Sognamål dialect

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Sognamål (literally "Sogn language", in Sognamål; Sognamaol) is a Western Norwegian dialect which is spoken in the area of Sogn. One of the most prominent features of Sognamål is the pronunciation [aʊ] instead of [ɔː] in many words, i.e. exactly how the letter "á" is pronounced in modern Icelandic. The folk/black metal band Windir from Sogndal used the Sognamål dialect in their lyrics.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes[1]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive /
Affricate
voiceless p t c͡ç k
voiced b d ɟ͡ʝ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s h
voiced v
Rhotic r
  • /m, p, b/ are bilabial, whereas /f, v/ are labiodental.
  • /p, b, t, d, k, ɡ/ are plosives, whereas /c͡ç, ɟ͡ʝ/ are affricates.[1]
  • /r/ varies between a tap [ɾ] and a trill [r].[1]

Vowels[edit]

One of the most peculiar features of the Sognamål vowel system is that it features neither close back vowels, nor diphthongs that end in that area.[2]

Monophthongs of Sognamål, from Haugen (2004:30)
Monophthong phonemes of Sognamål[3]
Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
short long short long short long short long
Close i
Close-mid ʊ ʊː
Open-mid ɛ ø øː ɔ ɔː
Open a
  • /eː/ is close-mid front []. Its short counterpart is the open-mid front [ɛ].[3]
  • /ʊ, ʊː/ are close-mid slightly advanced back [, o̟ː].[3]
  • The long /øː/ is open-mid near-front [œ̠ː], whereas the short /ø/ varies between open-mid near-front [œ̠] and near-close near-front [ʉ̞˖].[3]
  • /ɔ, ɔː/ are open-mid slightly advanced back [ɔ̟, ɔ̟ː].[3]
  • /a, aː/ are central [ä, äː].[3]
Part 1 of Sognamål diphthongs, from Haugen (2004:31)
Part 2 of Sognamål diphthongs, from Haugen (2004:31)
Diphthong phonemes of Sognamål[2]
Starting point Ending point
Front Back
unrounded rounded rounded
short long short long short long
Close iʉː
Close-mid ei eiː eʉː
Open-mid ɔi ɔiː øy øyː oʊː
Open ai aiː aʊː
  • /iʉ, iʉː/ are phonetically [iʉ̟, iʉ̟ː].[4]
  • /ei, eiː/ are phonetically [ei, eiː].[4]
  • /eʉ, eʉː/ are phonetically [eʉ̟, eʉ̟ː].[4]
  • /øy, øyː/ are phonetically [œÿ, œÿː].[4]
  • /ɔi, ɔiː/ are phonetically [ɔ̟i, ɔ̟iː].[4]
  • /oʊ, oʊː/ are phonetically [ɔo, ɔoː].[4]
  • /ai, aiː/ are phonetically [äi, äiː].[4]
  • /aʊ, aʊː/ are phonetically [äo̟, äo̟ː].[4]

Samples[edit]

Icelandic Sognamål Nynorsk Bokmål English
cf. ambátt [ambaott] (handmaid) ambå verktøy verktøy tools, equipment
cf. áklæði [aoklaidhi] aokle åkle teppe lap robe, a blanket
cf. betla (to beg) betla klaga klage to whine
brjóstsviði brennesot halsbrann halsbrann heartburn
dós [dous] daose dåse dåse a small box
dilla [didla] didla (hondn didla pao rompao) vifta, dilla vifte oscillate or as in, the dog wags its tail
dikkedarie without further ado
lag ein laot ein låt en låt musical piece or song
fiðrildi fivreld sommarfugl, fivreld sommerfugl a butterfly
hjólbara hjulebåra trillebår trillebår wheelbarrow
cf. illur [idlur] iddle ill, vond vond As in it hurts, e.g. iddle fing; the finger hurts
igraol ein grådig person en grådig person a greedy person
í gærkvöldi [í gjairkvöldi] jaftes i går kveld i går kveld yesterday evening
í gær [í gjair] jaor i går i går yesterday
cf. hérna [hjerdna] jedna kanskje kanskje perhaps
hvar? kest? kvar? hvor? where?
læmingi lomhond lemen, lomhund lemen, lomhund a lemming
nossa seg nossa seg, kosa seg kose seg have an enjoyable time
rua rue kudritt cow droppings
skemill [skemidl] skammedl skammel skammel a short bench
skompa skumpa skumpe as a shove/pushing
spøt spøt strikketøy knitting
eldspýtustokkur stikkedaose fyrstikkøskje fyrstikkeske matchbox
íkorni [íkordni] ikådn ekorn ekorn (literally "tree bear"); squirrel
trebolar calluses
treneve treneve fommel about someone unable to work proper with his hands
þrútinn [thrútinn] tråten opphovna opphovnet swollen
haorbådlajakedl
lakabodl a scrotum that has been left to stew in some kind of salty liquid, profanity
mokkok A cellar used to store fertilizer
viskustykki bidnetvåga tvoge, oppvaskklut oppvaskklut a small rag commonly used in the kitchen

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Haugen (2004), p. 32.
  2. ^ a b Haugen (2004), pp. 30–31.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Haugen (2004), p. 30.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Haugen (2004), p. 31.

Bibliography[edit]