C't – Magazin für Computertechnik is a German computer magazine, published by the Heinz Heise publishing house. The first issue of the magazine was the November/December 1983 edition. A special section of the electronics magazine elrad, the magazine has been published monthly since December 1983 and biweekly since October 1997. A Dutch edition exists, published monthly. In addition, since 2008 a Russian licensed-title version named c’t – Журнал о компьютерной технике is published in Moscow; the magazine is the second most popular German language computer magazine with a sold circulation of about 315,000. With 241,000 subscriptions it is the computer magazine with the most subscribers in Europe. C' t covers both software; the magazine has a reputation of being thorough, although critics claim that the magazine has been "dumbed down" in recent years to accommodate the mass market. One of the numerous projects c't initiated is the WSUS Offline Update, a set of scripts to download Microsoft updates, combine it with an install script, create a CD image.
With Offline Update burned to a CD or DVD, a technician can update Windows 2000/XP/Vista and Microsoft Office 2003/2007 without an Internet connection. This is useful for people with no or slow Internet connections, or not exposing a vulnerable system to the Internet. A sister magazine, iX, focuses on topics for IT professionals. C't became known in 1995 when it rated the program SoftRAM "Placebo-Software" in a short test; when the German distributor of the program took legal action to forbid publishing this rating, c't followed up with an exhaustive test showing that the program had no effect other than giving false information about system statistics. The subsequent media coverage forced SoftRAM out not only from the German market, but from the US market too. Official website c't Netherlands homepage Heise Verlag homepage and news site Mediadaten c't Offline Update download page
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe
Mark Eugene Russinovich is a Spanish-born American software engineer who serves as CTO of Microsoft Azure. He was a cofounder of software producers Winternals before it was acquired by Microsoft in 2006. Russinovich was born in Salamanca and was raised in Birmingham, United States, until he was 15, when he moved with his family to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, his father was a radiologist and his mother was a business administrator of his father's radiology practice in Pittsburgh. Russinovich is of Croatian ancestry, he was introduced to computers. He was able to write programs for it. At age 15, he bought himself his first computer, a Texas Instruments TI99/4A. About six months his parents bought him an Apple II+ from his local high school when it upgraded the computer labs to Apple IIes, he wrote magazine articles about Apple II. In 1989, Russinovich earned his Bachelor of Science degree in computer engineering from Carnegie Mellon University, where he was a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha Beta Sigma chapter.
The following year he received a Master of Science degree in computer engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He returned to Carnegie Mellon, where he received a Ph. D. in computer engineering in 1994 with thesis titled Application-transparent fault management under the supervision of Zary Segall. From September 1994 through February 1996 he was a research associate with the University of Oregon's computer science department. From February through September 1996 he was a developer with NuMega Technologies, where he worked on performance monitoring software for Windows NT. In 1996, he and Bryce Cogswell cofounded Winternals Software, where Russinovich served as Chief Software Architect, the web site sysinternals.com, where Russinovich wrote and published dozens of popular Windows administration and diagnostic utilities including Autoruns, Regmon, Process Explorer, TCPView, RootkitRevealer among many others. From September 1996 through September 1997 he worked as a consulting associate at OSR Open Systems Resources, Inc. a company based in Amherst, New Hampshire.
From September 1997 through March 2000, he was a research staff member at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center, researching operating system support for Web server acceleration and serving as an operating systems expert. Russinovich joined Microsoft in 2006. In his role as an author, he is a regular contributor to TechNet Magazine and Windows IT Pro magazine on the subject of the Architecture of Windows 2000 and was co-author of Inside Windows 2000. Russinovich is the author of many tools used by Windows NT and Windows 2000 kernel-mode programmers, of the NTFS file system driver for DOS. In 1996, Russinovich discovered that altering two values in the Windows Registry of the Workstation edition of Windows NT 4 would change the installation so it was recognized as a Windows NT Server and allow the installation of Microsoft BackOffice products which were licensed only for the Server edition; the registry key values were guarded by a worker thread to detect tampering, a program called NT Tune was released to kill the monitor thread and change the values.
Russinovich wrote LiveKD, a utility included with CD Inside Windows 2000, 3rd Edition, as of 2017 available to download. In 2005, Russinovich discovered the Sony rootkit in Sony DRM products, its function was to prevent users from copying their media. In January 2006, Russinovich discovered a rootkit in Norton SystemWorks by Symantec Corporation. Symantec directly removed the rootkit, he analyzed the Windows Metafile vulnerability and concluded that it was not a deliberate backdoor. This possibility had been raised – albeit tentatively – by Steve Gibson after a cursory investigation of the nature of the exploit and its mechanism. Russinovich's novels Zero Day and Trojan Horse were published by Thomas Dunne Books on March 15, 2011 and September 4, 2012. Both are in a series of popular techno-thrillers, that have attracted praise from industry insiders such as Mikko Hypponen and Daniel Suarez. A short story, "Operation Desolation" was published just before Trojan Horse and takes place 1 year after the events of Zero Day.
Book 3, Rogue Code: A Novel deals with vulnerabilities of the NYSE. It has a foreword by Haim Bodek, author of The Problem of HFT: Collected Writings on High Frequency Trading & Stock Market Structure Reform. Computer books Solomon, David. Inside Microsoft Windows 2000. Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-7356-1021-5. Russinovich, Mark. Microsoft Windows Internals. Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-7356-1917-4. Russinovich, Mark. Microsoft Windows Internals. Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-7356-2530-1. Russinovich, Mark. Windows Sysinternals Administrator's Reference. Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-7356-5672-X. Russinovich, Mark. Microsoft Windows Internals, Part 1. Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-7356-4873-5. Russinovich, Mark. Microsoft Windows Internals, Part 2. Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-7356-6587-7. Novels Zero Day: A Novel. Thomas Dunne Books. March 15, 2011. ISBN 0-312-61246-X. Operation Desolation: A Short Story. Thomas Dunne Books. August 7, 2012. ASIN B0080K37P2. Trojan Horse. Thomas Dunne Books. September 4, 2012. ISBN 9781250010483. Rogue Code. Thomas Dunne Books.
May 20, 2014. ISBN 9781250035370. Articles "Inside NT's Object Manager". Windows IT
Debugging is the process of finding and resolving defects or problems within a computer program that prevent correct operation of computer software or a system. Debugging tactics can involve interactive debugging, control flow analysis, unit testing, integration testing, log file analysis, monitoring at the application or system level, memory dumps, profiling; the terms "bug" and "debugging" are popularly attributed to Admiral Grace Hopper in the 1940s. While she was working on a Mark II computer at Harvard University, her associates discovered a moth stuck in a relay and thereby impeding operation, whereupon she remarked that they were "debugging" the system. However, the term "bug", in the sense of "technical error", dates back at least to 1878 and Thomas Edison; the term "debugging" seems to have been used as a term in aeronautics before entering the world of computers. Indeed, in an interview Grace Hopper remarked; the moth fit the existing terminology, so it was saved. A letter from J. Robert Oppenheimer used the term in a letter to Dr. Ernest Lawrence at UC Berkeley, dated October 27, 1944, regarding the recruitment of additional technical staff.
The Oxford English Dictionary entry for "debug" quotes the term "debugging" used in reference to airplane engine testing in a 1945 article in the Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society. An article in "Airforce" refers to debugging, this time of aircraft cameras. Hopper's bug was found on September 9, 1947; the term was not adopted by computer programmers until the early 1950s. The seminal article by Gill in 1951 is the earliest in-depth discussion of programming errors, but it does not use the term "bug" or "debugging". In the ACM's digital library, the term "debugging" is first used in three papers from 1952 ACM National Meetings. Two of the three use the term in quotation marks. By 1963 "debugging" was a common enough term to be mentioned in passing without explanation on page 1 of the CTSS manual. Kidwell's article Stalking the Elusive Computer Bug discusses the etymology of "bug" and "debug" in greater detail; as software and electronic systems have become more complex, the various common debugging techniques have expanded with more methods to detect anomalies, assess impact, schedule software patches or full updates to a system.
The words "anomaly" and "discrepancy" can be used, as being more neutral terms, to avoid the words "error" and "defect" or "bug" where there might be an implication that all so-called errors, defects or bugs must be fixed. Instead, an impact assessment can be made to determine if changes to remove an anomaly would be cost-effective for the system, or a scheduled new release might render the change unnecessary. Not all issues are mission-critical in a system, it is important to avoid the situation where a change might be more upsetting to users, long-term, than living with the known problem. Basing decisions of the acceptability of some anomalies can avoid a culture of a "zero-defects" mandate, where people might be tempted to deny the existence of problems so that the result would appear as zero defects. Considering the collateral issues, such as the cost-versus-benefit impact assessment broader debugging techniques will expand to determine the frequency of anomalies to help assess their impact to the overall system.
Debugging ranges in complexity from fixing simple errors to performing lengthy and tiresome tasks of data collection and scheduling updates. The debugging skill of the programmer can be a major factor in the ability to debug a problem, but the difficulty of software debugging varies with the complexity of the system, depends, to some extent, on the programming language used and the available tools, such as debuggers. Debuggers are software tools which enable the programmer to monitor the execution of a program, stop it, restart it, set breakpoints, change values in memory; the term debugger can refer to the person, doing the debugging. High-level programming languages, such as Java, make debugging easier, because they have features such as exception handling and type checking that make real sources of erratic behaviour easier to spot. In programming languages such as C or assembly, bugs may cause silent problems such as memory corruption, it is difficult to see where the initial problem happened.
In those cases, memory debugger tools may be needed. In certain situations, general purpose software tools that are language specific in nature can be useful; these take the form of static code analysis tools. These tools look for a specific set of known problems, some common and some rare, within the source code. Concentrating more on the semantics rather than the syntax, as compilers and interpreters do; some tools claim to be able to detect over 300 different problems. Both commercial and free tools exist for various languages; these tools can be useful when checking large source trees, where it is impractical to do code walkthroughs. A typical example of a problem detected would be a variable dereference that occurs before the variable is assigned a value; as another example, some such tools perform strong type checking when the language does not require it. Thus, they are better at locating errors in code, syntactically correct, but these tools have a reputation of false positives. The old Unix lint program is an early example.
For debugging electronic hardware (e.g
The Deutsche Mark, abbreviated "DM" or "D-Mark", was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002. It was first issued under Allied occupation in 1948 to replace the Reichsmark, served as the Federal Republic of Germany's official currency from its founding the following year until the adoption of the euro. In English it is called the "Deutschmark"; the Germans called it D-Mark when referring to the currency, Mark when talking about individual sums. In 1999, the Deutsche Mark was replaced by the Euro; the Deutsche Mark ceased to be legal tender upon the introduction of the euro — in contrast to the other eurozone nations, where the euro and legacy currency circulated side by side for up to two months. Mark coins and banknotes continued to be accepted as valid forms of payment in Germany until 28 February 2002; the Deutsche Bundesbank has guaranteed that all German marks in cash form may be changed into euros indefinitely, one may do so in person at any branch of the Bundesbank in Germany.
Banknotes and coins can be sent to the Bundesbank by mail. In 2012, it was estimated that as many as 13.2 billion marks were in circulation, with one poll showing a narrow majority of Germans favouring the currency's restoration. On 31 December 1998, the Council of the European Union fixed the irrevocable exchange rate, effective 1 January 1999, for German mark to euros as DM 1.95583 = €1. One Deutsche Mark was divided into 100 Pfennige. A mark had been the currency of Germany since its original unification in 1871. Before that time, the different German states issued a variety of different currencies, though most were linked to the Vereinsthaler, a silver coin containing 16 2⁄3 grams of pure silver. Although the mark was based on gold rather than silver, a fixed exchange rate between the Vereinsthaler and the mark of 3 marks = 1 Vereinsthaler was used for the conversion; the first mark, known as the Goldmark, was introduced in 1873. With the outbreak of World War I, the mark was taken off the gold standard.
The currency thus became known as the Papiermark as high inflation hyperinflation occurred and the currency became made up of paper money. The Papiermark was replaced by the Rentenmark from November 15, 1923, the Reichsmark in 1924. During the first two years of occupation the occupying powers of France, United Kingdom, United States, the Soviet Union were not able to negotiate a possible currency reform in Germany. Due to the strains between the Allies each zone was governed independently as regards monetary matters; the US occupation policy was governed by the directive JCS 1067, which forbade the US military governor "to take any steps to strengthen German financial structure". As a consequence a separate monetary reform in the U. S. zone was not possible. Each of the Allies printed its own occupation currency; the Deutsche Mark was introduced on Sunday, June 20, 1948 by Ludwig Erhard. The old Reichsmark and Rentenmark were exchanged for the new currency at a rate of DM 1 = RM 1 for the essential currency such as wages, payment of rents etc. and DM 1 = RM 10 for the remainder in private non-bank credit balances, with half frozen.
Large amounts were exchanged for RM 10 to 65 Pfennig. In addition, each person received a per capita allowance of DM 60 in two parts, the first being DM 40 and the second DM 20. A few weeks Erhard, acting against orders, issued an edict abolishing many economic controls, implemented by the Nazis, which the Allies had not removed, he did this, as he confessed, on Sunday because the offices of the American and French occupation authorities were closed that day. He was sure; the introduction of the new currency was intended to protect western Germany from a second wave of hyperinflation and to stop the rampant barter and black market trade. Although the new currency was only distributed in the three western occupation zones outside Berlin, the move angered the Soviet authorities, who regarded it as a threat; the Soviets promptly cut off all road and canal links between the three western zones and West Berlin, starting the Berlin Blockade. In response, the U. S. and Britain launched an airlift of food and coal and distributed the new currency in West Berlin as well.
Since the 1930s, prices and wages had been controlled. That meant that people had accumulated large paper assets, that official prices and wages did not reflect reality, as the black market dominated the economy and more than half of all transactions were taking place unofficially; the reform replaced the old money with the new Deutsche Mark at the rate of one new per ten old. This wiped out 90% of government and private debt, as well as private savings. Prices were decontrolled, labor unions agreed to accept a 15% wage increase, despite the 25% rise in prices; the result was the prices of German export products held steady, while profits and earnings from exports soared and were poured back into the economy. The currency reforms were simultaneous with the $1.4 billion in Marshall Plan money coming in from the United States, used for investment. In addition, the Marshall plan forced German companies, as well as those in all of Western Europe, to moder
O'Reilly Media is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics. Their distinctive brand features a woodcut of an animal on many of their book covers; the company began in 1978 as a private consulting firm doing technical writing, based in the Cambridge, Massachusetts area. In 1984, it began to retain publishing rights on manuals created for Unix vendors. A few 70-page "Nutshell Handbooks" were well-received, but the focus remained on the consulting business until 1988. After a conference displaying O'Reilly's preliminary Xlib manuals attracted significant attention, the company began increasing production of manuals and books; the original cover art consisted of animal designs developed by Edie Freedman because she thought that Unix program names sounded like "weird animals". In 1993 O'Reilly Media created the first web portal, when they launched one of the first Web-based resources, Global Network Navigator.
GNN was sold to AOL in one of the first large transactions of the dot-com bubble. GNN was the first site on the World Wide Web to feature paid advertising. Although O'Reilly Media got its start in publishing two decades after its genesis the company expanded into event production. In 1997, O'Reilly launched The Perl Conference to cross-promote its books on the Perl programming language. Many of the company's other software bestsellers were on topics that were off the radar of the commercial software industry. In 1998, O'Reilly invited many of the leaders of software projects to a meeting. Called the freeware summit, the meeting became known as the Open Source Summit; the O'Reilly Open Source Convention is now one of O'Reilly's flagship events. Other key events include the Strata Conference on big data, the Velocity Conference on Web Performance and Operations, FOO Camp. Past events of note include the Web 2.0 Summit. Overall, O'Reilly describes its business not as publishing or conferences, but as "changing the world by spreading the knowledge of innovators."Today, the company offers over one dozen conferences: Strata + Hadoop World OSCON Fluent Velocity The Next:Economy Summit The Next:Money Summit The Solid Conference The O'Reilly Software Architecture Conference The O'Reilly Design Conference O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference Tools of Change Conference Web 2.0 Summit Web 2.0 Expo MySQL Conference and Expo RailsConf Where 2.0 Money:Tech Gov 2.0 Expo and Gov 2.0 Summit O'Reilly school of technology will be discontinued as of January 6, 2016, new enrollments are no longer accepted.
In the late 1990s, O'Reilly founded the O'Reilly Network, which grew to include sites such as: LinuxDevCenter.com MacDevCenter.com WindowsDevCenter.com ONLamp.com O'Reilly RadarIn 2008 the company revised its online model and stopped publishing on several of its sites. The company produced dev2dev in association with BEA and java.net in association with Sun Microsystems and CollabNet. In 2001, O'Reilly launched Safari Books Online, a subscription-based service providing access to ebooks as a joint venture with the Pearson Technology Group. Safari Books Online includes books and video from Adobe Press, Alpha Books, Cisco Press, FT Press, Microsoft Press, New Riders Publishing, O'Reilly, Peachpit Press, Prentice Hall, Prentice Hall PTR, Que and Sams Publishing. In 2014, O'Reilly Media acquired Pearson's stake, making Safari Books Online a wholly owned subsidiary of O'Reilly Media. O'Reilly did a redesign of the site and has some success in the attempt to expand beyond Safari's core B2C market into the B2B Enterprise market.
In 2017, O'Reilly Media announced they were no longer selling books including eBooks. Instead, everyone was encouraged to sign up to Safari. In 2003, after the dot com bust, O'Reilly's corporate goal was to reignite enthusiasm in the computer industry. To do this, Dale Dougherty and Tim O'Reilly decided to use the term "Web 2.0" coined in January 1999 by Darcy DiNucci. The term was used for the Web 2.0 Summit run by O'Reilly TechWeb. CMP registered Web 2.0 as a Service Mark "for arranging and conducting live events, namely trade shows, business conferences and educational conferences in various fields of computers and information technology." Web 2.0 framed what distinguished the companies that survived the dot com bust from those that died, identified key drivers of future success, including what is now called “cloud computing,” big data, new approaches to iterative, data-driven software development. In May 2006 CMP Media learned of an impending event called the "Web 2.0 Half day conference."
Concerned over their obligation to take reasonable means to enforce their trade and service marks CMP sent a cease and desist letter to the non-profit Irish organizers of the event. This attempt to restrict through legal mechanisms the use of the term was criticized by some; the legal issue was resolved by O'Reilly's apologizing for the early and aggressive involvement of attorneys, rather than calling the organizers, allowing them to use the service mark for this single event. In January 2005 the compan