Dragon's Lair is a video game franchise created by animator and film director Don Bluth. The series is famous for its western animation-style graphics and convoluted decades-long history of being ported to many platforms and being remade into television and comic book series; the first game in the series is titled Dragon's Lair released for the arcades in 1983 by Cinematronics. It uses laserdisc technology, offering superior graphics compared to other video games at the time; the game was ported to several other platforms, but as no home system technology of that era could accommodate the graphical quality of laserdisc, several abridged versions of the original game were released under different names. The first true sequel, Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp, would only appear in 1991. While its graphics were once again praised, the poor controls and limited interactivity kept it from reaching the popularity of the original; the two main games in the series are considered gaming classics and are re-released for each new generation of consoles.
In 2010, they were bundled alongside the unrelated 1984 Bluth Group game Space Ace in the Dragon's Lair Trilogy, made available across numerous platforms. The series' forays into other media include a short-lived cartoon series that aired on ABC in 1984 and a comic-book miniseries released in 2003. Plans for a feature-length film have existed since the 1980s and have resurfaced in 2015, when Bluth launched a crowd-funding campaign to secure funds for a Dragon's Lair movie pitch. After an unsuccessful bid on Kickstarter, a second Indiegogo campaign managed to reach its target in early 2016. Dragon's Lair is a laserdisc video game published by Cinematronics in 1983. In the game, the protagonist Dirk the Daring is a knight attempting to rescue Princess Daphne from the evil dragon Singe who has locked the princess in the foul wizard Mordroc's castle, it featured animation by ex-Disney animator Don Bluth. Most other games of the era represented the character as a sprite, which consisted of a series of pixels displayed in succession.
Due to hardware limitations of the era, artists were restricted in the detail they could achieve using that technique. Dragon's Lair overcame those limitations by tapping into the vast storage potential of the LaserDisc but imposed other limitations on the actual gameplay, it was advertised as the first 3D video game and as the meeting point of video games and animated films. The success of the game sparked numerous home ports and related games. In the 21st century, it has been repackaged in a number of formats as historic game, it is one of only three video games in storage at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. Escape from Singe's Castle known as Dragon's Lair Part II - Escape From Singe's Castle is a 1987 video game published by Software Projects for the Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64 and ZX Spectrum home computers. Readysoft made the Amiga, Atari ST, PC versions; the game is sometimes referred to as Dragon's Lair II but is not to be confused with the official arcade sequel Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp.
Dragon's Lair is a 1990 platform game developed by MotiveTime and published by CSG Imagesoft in North America, Elite Systems in Europe and Epic/Sony Records in Japan for the Nintendo Entertainment System. Its plot is identical to that of the original game. Dragon's Lair: The Legend is a 1991 platform game developed by Elite Systems and published by CSG Imagesoft in North America, Elite Software in Europe and Epic/Sony Records in Japan for the Game Boy; this is a port of Elite's 1985 ZX Spectrum game Roller Coaster. Dragon's Lair II: Time Warp is the first official sequel other than Escape from Singe's Castle. Released in 1991 by Leland Corporation, its story takes place years later. Dirk has married Daphne, the marriage has produced several children; when Daphne is kidnapped by the evil wizard Mordroc in order to be forced into marriage, Dirk's children are upset by the abduction of their mother, Dirk must once again save her. Home ports of the game were announced for the Philips CD-i, 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, Jaguar CD.
However, only the CD-i version was released, though non-playable demos of the 3DO and Jaguar CD versions appear on those consoles' respective versions of Brain Dead 13. The game was ported to the Wii as part of the compilation release Dragon's Lair Trilogy. Dragon's Lair III: The Curse of Mordread was made for Amiga, Atari ST, PC in 1993, mixing original footage with scenes from Time Warp that were not included in the original PC release due to memory constraints; the game included a newly produced "Blackbeard the Pirate" stage, intended to be in the arcade game but was never completed. Dragon's Lair is a 1993 platform game developed by MotiveTime and published by Data East in North America, Elite Systems in Europe and Konami in Japan for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, its plot is identical to that of the original game. Dragon's Lair 3D: Return to the Lair was developed in 2002, as a 3D interpretation of the game developed by Dragonstone Software and published by Ubisoft for Microsoft Windows, GameCube and the PlayStation 2.
It is based on the original Dragon's Lair and follows a similar story as Dirk must enter Mordroc's castle to rescue Princess Daphne from a dragon. Many of the characters and locations from the 1983 original make appearances in the game, along with new puzzles and enemies; the game uses cel shading to mimic the distinctive style of the original. Bluth produced two new animated sequences for the ending of the game, it received mixed review
Jet Set Willy II
Jet Set Willy II: The Final Frontier is a platform game released in 1985 by Software Projects for a variety of 8-bit home computers. It was the only official sequel to Jet Set Willy, one of the most successful home computer games released. Jet Set Willy II: The Final Frontier is the last of the Miner Willy series, although numerous unofficial sequels, remakes and updates have been released up to this day. Jet Set Willy II is an expansion of the original JSW rather than a new game unto itself, its map is an expanded version of the original mansion, with only a few new elements over its predecessor, several of which are based on rumoured events in JSW that were in fact never programmed. In the ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC and MSX versions, Willy is blasted from the Rocket Room into space, for these 33 rooms he dons a spacesuit. Due to the proliferation of hacking and cheating in the original game, Jet Set Willy II pays homage to this and includes a screen called Cheat that can only be accessed by cheating.
Control of Willy differs from the original: The player can jump in the opposite direction upon landing, without releasing the jump button. Willy now takes a step forward before jumping from a standstill; the Willy character is mapped differently, so although Willy looks the same, some previous "safe spots" in Jet Set Willy are now hazardous to the player in Jet Set Willy II - the tall candle in The Chapel for example. Jet Set Willy II was not written by the original programmer, Matthew Smith, was instead developed by Derrick P. Rowson; the ending of JSW II is different. Once Willy has collected 150 of the 175 available items and goes to bed, the game takes control of Willy and guides him into the bathroom, where he falls into the toilet - and lands in a room named Oh $#!+! The Central Cavern!, laid out identically to and deriving its name from the opening level of Manic Miner. The screen is playable on the Amstrad CPC version, but there is no escape, save for the player intentionally killing off their remaining lives.
JSW II was created as an Amstrad version of Jet Set Willy, but with expansions to exploit the 64K RAM of the Amstrad CPC range. This version was subsequently ported back to the Spectrum; the porting across to Amstrad and porting back to Spectrum may explain a number of other small differences, including the loss of coloured backgrounds in certain screens as the CPC version ran in a 4-colour display mode. The game was subsequently ported to other platforms, including the Commodore 64, Commodore 16, BBC Micro, Acorn Electron and MSX; the BBC Micro cassette version has 2 rooms not in the ZX Spectrum version, omits 60 of the rooms, rather than being a subset of it as are the CPC and ZX Spectrum versions. Unofficial ports to the Acorn Archimedes, Windows/DOS and UNIX/X environments exist; the C64 screen was a different format to the Amstrad, so the developers were unable to take the data used in the Amstrad and instead had to lay out again and re-implement all the screens and sprites. However, Rowson was able to use much of the data directly from the Amstrad, hence the game was released sooner.
In an in-depth article about both the game and the code, Your Spectrum stated that as each room was compressed and took up differing amounts of memory, a room editor would be impossible to code. In November 2016 Rowson released JSW2+ as a re-write of JSW2; as well as technical improvements to the code allowing for more complicated rooms, it has built-in ‘cheat’ devices allowing infinite lives and teleportation. Rowson added some new rooms, made many of the rooms easier with fewer or slower sprites. Jet Set Willy II at Curlie Map of the Spectrum version of Jet Set Willy II Room format for Jet Set Willy II Jet Set Willy II at SpectrumComputing.co.uk
The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research. Referred to during development as the ZX81 Colour and ZX82, it was launched as the ZX Spectrum by Sinclair to highlight the machine's colour display, compared with the black and white of its predecessor, the ZX81; the Spectrum was released as eight different models, ranging from the entry level with 16 KB RAM released in 1982 to the ZX Spectrum +3 with 128 KB RAM and built in floppy disk drive in 1987. The Spectrum was among the first mainstream-audience home computers in the UK, similar in significance to the Commodore 64 in the US; the introduction of the ZX Spectrum led to a boom in companies producing software and hardware for the machine, the effects of which are still seen. Some credit it as the machine. Licensing deals and clones followed, earned Clive Sinclair a knighthood for "services to British industry"; the Commodore 64, Dragon 32, Oric-1, Oric Atmos, BBC Micro and the Amstrad CPC range were rivals to the Spectrum in the UK market during the early 1980s.
While the machine was discontinued in 1992, new software titles continue to be released – over 40 so far in 2018. The Spectrum is based on a Zilog Z80 A CPU running at 3.5 MHz. The original model has 16 KB of ROM and either 16 KB or 48 KB of RAM. Hardware design was by Richard Altwasser of Sinclair Research, the outward appearance was designed by Sinclair's industrial designer Rick Dickinson. Video output is through an RF modulator and was designed for use with contemporary television sets, for a simple colour graphic display. Text can be displayed using 32 columns × 24 rows of characters from the ZX Spectrum character set or from a set provided within an application, from a palette of 15 shades: seven colours at two levels of brightness each, plus black; the image resolution is 256×192 with the same colour limitations. To conserve memory, colour is stored separate from the pixel bitmap in a low resolution, 32×24 grid overlay, corresponding to the character cells. In practice, this means that all pixels of an 8x8 character block share one foreground colour and one background colour.
Altwasser received a patent for this design. An "attribute" consists of a foreground and a background colour, a brightness level and a flashing "flag" which, when set, causes the two colours to swap at regular intervals; this scheme leads to what was dubbed colour clash or attribute clash, where a desired colour of a specific pixel could not be selected. This became a distinctive feature of the Spectrum, meaning programs games, had to be designed around this limitation. Other machines available around the same time, for example the Amstrad CPC or the Commodore 64, did not suffer from this limitation; the Commodore 64 used colour attributes in a similar way, but a special multicolour mode, hardware sprites and hardware scrolling were used to avoid attribute clash. Sound output is through a beeper on the machine itself, capable of producing one channel with 10 octaves. Software was available that could play two channel sound; the machine includes an expansion bus edge connector and 3.5 mm audio in/out ports for the connection of a cassette recorder for loading and saving programs and data.
The "ear" port has a higher output than the "mic" and is recommended for headphones, with "mic" for attaching to other audio devices as line in. It was manufactured in Scotland, in the now closed Timex factory; the machine's Sinclair BASIC interpreter is stored in ROM and was written by Steve Vickers on contract from Nine Tiles Ltd. The Spectrum's chiclet keyboard is marked with BASIC keywords. For example, pressing "G" when in programming mode would insert the BASIC command GO TO; the BASIC interpreter was developed from that used on the ZX81 and a ZX81 BASIC program can be typed into a Spectrum unmodified, but Spectrum BASIC included many extra features making it easier to use. The ZX Spectrum character set was expanded from that of the ZX81, which did not feature lower-case letters. Spectrum BASIC included extra keywords for the more advanced display and sound, supported multi-statement lines; the cassette interface was much more advanced and loading around five times faster than the ZX81, unlike the ZX81, the Spectrum could maintain the TV display during tape storage and retrieval operations.
As well as being able to save programs, the Spectrum could save the contents of arrays, the contents of the screen memory, the contents of any defined range of memory addresses. Rick Dickinson came up with a number of designs for the "ZX82" project before the final ZX Spectrum design. A number of the keyboard legends changed during the design phase including ARC becoming CIRCLE, FORE becoming INK and BACK becoming PAPER; the Spectrum reused a number of design elements of the ZX81: The ROM code for things such as floating point calculations and expression parsing were similar. The simple keyboard decoding and cassette interfaces were nearly identical; the central ULA integrated circuit was somewhat similar although it implemented the major enhancement over the ZX81: A hardware based television raster generator that indirectly gave the new machine four times as much processing power as the ZX81 due to the Z80 now being released from this video generation task. A bug in the ULA as designed
Matthew Smith (games programmer)
Matthew Smith is a British computer game programmer. He created the games Manic Miner and Jet Set Willy for the ZX Spectrum, released in 1983 and 1984 respectively. Matthew was born in Penge, his family moved to Wallasey. He started out programming when he received a TRS-80 for christmas in 1979, his first commercial game was a Galaxian clone for the TRS-80 called Delta Tower One. He went on to produce Monster Muncher on the VIC-20, he obtained a ZX Spectrum on loan from Bug-Byte Software Ltd. in return for a freelance contract for three games. The first of these was Styx in 1983 for which Matthew received £3,000, he wrote Manic Miner in eight weeks using a Model III Tandy. It was the first ZX Spectrum title with in-game music; the sequel, Jet Set Willy, took longer to write. Manic Miner and Jet Set Willy were both commercial successes. Smith has stated that Manic Miner was the most enjoyable game to make for him whereas Jet Set Willy was'seven shades of hell'. After the creation of Jet Set Willy he started work on The Mega Tree, for publication by his company Software Projects.
Unlike his previous two hits The Mega Tree was not developed for the ZX Spectrum but the Commodore 64. The project failed to gain traction and was cancelled three months into development.. The development disks containing some of the graphics from the unreleased game were auctioned for charity in 2004. In 1987 adverts began appearing in games magazines for a new game Attack of the Mutant Zombie Flesh Eating Chickens From Mars said to have been programmed by Smith, due for release by Software Projects, it is reported that Smith was unhappy with the finished product and it was never released. Smith closed Software Projects in 1988 without completing any more programs, he lived in a Dutch commune from around 1995 but was deported from the Netherlands in October 1997 and returned to Britain, saying that he had failed to keep his residency papers in order. In the late 1990s, he said he was "surprised and flattered" at the amount of attention and speculation he had attracted on the Internet. In 1999 Smith returned to the UK video game industry by taking a job at Dewsbury-based computer game developer Runecraft.
In 2000, he appeared on a British television documentary programme called Thumb Candy about the history of video games in which, in a brief interview, he discussed Manic Miner and his 1980s career. He has attended and given talks at retrogaming conventions during this decade. In 2005, a mobile game was released by Numfum, called Jet Set Racing. Smith was featured in the game as a playable character as'Matt', being the fastest racer of the game. In 2013, Smith was working on producing a new game with Elite Systems, who have republished his original games on mobile platforms. Where is Matthew Smith? The Matthew Smith Mystery Matthew Smith at Curlie Matthew Smith article and first online interview since returning from The Netherlands Matthew Smith's profile at MobyGames Matthew Smith 2009 interview after Videogame Nation exhibition at Manchester Urbis on 19 July Short Matthew Smith interview August 1999
Manic Miner is a platform video game written for the ZX Spectrum by Matthew Smith and released by Bug-Byte in 1983. It is the first game in the Miner Willy series and among the early titles in the platform game genre; the game itself was inspired by the Atari 8-bit family game Miner 2049er. It has since been ported to video game consoles and mobile phones. At the time, its stand-out features included in-game music and sound effects, high replay value, colourful graphics, which were well designed for the graphical limitations of the ZX Spectrum; the Spectrum's video display allowed the background and foreground colours to be exchanged automatically without software attention and the "animated" load screen appears to swap the words Manic and Miner through manipulation of this feature. On the Spectrum this was the first game with in-game music, the playing of which required constant CPU attention and was thought impossible, it was achieved by alternating CPU time between the music and the game. This results in the music's stuttery rhythm.
The in-game music is In the Hall of the Mountain King from Edvard Grieg's music to Henrik Ibsen's play Peer Gynt. The music that plays during the title screen is an arrangement of The Blue Danube. In each of the twenty caverns, each one screen in size, are several flashing objects, which the player must collect before Willy's oxygen supply runs out. Once the player has collected the objects in one cavern, they must go to the now-flashing portal, which will take them to the next cavern; the player must avoid enemies, listed in the cassette inlay as "... Poisonous Pansies, Spiders and worst of all, Manic Mining Robots...", which move along predefined paths at constant speeds. Willy can be killed by falling too far, so players must time the precision of jumps and other movements to prevent such falls or collisions with the enemies. Extra lives are gained every 10,000 points, the game ends when the player either has no lives left, or completes all twenty caverns and escapes to the open air. Above the final portal is a garden.
To the right is a house with a white picket fence and red car parked in front. To the left is a slope leading to backyard with a pond and tree. Upon gaining his freedom, Miner Willy walks off the right of the screen, never looking back. There are some differences between the Software Projects versions; the scroll-text during the attract mode is different, to reflect the new copyright, there are several other cosmetic changes, although gameplay remains the same: In Processing Plant, the enemy at the end of the conveyor belt is a bush in the original, whereas the Software Projects one resembles a PacMan ghost. In Amoebatrons' Revenge, the original Bug-Byte amoebatrons look like alien octopuses with tentacles hanging down, whereas the Software Projects amoebatrons resemble the Bug-Byte logo - smiling beetles, with little legs up their sides. In The Warehouse, the original game has threshers travelling up and down the vertical slots, rotating about the screen's X-axis; the Software Projects version has'impossible triangle' sprites instead, which rotate about the screen's Z-axis.
The Bug-Byte cheat code was the numerical sequence "6031769" - based on Matthew Smith's driving licence. In the Software Projects version this changed to "typewriter". Internal code changes meant. Manic Miner was placed at number 25 in the "Your Sinclair official top 100" Spectrum games of all time, was voted number 6 in the Readers' Top 100 Games of All Time in the same issue, it was the winner of a Golden Joystick Award for best arcade style game by Computer & video games magazine in the March 1983 edition. Placed third in "Game of the Year 1983" of the same competition; the game was included at #97 on Polygon's 500 best games of all time list. Official ports exist for the Commodore 64, Commodore 16, Amstrad CPC, BBC Micro, Dragon 32/64, Commodore Amiga, Oric 1, Game Boy Advance, MSX, SAM Coupé and mobile phones. Unofficial ports exist for the IBM PC compatibles, Apple Macintosh, Atari ST, ZX81, TRS-80 Color Computer, Sony PlayStation, Nintendo 64, Neo Geo Pocket Color, Acorn Archimedes, Orao, Z88, PMD 85, HP48, Microsoft Zune, Acorn Atom and Commodore 128.
The SAM Coupé version, programmed by Matthew Holt, like the ZX original requires pixel-perfect timing, both graphics and audio, the latter by František Fuka, were updated. In addition to the original twenty caverns, forty additional caverns were included in this release. Levels were designed by David Ledbury, winners of a competition run by SAM Computers Ltd. Although the SAM Coupé was broadly a Spectrum clone, it avoided the Spectrum's original limitations on colour graphics. Spectrum pixels could be of many colours, but the 8 horizontally adjacent pixels within the span of a character block all had to be from one of only two colours; the Manic Miner port made use of the removal of this restriction, with more detailed use of colour, most visibly in the character sprites. This version scored 84% in Your Sinclair, 88% in Crash; the game was ported for Czechoslovak Computers PMD 85 in 1985. Authors of PMD 85 version are Daniel Jenne, they made it as much accurate. The BBC Micro version does not have the Solar Power Generator, instead containing a different room called "The Meteor Shower".
This has the "reflecting machines" from the Solar Power Generator. Instead, it has meteors which descend from the top of the screen and disintegrate when they hit platforms, like the Skylabs in Skylab Landing Bay
Ocean Software Ltd referred to as Ocean, was a British software development company, that became one of the biggest European video game developers and publishers of the 1980s and 1990s. The company was based in Manchester. Ocean developed dozens of games for a variety of systems such as the ZX Spectrum, Oric 1, Commodore 64, Dragon 32, MSX, Amstrad CPC, Commodore 16, Atari ST, Amiga, PC, BBC micro and video game consoles such as the Nintendo Entertainment System, Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Master System and Sega Genesis; the company started out as "Spectrum Software" in 1983 selling arcade clones for various home computers including the ZX81, ZX Spectrum and VIC 20. Although not named after the ZX Spectrum, the name became confusing and was changed to Ocean Software; some of their Spectrum Software games were re-released on Ocean with different titles so the Berzerk clone Frenzy was reissued as the Ocean game Robotics and Missile Attack became Armageddon. Their early releases were developed in-house, but in 1984 Ocean Software acquired its former Liverpool rival, the defunct software developer Imagine, focus shifted from development to publication of games.
In 1984, Ocean struck a deal with Konami to publish their arcade games for home computers. In 1985, Ocean Software managed to secure the first movie licences, such as Rambo, Short Circuit and Cobra, as well as the TV show Miami Vice and RoboCop which spent about a year on the top of the charts. In 1986, a deal was signed with Taito and Data East for home versions of their arcade games such as Arkanoid, Operation Wolf and The NewZealand Story. In 1986, Ocean Software created with Marc DJAN Ocean Software France; this 16-bit studio would create most of the 16-bit arcade conversions between 1986 and 1991 became the French marketing and sales subsidiary of Ocean Software Ltd. In 1987, Ocean Software published original games again, after a marginal season filled with licences, resulting in Head over Heels, Match Day II and Wizball. Ocean was voted Best 8-bit Software House of the Year at the 1989 Golden Joystick Awards, along with awards for their 8-bit and 16-bit conversions of Operation Wolf. In 1996, Ocean Software announced a merge with French publisher Infogrames for £100 Million.
After the merger Infogrames kept Ocean as a separate division publishing their own games. Ocean acquired Digital Image Design in 1998 and in the same year, Infogrames renamed Ocean Software to Infogrames United Kingdom Limited and Ocean's last titles would end up being published by Infogrames' European subsidiary, Infogrames Multimedia SA. One of the most recognisable features of Ocean games on the Commodore 64 was the Ocean Loader. Since cassettes were the most popular storage medium used in Europe for 8-bit computers, loading a game could take up to 30 minutes. Ocean used a special loading system that displayed a picture based on the game and played music while the game was loading; the Ocean loader music is still popular with fans of chiptunes. Five versions of the tune exist; the Ocean Loader was first used in the game Hyper Sports. Up to 1987 the Ocean Loader was written by the in house Ocean programmer Bill Barna, from 1987 to the end of the Commodore 64's commercial life the loader was replaced by "Freeload" written by in house programmer Paul Hughes.
Freeload featured a copyright protection mechanism. On the ZX Spectrum, games after 1984 used the Speedlock protection system, which included a countdown timer showing the time left to load a game. In 2004, Paul Hughes released the 6502 source code of some of Ocean's development tools, among them Freeload, into the public domain. Ocean was famous for buying the rights to make video games from different arcade and television franchises. Many license games combined several styles for example featuring platform car driving; the most well received license games by Ocean were RoboCop, Batman The Movie and Robocop 3, which featured 3D graphics in 16-bit versions. The adventure game Hook received positive reviews; the 1986 game Batman got a rating of 93% in Crash magazine. Among Ocean's license games are: Ocean acquired several licenses to develop and publish conversions of arcade games for home computers; the year next to each game corresponds to the year of first release of a computer conversion. Although Ocean was known for its licensed games, it had many other releases.
Ocean Software Ltd. Infogrames United Kingdom Limited
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 within the Liverpool City Council local authority in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region. Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire, it became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for Irish and English emigrants to North America.
Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, the RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary and RMS Olympic. The popularity of the Beatles and other music groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby; the Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007. In 2008, it was nominated as the annual European Capital of Culture together with Norway. Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004; the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, William Brown Street. Liverpool's status as a port city has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples and religions from Ireland and Wales.
The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew; the word "Scouse" has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, pōl, meaning a pool or creek, is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, "The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained"; the adjective Liverpudlian is first recorded in 1833. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including "elverpool", a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey; the name appeared in 1190 as "Liuerpul", the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may refer to Liverpool. Another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl meaning "expanse or confluence at the pool".
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500; the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street and Whiteacre Street. In the 17th century there was slow progress in population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region's principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.
As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; the population continued to rise especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. In her poem "Liverpool", which celebrates the city's worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.
Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city's economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself." For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool