A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to the design, maintenance and evaluation of computer software. Prior to the mid-1970s, software practitioners called themselves computer programmers or software developers, regardless of their actual jobs. Many people prefer to call themselves software developer and programmer, because most agree what these terms mean, while the exact meaning of software engineer is still being debated. Half of all practitioners today have degrees in computer science, information systems, or information technology. A small, but growing, number of practitioners have software engineering degrees. In 1987, Imperial College London introduced the first three-year software engineering Bachelor's degree in the UK and the world. In 1996, the Rochester Institute of Technology established the first software engineering bachelor's degree program in the United States, however, it did not obtain ABET accreditation until 2003, the same time as Rice University, Clarkson University, Milwaukee School of Engineering and Mississippi State University obtained theirs.
In 1997, PSG College of Technology in Coimbatore, India was the first to start a five-year integrated Master of Science degree in Software Engineering. Since software engineering undergraduate degrees have been established at many universities. A standard international curriculum for undergraduate software engineering degrees was defined by the CCSE; as of 2004, in the U. S. about 50 universities offer software engineering degrees, which teach both computer science and engineering principles and practices. The first software engineering Master's degree was established at Seattle University in 1979. Since graduate software engineering degrees have been made available from many more universities. In Canada, the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board of the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers has recognized several software engineering programs. In 1998, the US Naval Postgraduate School established the first doctorate program in Software Engineering in the world. Additionally, many online advanced degrees in Software Engineering have appeared such as the Master of Science in Software Engineering degree offered through the Computer Science and Engineering Department at California State University, Fullerton.
Steve McConnell opines that because most universities teach computer science rather than software engineering, there is a shortage of true software engineers. ETS University and UQAM were mandated by IEEE to develop the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge, which has become an ISO standard describing the body of knowledge covered by a software engineer. In business, some software engineering practitioners have MIS or computer information systems degrees. In embedded systems, some have electrical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science with emphasis in "embedded systems" or computer engineering degrees, because embedded software requires a detailed understanding of hardware. In medical software, practitioners may have medical informatics, general medical, or biology degrees; some practitioners have mathematics, engineering, or technology degrees. Some have other non-technical degrees. For instance, Barry Boehm earned degrees in mathematics. And, others have no degrees. Most software engineers work as contractors.
Software engineers work with businesses, government agencies, non-profit organizations. Some software engineers work on their own as consulting software engineers; some organizations have specialists to perform all of the tasks in the software development process. Other organizations separate software engineers based on specific software-engineering tasks; these companies sometimes hire interns over a short time. In large projects, software engineers are distinguished from people who specialize in only one role because they take part in the design as well as the programming of the project. In small projects, software engineers will fill several or all roles at the same time. Specializations include: in industry in academia Most students in the developed world have avoided degrees related to software engineering because of the fear of offshore outsourcing and of being displaced by foreign visa workers. Although government statistics do not show a threat to software engineering itself. One is expected to start out as a computer programmer before being promoted to software engineer.
Thus, the career path to software engineering may be rough during recessions. Some career counselors suggest a student focus on "people skills" and business skills rather than purely technical skills because such "soft skills" are more difficult to offshore. Reasonable command over reading, writing & speaking English is asked by most of employers, it is the quasi-management aspects of software engineering that appear to be what has kept it from being impacted by globalization. There are several prizes in the field of software engineering: The Codie awards is a yearly award issued by the Software and Information Industry Association for excellence in software development within the software industry. Jolt Awards are awards in the software industry. Stevens Award is a software engineering award given in memory of Wayne Stevens. Margaret Hamilton promoted
Toshiba Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Its diversified products and services include information technology and communications equipment and systems, electronic components and materials, power systems and social infrastructure systems, consumer electronics, household appliances, medical equipment, office equipment, as well as lighting and logistics. Toshiba was founded in 1939 as Tokyo Shibaura Denki K. K. through the merger of Shibaura Seisaku-sho and Tokyo Denki. The company name was changed to Toshiba Corporation in 1978, it is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices, the Osaka Securities Exchange and the Nagoya Stock Exchange. Toshiba is the ninth largest semiconductor manufacturer in the world. In 2017, Toshiba filed unaudited quarterly results because of uncertainties at Westinghouse, which had filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Toshiba stated that "substantial doubt about the company's ability to continue as a going concern exists".
Toshiba is organized into four groupings: the Digital Products Group, the Electronic Devices Group, the Home Appliances Group and the Social Infrastructure Group. Midea Group, a Chinese company, bought a controlling 80.1% stake in the Toshiba Home Appliances Group in 2016. Toshiba was founded in 1939 by the merger of Tokyo Denki. Shibaura Seisakusho had been founded as Tanaka Seisakusho by Tanaka Hisashige in July 1875 as Japan's first manufacturer of telegraph equipment. In 1904, it was renamed Shibaura Seisakusho. Through the first decades of the 20th century, Shibaura Seisakusho had become a major manufacturer of heavy electrical machinery as Japan modernized during the Meiji Era and became a world industrial power. Tokyo Denki was founded as Hakunetsusha in 1890 and had been Japan's first producer of incandescent electric lamps, it diversified into the manufacture of other consumer products and in 1899 had been renamed Tokyo Denki. The merger of Shibaura and Tokyo Denki created, it was soon nicknamed Toshiba, but it was not until 1978 that the company was renamed Toshiba Corporation.
The group expanded driven by a combination of organic growth and by acquisitions, buying heavy engineering and primary industry firms in the 1940s and 1950s. Groups created include Toshiba Music Industries/Toshiba EMI, Toshiba International Corporation Toshiba Electrical Equipment, Toshiba Chemical, Toshiba Lighting and Technology, Toshiba America Information Systems and Toshiba Carrier Corporation. Toshiba is responsible for a number of Japanese firsts, including radar, the TAC digital computer, transistor television and microwave oven, color video phone, Japanese word processor, MRI system, laptop personal computer, NAND EEPROM, DVD, the Libretto sub-notebook personal computer and HD DVD. In 1977, Toshiba acquired the Brazilian company Semp, subsequently forming Semp Toshiba through the combination of the two companies' South American operations. In 1987, Tocibai Machine, a subsidiary of Toshiba, was accused of illegally selling CNC milling machines used to produce quiet submarine propellers to the Soviet Union in violation of the CoCom agreement, an international embargo on certain countries to COMECON countries.
The Toshiba-Kongsberg scandal involved a subsidiary of Toshiba and the Norwegian company Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk. The incident strained relations between the United States and Japan, resulted in the arrest and prosecution of two senior executives, as well as the imposition of sanctions on the company by both countries. Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania said "What Toshiba and Kongsberg did was ransom the security of the United States for $517 million." In 2001, Toshiba signed a contract with Orion Electric, one of the world's largest OEM consumer video electronic makers and suppliers, to manufacture and supply finished consumer TV and video products for Toshiba to meet the increasing demand for the North American market. The contract ended in 2008. In December 2004, Toshiba announced it would discontinue manufacturing traditional in-house cathode-ray tube televisions. In 2006, Toshiba terminated production of in-house plasma TVs. To ensure its future competitiveness in the flat-panel digital television and display market, Toshiba has made a considerable investment in a new kind of display technology called SED.
Before World War II, Toshiba was a member of the Mitsui Group zaibatsu. Today Toshiba is a member of the Mitsui keiretsu, still has preferential arrangements with Mitsui Bank and the other members of the keiretsu. Membership in a keiretsu has traditionally meant loyalty, both corporate and private, to other members of the keiretsu or allied keiretsu; this loyalty can extend as far as the beer which in Toshiba's case is Asahi. In July 2005, BNFL confirmed it planned to sell Westinghouse Electric Company estimated to be worth $1.8 billion. The bid attracted interest from several companies including Toshiba, General Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and when the Financial Times reported on 23 January 2006 that Toshiba had won the bid, it valued the company's offer at $5 billion; the sale of Westinghouse by the Government of the United Kingdom surp
Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or existing activity, or could be done internally, sometimes involves transferring employees and assets from one firm to another. The term outsourcing, which came from the phrase outside resourcing, originated no than 1981; the concept, which The Economist says "made its presence felt since the time of the Second World War," involves the contracting of a business process, and/or non-core functions, such as manufacturing, facility management, call center support). Outsourcing is the practice of handing over control of public services to private enterprises. Outsourcing includes both foreign and domestic contracting, sometimes includes offshoring or nearshoring. Offshoring and outsourcing are not mutually inclusive: there can be one without the other, they can be intertwined, can be individually or jointly or reversed, involving terms such as reshoring and insourcing. Offshoring is moving the work to a distant country.
If the distant workplace is a foreign subsidiary/owned by the company the offshore operation is a captive, sometimes referred to as in-house offshore. Insourcing entails bringing processes handled by third-party firms in-house, is sometimes accomplished via vertical integration. Offshore outsourcing is the practice of hiring an external organization to perform some business functions in a country other than the one where the products or services are performed, developed or manufactured. An Intermediary is when a business provides a contract service to another organization while contracting out that same service; some of the acronyms related to BPO (Business Process Outsourcing are: Global labor arbitrage can provide major financial savings from lower international labor rates can provide a major motivation for offshoring. Cost savings from Economies of scale and specialization can motivate outsourcing. Another motivation is speed to market. Details of managing DuPont's CIO Cinda Hallman's $4 billion 10-year ourtsourcing contract with Computer Sciences Corporation and Anderson Consulting were outsourced, thus avoiding "inventing a process if we'd done it in-house."
A subsequently developed term to describe. Outsourcing can offer greater budget flexibility and control by allowing organizations to pay for the services and business functions they need, when they need them, it reduces the need to hire and train specialized staff, makes available specialized expertise, can reduce capital, operating expenses, risk. "Do what you do best and outsource the rest" has become an internationally recognized business tagline first "coined and developed" in the 1990s by the "legendary management consultant" Peter Drucker. The slogan was used to advocate outsourcing as a viable business strategy. Drucker began explaining the concept of "Outsourcing" as early as 1989 in his Wall Street Journal article entitled "Sell the Mailroom." Two organizations may enter into a contractual agreement involving an exchange of services and payments. Outsourcing is said to help firms to perform well in their core competencies, fuel innovation, mitigate a shortage of skill or expertise in the areas where they want to outsource.
Following the adding of management layers in the 1950s and 1960 to support expansion for the sake of economy of scale, corporations found that agility and added profits could be obtained by focusing on core strengths. Kodak's 1989 "outsourcing most of its information technology systems" was followed by others during the 1990s. In the early 21st century, businesses outsourced to suppliers outside their own country, sometimes referred to as offshoring or offshore outsourcing. Other options subsequently emerged: nearshoring, multisourcing, strategic alliances/strategic partnerships, strategic outsourcing. and vested outsourcing. From Drucker's perspective, a company should only seek to subcontract in those areas in which it demonstrated no special ability; the business strategy outlined by his slogan recommended that companies should take advantage of a specialist provider's knowledge and economies of scale to improve performance and achieve the service needed. In 2009, by way of recognition, Peter Drucker posthumously received a significant honor when he was inducted into the Outsourcing Hall of Fame for his outstanding work in the field.
Although offshoring focused on manufacturing, white-collar offshoring/outsourcing has grown since the early 21st century. The digital workforce of countries like India and China are only paid a fraction of what would be minimum wage in the US. On average, software engineers are getting paid between 250,000 and 1,500,000 rupees in India as opposed to $40,000–$100,000 in countries such as the US and Canada. Closer to the USA, Costa Rica has become a big source for the advantages of a educated labor force, a large bilingual population, stable democratic government, similar time zones with the United States, it takes only a few hours to travel between Costa Rica and the US. Companies such as Intel, Procter & Gamble, HP, Gensler and Bank of America have big operations in Costa Rica. Unlike outsourced manufacturing, outsourced white collar workers can choose their working hours, for which companies to work. Clients benefit from telecommuting, reduce
Software development process
In software engineering, a software development process is the process of dividing software development work into distinct phases to improve design, product management, project management. It is known as a software development life cycle; the methodology may include the pre-definition of specific deliverables and artifacts that are created and completed by a project team to develop or maintain an application. Most modern development processes can be vaguely described as agile. Other methodologies include waterfall, prototyping and incremental development, spiral development, rapid application development, extreme programming; some people consider a life-cycle "model" a more general term for a category of methodologies and a software development "process" a more specific term to refer to a specific process chosen by a specific organization. For example, there are many specific software development processes that fit the spiral life-cycle model; the field is considered a subset of the systems development life cycle.
The software development methodology framework didn't emerge until the 1960s. According to Elliott the systems development life cycle can be considered to be the oldest formalized methodology framework for building information systems; the main idea of the SDLC has been "to pursue the development of information systems in a deliberate and methodical way, requiring each stage of the life cycle––from inception of the idea to delivery of the final system––to be carried out rigidly and sequentially" within the context of the framework being applied. The main target of this methodology framework in the 1960s was "to develop large scale functional business systems in an age of large scale business conglomerates. Information systems activities revolved around heavy data processing and number crunching routines". Methodologies and frameworks range from specific proscriptive steps that can be used directly by an organization in day-to-day work, to flexible frameworks that an organization uses to generate a custom set of steps tailored to the needs of a specific project or group.
In some cases a "sponsor" or "maintenance" organization distributes an official set of documents that describe the process. Specific examples include: 1970sStructured programming since 1969 Cap Gemini SDM from PANDATA, the first English translation was published in 1974. SDM stands for System Development Methodology1980sStructured systems analysis and design method from 1980 onwards Information Requirement Analysis/Soft systems methodology1990sObject-oriented programming developed in the early 1960s, became a dominant programming approach during the mid-1990s Rapid application development, since 1991 Dynamic systems development method, since 1994 Scrum, since 1995 Team software process, since 1998 Rational Unified Process, maintained by IBM since 1998 Extreme programming, since 19992000sAgile Unified Process maintained since 2005 by Scott Ambler Disciplined agile delivery Supersedes AUP2010s Scaled Agile Framework Large-Scale Scrum DevOpsIt is notable that since DSDM in 1994, all of the methodologies on the above list except RUP have been agile methodologies - yet many organisations governments, still use pre-agile processes.
Software process and software quality are interrelated. Among these another software development process has been established in open source; the adoption of these best practices known and established processes within the confines of a company is called inner source. Several software development approaches have been used since the origin of information technology, in two main categories. An approach or a combination of approaches is chosen by management or a development team. "Traditional" methodologies such as waterfall that have distinct phases are sometimes known as software development life cycle methodologies, though this term could be used more to refer to any methodology. A "life cycle" approach with distinct phases is in contrast to Agile approaches which define a process of iteration, but where design and deployment of different pieces can occur simultaneously. Continuous integration is the practice of merging all developer working copies to a shared mainline several times a day. Grady Booch first named and proposed CI in his 1991 method, although he did not advocate integrating several times a day.
Extreme programming adopted the concept of CI and did advocate integrating more than once per day – as many as tens of times per day. Software prototyping is about creating prototypes, i.e. incomplete versions of the software program being developed. The basic principles are: Prototyping is not a standalone, complete development methodology, but rather an approach to try out particular features in the context of a full methodology. Attempts to reduce inherent project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process; the client is involved throughout the development process, which increases the likelihood of client acceptance of the final implementation. While some prototypes are developed with the expectation that they will be discarded, it is possible in some cases to evolve from prototype to working system. A basic understanding of the fundamental business problem is necessary to avoid solving the wrong problems, but this is true for all software methodologies.
Various methods are acceptable f
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles. At its core, systems engineering utilizes systems thinking principles to organize this body of knowledge; the individual outcome of such efforts, an engineered system, can be defined as a combination of components that work in synergy to collectively perform a useful function. Issues such as requirements engineering, logistics, coordination of different teams and evaluation, maintainability and many other disciplines necessary for successful system development, design and ultimate decommission become more difficult when dealing with large or complex projects. Systems engineering deals with work-processes, optimization methods, risk management tools in such projects, it overlaps technical and human-centered disciplines such as industrial engineering, mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, control engineering, software engineering, electrical engineering, organizational studies, civil engineering and project management.
Systems engineering ensures that all aspects of a project or system are considered, integrated into a whole. The systems engineering process is a discovery process, quite unlike a manufacturing process. A manufacturing process is focused on repetitive activities that achieve high quality outputs with minimum cost and time; the systems engineering process must begin by discovering the real problems that need to be resolved, identifying the most probable or highest impact failures that can occur – systems engineering involves finding solutions to these problems. The term systems engineering can be traced back to Bell Telephone Laboratories in the 1940s; the need to identify and manipulate the properties of a system as a whole, which in complex engineering projects may differ from the sum of the parts' properties, motivated various industries those developing systems for the U. S. Military; when it was no longer possible to rely on design evolution to improve upon a system and the existing tools were not sufficient to meet growing demands, new methods began to be developed that addressed the complexity directly.
The continuing evolution of systems engineering comprises the development and identification of new methods and modeling techniques. These methods aid in a better comprehension of the design and developmental control of engineering systems as they grow more complex. Popular tools that are used in the systems engineering context were developed during these times, including USL, UML, QFD, IDEF0. In 1990, a professional society for systems engineering, the National Council on Systems Engineering, was founded by representatives from a number of U. S. corporations and organizations. NCOSE was created to address the need for improvements in systems engineering practices and education; as a result of growing involvement from systems engineers outside of the U. S. the name of the organization was changed to the International Council on Systems Engineering in 1995. Schools in several countries offer graduate programs in systems engineering, continuing education options are available for practicing engineers.
Systems engineering signifies only an approach and, more a discipline in engineering. The aim of education in systems engineering is to formalize various approaches and in doing so, identify new methods and research opportunities similar to that which occurs in other fields of engineering; as an approach, systems engineering is interdisciplinary in flavour. The traditional scope of engineering embraces the conception, development and operation of physical systems. Systems engineering, as conceived, falls within this scope. "Systems engineering", in this sense of the term, refers to the building of engineering concepts. The use of the term "systems engineer" has evolved over time to embrace a wider, more holistic concept of "systems" and of engineering processes; this evolution of the definition has been a subject of ongoing controversy, the term continues to apply to both the narrower and broader scope. Traditional systems engineering was seen as a branch of engineering in the classical sense, that is, as applied only to physical systems, such as spacecraft and aircraft.
More systems engineering has evolved to a take on a broader meaning when humans were seen as an essential component of a system. Checkland, for example, captures the broader meaning of systems engineering by stating that'engineering' "can be read in its general sense. Enterprise Systems Engineering pertains to the view of enterprises, that is, organizations or combinations of organizations, as systems. Service Systems Engineering has to do with the engineering of service systems. Checkland defines a service system as a system, conceived as serving another system. Most civil infrastructure systems are service systems. Systems engineering focuses on analyzing and eliciting customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem, the system lifecycle; this includes understanding all of the stakeholders involved. Oliver et al. claim that the systems engineerin
Goddard Space Flight Center
The Goddard Space Flight Center is a major NASA space research laboratory located 6.5 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. in unincorporated Prince George's County, United States. Established on May 1, 1959 as NASA's first space flight center, GSFC employs 10,000 civil servants and contractors, it is one of ten major NASA field centers, named in recognition of American rocket propulsion pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard. GSFC is within the former Goddard census-designated place. GSFC is the largest combined organization of scientists and engineers in the United States dedicated to increasing knowledge of the Earth, the Solar System, the Universe via observations from space. GSFC is a major US laboratory for operating unmanned scientific spacecraft. GSFC conducts scientific investigation and operation of space systems, development of related technologies. Goddard scientists can develop and support a mission, Goddard engineers and technicians can design and build the spacecraft for that mission. Goddard scientist John C.
Mather shared the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on COBE. GSFC operates two spaceflight tracking and data acquisition networks and maintains advanced space and Earth science data information systems, develops satellite systems for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. GSFC manages operations for many NASA and international missions including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Explorers Program, the Discovery Program, the Earth Observing System, INTEGRAL, MAVEN, OSIRIS-REx, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Swift. Past missions managed by GSFC include the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, SMM, COBE, IUE, ROSAT. Unmanned earth observation missions and observatories in Earth orbit are managed by GSFC, while unmanned planetary missions are managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Goddard is NASA's first, oldest, space center, its original charter was to perform five major functions on behalf of NASA: technology development and fabrication, scientific research, technical operations, project management.
The center is organized into several directorates, each charged with one of these key functions. Until May 1, 1959, NASA's presence in Greenbelt, Maryland was known as the Beltsville Space Center, it was renamed the Goddard Space Flight Center, after Dr. Robert H. Goddard, its first 157 employees transferred from the United States Navy's Project Vanguard missile program, but continued their work at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D. C. while the center was under construction. Goddard Space Flight Center contributed to Project Mercury, America's first manned space flight program; the Center assumed a lead role for the project in its early days and managed the first 250 employees involved in the effort, who were stationed at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. However, the size and scope of Project Mercury soon prompted NASA to build a new Manned Spacecraft Center, now the Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas. Project Mercury's personnel and activities were transferred there in 1961.
Goddard Space Flight Center remained involved in the manned space flight program, providing computer support and radar tracking of flights through a worldwide network of ground stations called the Spacecraft Tracking and Data Acquisition Network. However, the Center focused on designing unmanned satellites and spacecraft for scientific research missions. Goddard pioneered several fields of spacecraft development, including modular spacecraft design, which reduced costs and made it possible to repair satellites in orbit. Goddard's Solar Max satellite, launched in 1980, was repaired by astronauts on the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984; the Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, remains in service and continues to grow in capability thanks to its modular design and multiple servicing missions by the Space Shuttle. Today, the center remains involved in each of NASA's key programs. Goddard has developed more instruments for planetary exploration than any other organization, among them scientific instruments sent to every planet in the Solar System.
The Center's contribution to the Earth Science Enterprise includes several spacecraft in the Earth Observing System fleet as well as EOSDIS, a science data collection and distribution system. For the manned space flight program, Goddard develops tools for use by astronauts during extra-vehicular activity, operates the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, a spacecraft designed to study the Moon in preparation for future manned exploration. Goddard's wooded campus is a few miles northeast of Washington, D. C. in Prince George's County. The center is on Greenbelt Road, Maryland Route 193. Baltimore, NASA Headquarters in Washington are 30–45 minutes away by highway. Greenbelt has a train station with access to the Washington Metro system and the MARC commuter train's Camden line; the High Bay Cleanroom located in building 29 is the world's largest ISO 7 cleanroom with 1.3 million cubic feet of space. Vacuum chambers in adjacent buildings 10 and 7 can be chilled or heated to +/- 200 °C. Adjacent building 15 houses the High Capacity Centrifuge, capable of generating 30 G on up to a 2.5 tons load.
Parsons Corporation assisted in the construction of the Class 10,000 cleanroom to support Hubble Space Telescope as well as other Goddard missions. The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center is NASA's designated center for the archiving and