival zones of the terminals.

Reading corners[edit]

21 reading corners are located in the waiting rooms of Terminal 2D, 2E and 2F.[56]

WiFi[edit]

3 WiFi networks are provided by Lintasarta, Internux (via YelloChat Free WiFi) and Telkom Indonesia at the airport. The three networks allow users to connect to another network if a specific one is operational

Since November 2013, Terminal 2 has free WiFi covering the whole terminal and free WiFi for Terminal 1 is servicing as of July 2014. Terminal 3 now has free WiFi covering since November 2014.

Smoking garden[edit]

To handle the overcrowding of smoking rooms being used, airport authorities has drawn up plans to build a smoking area in a garden near the rest area in Terminal 1A, it was opened in January 2015 and it will be developed to other terminals, if necessary.[57]

Other facilities[edit]

The airport contains the head office of Garuda Indonesia, Garuda Indonesia Management Building, located within the Garuda Indonesia City Center.[58] Angkasa Pura II's head office is on the airport property.[59]

Ground transportation[edit]

There are several transportation options available for access to the airport: local airport terminal shuttles,train, buses, taxi services of various kinds, and cars. There is free shuttle bus service and people maneuver system Skytrain to connect the terminals of the airport.

Bus[edit]

Several bus companies, including the state-owned DAMRI,[60] provide services to various destinations from the airport. Jabodetabek Airport Connexion which consist of Perum Damri, PPD, Big Bird dan Sinar Jaya Megah Langgeng serve routes from the airport to certain malls and hotels in Greater Jakarta.[61] The buses operate from 06.00 to 23.00 with routes:[62]

Travel time to and from the center of Jakarta (at the Gambir railway station) takes around 70 minutes, depending on traffic. Buses to the airport leave from the various terminals in central Jakarta (Gambir) and surrounding areas.

Damri bus service[edit]

Service Destination
Shuttle Airport Bus
Agramas Pusat Grosir Cililitan East Jakarta
Citilink Shuttle Scientia Square Park South Tangerang
Citilink Shuttle SCBD Central Jakarta
Damri Bekasi Kayuringin Bus Terminal Bekasi
Damri Blok M Bus Terminal South Jakarta
Damri Botani Square Mall Bogor
Damri Cikarang Cikarang
Damri City Mall Cibinong Cibinong
Damri East Bekasi Bekasi
Damri Gambir Railway Station Central Jakarta
Damri Kampung Rambutan Bus Terminal East Jakarta
Damri Karawang Karawang
Damri Kemayoran Central Jakarta
Damri Kota Harapan Indah Bekasi
Damri Lippo Karawaci Mall Tangerang
Damri Mangga Dua Square Mall North Jakarta
Damri Pasar Minggu Bus Terminal South Jakarta
Damri Pramuka City Central Jakarta
Damri Pulo Gebang East Jakarta
Damri Purwakarta Purwakarta
Damri Rawamangun Bus Terminal East Jakarta
Damri Serang–Cilegon-Merak Banten
Damri Summarecon Bekasi Bekasi
Damri Tanjung Priok Bus Terminal North Jakarta
Damri WTC Serpong South Tangerang
Primajasa Bandung Batununggal Bandung
Primajasa Bandung Caringin Bandung
Hiba Utama Depok Bus Terminal Depok
Sinar Jaya Cileungsi Bus Terminal Bogor Regency
Redwhitestar Bandung Gedungsate Bandung
XTrans Serpong–Bintaro South Tangerang

Jabodetabek Airport Connection[edit]

  • Hotel Borobudur-Hotel Alia-Hotel Luminor-Airport.
  • Hotel Aryaduta-Hotel Sari Pan Pasific-Airport.
  • Hotel Grand Cemara-Hotel Ibis Thamrin-Hotel Milenium-Airport.
  • Hotel Sahid Jaya-Mall Grand Indonesia-Hotel Ascot-Airport.
  • Hotel Amaris Thamrin City-Airport.
  • Hotel Sahid Jaya Lippo Cikarang-Airport.
  • Bogor Trade Mall-Airport.
  • Mall Taman Anggrek-Airport.
  • Mall Plaza Senayan-Airport.
  • Mall ITC Cempaka Mas-Airport.
  • Mall Kelapa Gading-Airport.
  • ITC Tanah Abang-Airport.
  • Bubulak-Bukit Cimanggu City(Bogor Icon)-Sentul-Airport

Inter-terminal shuttle service[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport provides a free shuttle bus which connects Terminals 1, 2 and 3. Airport shuttle bus can be found at arrival hall of Terminal 1A–1B–1C, on the eastern wing of arrival hall of Terminal 2F and in front of departure hall of Terminal 3

Taxicab[edit]

The airport is connected to Jakarta's city center via the Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road. There is extensive car parking, including long-stay facilities, at the airport. Various taxi and shuttle services are provided by several operators.

Rail[edit]

Inter-terminal rail transportation[edit]

In 2013, the Indonesian government announced that it will build a people mover to connect Terminals 1, 2, and 3, it will be an automated train.[63] Starting on September 17, 2017, the people mover, named SkyTrain, is formally opened to connect Terminal 3 and Terminal 2 vice versa, with a headway of 5 minutes. One set of SkyTrain can serve 2x88 passengers, it temporarily operates between 07.00-10.00, 13.00-14.00 and 17.00-19.00.[64]

Airport Rail Link[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta Airport Rail Link
SHIA Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Batuceper KRL Icon Brown.svg
Jakarta Kota KRL Icon Pink.svg KRL Icon Blue.svg KRL Icon Red.svg  M1  TransJakarta
Kampung Bandan KRL Icon Pink.svg KRL Icon Yellow.svg  M1 
Duri KRL Icon Yellow.svg KRL Icon Brown.svg
Tanah Abang KRL Icon Yellow.svg KRL Icon Green.svg
Sudirman Baru KRL Icon Yellow.svg  M1   L1  TransJakarta
Manggarai KRL Icon Red.svg KRL Icon Blue.svg KRL Icon Yellow.svg TransJakarta
Cawang KRL Icon Red.svg KRL Icon Yellow.svg  L1   L2  TransJakarta
HPIA Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport

PT Railink, a subsidiary of PT Angkasa Pura II (Persero) and PT Kereta Api Indonesia decided to use existing track between Batuceper station, Tangerang to Manggarai station. A new 12 kilometer track is being built between Tangerang and the new airport station, spanning 36.3 kilometers in total. In mid-March 2017, construction of integrated building has been finished 94.2 percent and predicted will be finished in end of this month. Integrated building will be used as rail airport station to inside/outside the airport and also Skytrain station for people mover use driverless light train (Automated People Mover System) connects among terminals.[65]

But the other new station, Sudirman Baru Station just only builds the foundation, so predicted in July 2017, the train will be operated to serve 35,000 passengers with 122 trips a day.[66][67] Due to Manggarai station not being ready as a major station, Sudirman Baru station or Kota station will be a temporary start/end station.[68]

The government is also planning a 33-kilometer (21 mi) express line between the Manggarai station and the airport via Angke and Pluit to be built by an investor as a public–private partnership.[69][70] To realize the demand from the Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, the route has been extended from Manggarai to Halim and the new route has been agreed upon by the Transportation Ministry Regulation, the express train will take 30 minutes to connect the airports.[71] In early 2015, government changed the fund from participation to not funding at all, so the contract for Rp 28 billion will be revised, including new rail express tariff, the construction of this line has been delay and completion is now projected to be in 2019 at the earliest.[72]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On October 28, 1997, a Trigana Air Service Fokker F-28 Fellowship 3000 passenger plane returned to land at Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta International Airport after the aircraft experienced technical problems two minutes after takeoff. Smoke and severe heat had entered cockpit and the passenger cabin, the airplane sustained damage due to the heat.[73]
  • On January 23, 2003, a Star Air Boeing 737 touched down 500 meters (1,600 ft) past the threshold of runway 25L, a little left of the centerline, at a time of heavy rainfall with associated heavy winds. It went off the side of the runway, causing substantial damage to the aircraft's undercarriage and belly.[74]
  • 2003 Soekarno–Hatta International Airport bombing – On April 27, 2003, a bomb exploded in terminal 2, departure hall of domestic terminal. The bomb was hidden under a table of a KFC stall and exploded during lunch hours. 10 people were injured in the blast, one 17 year old teenager identified as Yuli was seriously injured. Her legs had to be amputated. Emergency services were rushed to the scene and suspected that the motive of the bombing was due to the Free Aceh Movement, a separatist movement in Aceh, this was proved by the location of the blast, which was located on the domestic passenger hall rather than on the international passenger hall.[75][76][77][78]
  • On August 11, 2003, a Garuda Indonesia Fokker F-28 Fellowship 3000R suffered a left main gear collapse after a flight from Surabaya.[79]
  • On March 9, 2009, a Lion Air MD-90 overran runway 25L, due to an unstable approach 100 meters (330 ft) before the runway in rainfall and strong winds, in which the aircraft touched down to the left of the centerline. Although its thrust reversers were functioning, it veered to the right, resulting in the aircraft resting 90 degrees off the runway.[80]
  • On July 5, 2015, JW Lounge located on Terminal 2E was on fire. More than 30 flights were canceled with hundreds more were delayed.[81]

Awards[edit]

In 1995, the landscaping of Soekarno–Hatta airport was awarded by Aga Khan Award for Architecture as one of the best example of integrating the terminal building pavilions, with lush tropical garden harmoniously.[82]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport was ranked fourth on the Skytrax World's Most Improved Airport 2014 list based on surveys of 12.85 million passengers from 110 countries.[83] Skytrax also ranked Soekarno–Hatta International Airport as a 3-Star Airport.[84]

In 2017, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport was ranked first on the Skytrax World's Most Improved Airport 2017.[85][86]

Picture gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]