Agricultural Experiment Stations Act of 1887
Agricultural Experiment Stations Act of 1887 is a United States federal statute establishing agricultural research by the governance of the United States land-grant colleges as enacted by the Land-Grant Agricultural and Mechanical College Act of 1862. The agricultural experiment station alliance was granted fiscal appropriations by the enactment of the Hatch Act of 1887; the Act of Congress defines the basis of the agricultural experiments and scientific research by the State or Territory educational institutions. Physiology of plants and animals Diseases to which they are exposed to include antidotes for determined diseases Chemical composition of useful plants at their different stages of growth Comparative advantages of rotative cropping as pursued under a varying series of crops Capacity of new plants or trees for acclimation Analysis of soils and water Chemical composition of manures, natural, or artificial, with experiments designed to test their comparative effects on crops of different kinds Adaptation and value of grasses and forage plants Composition and digestibility of the different kinds of food for domestic animals Scientific and economic questions involved in the production of butter and cheese Other researches or experiments bearing directly on the agricultural industry of the United States as may in each case be deemed advisable, having due regard to the varying conditions and needs of the respective States or Territories December 4, 1893: First Annual Message to the Congress of the United States "In each State and Territory an agricultural experiment station has been established.
These stations, by their character and name, are the proper agencies to experiment with and test new varieties of seeds. Under the sanction of existing legislation there was sent out from the Agricultural Department during the last fiscal year enough of cabbage seed to plant 19,200 acres of land, a sufficient quantity of beans to plant 4,000 acres, beet seed enough to plant 2,500 acres, sweet corn enough to plant 7,800 acres, sufficient cucumber seed to cover 2,025 acres with vines, enough muskmelon and watermelon seeds to plant 2,675 acres; the total quantity of flower and vegetable seeds thus distributed was contained in more than 9,000,000 packages, they were sufficient if planted to cover 89,596 acres of land. In view of these facts this enormous expenditure without legitimate returns of benefit ought to be abolished. Anticipating a consummation so manifestly in the interest of good administration, more than $100,000 has been stricken from the estimate made to cover this object for the year ending June 30, 1895.
Thus the seed will be tested, after the test has been completed by the experiment station the propagation of the useful varieties and the rejection of the valueless may safely be left to the common sense of the people." - Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President of the United States Chronological legislation relative to U. S. Congressional provisions as regarding the Agricultural Experiment Stations Act. Agricultural Experiment Station Barn Bureau of Animal Industry Farmers' Bulletin Henry Leavitt Ellsworth History of agriculture in the United States List of land-grant universities Mechanised agriculture Smith–Lever Act of 1914 United States Department of Agriculture Peters, Gerhard; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Peters, Gerhard; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. True, Alfred Charles. "Bulletin No. 80 - The Agricultural Experiment Stations of the United States". Internet Archive. Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office.
True, Alfred Charles. "Agricultural Experiment Stations in Foreign Countries". Internet Archive. Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office
United States House Committee on Agriculture
The U. S. House Committee on Agriculture, or Agriculture Committee is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives; the House Committee on Agriculture has general jurisdiction over federal agriculture policy and oversight of some federal agencies, it can recommend funding appropriations for various governmental agencies and activities, as defined by House rules. The Agriculture Committee was created on May 3, 1820, after Lewis Williams of North Carolina sponsored a resolution to create the committee and give agricultural issues equal weight with commercial and manufacturing interests; the committee consisted of seven members, from the states of Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, South Carolina and Virginia. Thomas Forrest of Pennsylvania was the first chairman; the Agriculture Committee remained a seven-member body until 1835. It was not until 1871. Since it has grown to its current size of 46 members; the U. S. Senate counterpart to the House Agriculture Committee, the U. S. Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, was created on December 9, 1825.
The Agriculture Committee is not considered to be a powerful one. However, it is an important committee to be on for Representatives from many rural areas where agriculture is the main industry; the committee has jurisdiction over agriculture, nutrition, water conservation, other agriculture-related fields. As prescribed by House Rules, the Committee on Agriculture's jurisdiction includes the following: Resolutions electing members: H. Res. 24, H. Res. 25, H. Res. 57, H. Res. 68 List of current United States House of Representatives committees Agriculture Committee Homepage, official website Committee Rules, Agriculte Committee, official website House Agriculture Committee. Legislation activity and reports, Congress.gov. House Agriculture Committee Hearings and Meetings Video. Congress.gov Past Committee Chairs, Agriculture Committee, official website
Act of Congress
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals; the term can be used in other countries with a legislature named "Congress", such as the Congress of the Philippines. In the United States, Acts of Congress are designated as either public laws, relating to the general public, or private laws, relating to specific institutions or individuals. Since 1957, all Acts of Congress have been designated as "Public Law X-Y" or "Private Law X-Y", where X is the number of the Congress and Y refers to the sequential order of the bill. For example, P. L. 111-5 was the fifth enacted public law of the 111th United States Congress. Public laws are often abbreviated as Pub. L. No. X-Y; when the legislation of those two kinds is proposed, it is called public bill and private bill respectively. The word "act", as used in the term "Act of Congress", is a common, not a proper noun.
The capitalization of the word "act" is deprecated by some dictionaries and usage authorities. Some writers, in particular the U. S. Code, capitalize "Act"; this is a result of the more liberal use of capital letters in legal contexts, which has its roots in the 18th century capitalization of all nouns as is seen in the United States Constitution. "Act of Congress" is sometimes used in informal speech to indicate something for which getting permission is burdensome. For example, "It takes an Act of Congress to get a building permit in this town." An Act adopted by simple majorities in both houses of Congress is promulgated, or given the force of law, in one of the following ways: Signature by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception while the Congress is in session, or Reconsideration by the Congress after a presidential veto during its session. The President promulgates Acts of Congress made by the first two methods. If an Act is made by the third method, the presiding officer of the house that last reconsidered the act promulgates it.
Under the United States Constitution, if the President does not return a bill or resolution to Congress with objections before the time limit expires the bill automatically becomes an Act. In addition, if the President rejects a bill or resolution while the Congress is in session, a two-thirds vote of both houses of the Congress is needed for reconsideration to be successful. Promulgation in the sense of publishing and proclaiming the law is accomplished by the President, or the relevant presiding officer in the case of an overridden veto, delivering the act to the Archivist of the United States. After the Archivist receives the Act, he or she provides for its publication as a slip law and in the United States Statutes at Large. Thereafter, the changes are published in the United States Code. An Act of Congress that violates the Constitution may be declared unconstitutional by the courts; the judicial declaration of an Act's unconstitutionality does not remove the law from the statute books.
However, future publications of the Act are annotated with warnings indicating that the statute is no longer valid law. Legislation List of United States federal legislation for a list of prominent acts of Congress. Procedures of the United States Congress Act of Parliament Coming into force Enactment Federal Register http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6-8/glossary.html
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
United States Statutes at Large
The United States Statutes at Large referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat. are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is published as a slip law, classified as either public law or private law, designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications; the session law publication for U. S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U. S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, codification. Large portions of public laws are enacted as amendments to the United States Code. Once enacted into law, an Act will be published in the Statutes at Large and will add to, modify, or delete some part of the United States Code.
Provisions of a public law that contain only enacting clauses, effective dates, similar matters are not codified. Private laws are not codified; some portions of the United States Code have been enacted as positive law and other portions have not been so enacted. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. Publication of the United States Statutes at Large began in 1845 by the private firm of Little and Company under authority of a joint resolution of Congress. During Little and Company's time as publisher, Richard Peters, George Minot, George P. Sanger served as editors. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office under the direction of the Secretary of State. Pub. L. 80–278, 61 Stat. 633, was enacted July 30, 1947 and directed the Secretary of State to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large.
Pub. L. 81–821, 64 Stat. 980, was enacted September 23, 1950 and directed the Administrator of General Services to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large. Since 1985 the Statutes at Large have been prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register of the National Archives and Records Administration; until 1948, all treaties and international agreements approved by the United States Senate were published in the set, but these now appear in a publication titled United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, abbreviated U. S. T. In addition, the Statutes at Large includes the text of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, amendments to the Constitution, treaties with Indians and foreign nations, presidential proclamations. Sometimes large or long Acts of Congress are published as their own "appendix" volume of the Statutes at Large. For example, the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was published as volume 68A of the Statutes at Large.
Revised Statutes of the United States Procedures of the United States Congress Enrolled Bill Federal Register United States Reports California Statutes Laws of Florida Laws of Illinois Laws of New York Laws of Pennsylvania This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U. S. Government Publishing Office. How Our Laws Are Made, by the Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives. Volumes 1 to 18 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Library of Congress Volumes 1 to 64 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Congressional Data Coalition via LEGISWORKS.org Volumes 65 to 125 of the Statutes at Large made available by the GPO and the Library of Congress via FDsys Sortable by Bills Enacted into Laws, Concurrent Resolutions, Popular Names, Presidential Proclamations, or Public Laws. Volumes 1–124 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Constitution Society Public and private laws from 104th Congress to present from the Government Printing Office, in slip law format with Statutes at Large page references Early United States Statutes includes Volumes 1 to 44 of the Statutes at Large in DjVu and PDF format, along with rudimentary OCR of the text.
United States Statutes and the United States Code: Historical Outlines, Lists and Sources from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC Second Edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States
74th United States Congress
The Seventy-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1935, to January 3, 1937, during the third and fourth years of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifteenth Census of the United States in 1930. Both chambers had a Democratic supermajority. April 14, 1935: Dust Bowl: The great dust storm hit eastern New Mexico and western Oklahoma May 6, 1935: Executive Order 7034 created the Works Progress Administration. May 27, 1935: Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States: the U. S. Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional June 12, 1935 – June 13, 1935: Senator Huey Long gave the second longest filibuster speech in Senate history up to that time, 15 hours and 30 minutes to retain a provision, opposed by President Franklin Roosevelt, requiring Senate confirmation for the National Recovery Administration's senior employees.
July 1, 1935: Charles Watkins was appointed as the first recognized Parliamentarian. September 10, 1935: Senator Huey Long of Louisiana died, as the result of being shot by an assassin on September 8. March 1, 1936: Construction of Hoover Dam was completed. June 4, 1936: Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives Jo Byrns died. William B. Bankhead was elected that day. November 3, 1936: General elections President: Franklin D. Roosevelt was reelected with 60.8% of the vote over Alf Landon. Senate: Democrats gained 5 net seats during the election, in combination with Democratic and Farmer-Labor interim appointments and the defection of George W. Norris from the Republican Party to become independent, the Republicans were reduced to 16 seats, the most lopsided Senate since Reconstruction. House: Democrats gained twelve more net seats from the Republicans, bringing them above a three-fourths majority; this was the largest majority since Reconstruction. The last time a party won so decisively was in 1866.
November 25, 1936: Abraham Lincoln Brigade sailed from New York City on its way to the Spanish Civil War April 27, 1935: Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, Sess. 1, ch. 85, 49 Stat. 163 July 5, 1935: National Labor Relations Act, Sess. 1, ch. 372, 49 Stat. 449 August 9, 1935: Motor Carrier Act, Sess. 1, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546 August 14, 1935: Social Security Act, including Aid to Dependent Children, Old Age Pension Act, Pub. L. 74–271, Sess. 1, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620 August 23, 1935: Banking Act of 1935 49 Stat. 694 August 26, 1935: Public Utility Act, Sess. 1, ch. 687, 49 Stat. 803 August 30, 1935: Revenue Act of 1935, Sess. 1, ch. 829, 49 Stat. 1014 August 31, 1935: Neutrality Act of 1935, Sess. 1, ch. 837, 49 Stat. 1081 February 29, 1936: Neutrality Act of 1936, Sess. 2, ch. 106, 49 Stat. 1153 May 20, 1936: Rural Electrification Act, Sess. 2, ch. 432, 49 Stat. 1363 June 15, 1936: Commodities Exchange Act, Sess. 2, ch. 545, 49 Stat. 1491 June 19, 1936: Robinson Patman Act, Sess. 2, ch. 592, 49 Stat. 1526 June 22, 1936: Flood Control Act of 1936, Pub.
L. 74–738, Sess. 2, ch. 688 June 29, 1936: Merchant Marine Act, Sess. 2, ch. 250, 49 Stat. 1985 June 30, 1936: Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act, Sess. 2, ch. 881, 49 Stat. 2036` Section contents: Senate: Majority, Minority • House: Majority, Minority President of the Senate: John N. Garner President pro tempore: Key Pittman Majority leader: Joseph T. Robinson Assistant majority leader: J. Hamilton Lewis Democratic Caucus Secretary: Hugo Black Minority leader: Charles L. McNary Assistant Minority leader: None Republican Conference Secretary: Frederick Hale Speaker: Jo Byrns, died June 4, 1936 William B. Bankhead, elected June 4, 1936 Majority leader: William B. Bankhead, until June 4, 1936 John J. O'Connor Majority whip: Patrick J. Boland Democratic Caucus Chairman: Edward T. Taylor Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Patrick H. Drewry Minority leader: Bertrand H. Snell Minority whip: Harry L. Englebright Republican Conference Chair: Frederick R. Lehlbach Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress.
Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1936. The names of members are preceded by their district numbers; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress. Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee. Conditions of Indian Tribes Disposition of Executive Papers The Library Taxation Democratic Democratic Architect of the Capitol
Agricultural Adjustment Act
The Agricultural Adjustment Act was a United States federal law of the New Deal era designed to boost agricultural prices by reducing surpluses. The Government bought livestock for slaughter and paid farmers subsidies not to plant on part of their land; the money for these subsidies was generated through an exclusive tax on companies which processed farm products. The Act created a new agency, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies; the Agriculture Marketing Act, which established the Federal Farm Board in 1929, was seen as a strong precursor to this act. The AAA, along with other New Deal programs, represented the federal government's first substantial effort to address economic welfare in the United States; when President Franklin D. Roosevelt took office in March 1933, the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression. "Farmers faced the most severe economic situation and lowest agricultural prices since the 1890s."
"Overproduction and a shrinking international market had driven down agricultural prices." Soon after his inauguration, Roosevelt called the Hundred Days Congress into session to address the crumbling economy. From this Congress came the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to replace the Federal Farm Board; the Roosevelt Administration was tasked with decreasing agricultural surpluses. Wheat, field corn, rice and milk and its products were designated as basic commodities in the original legislation. Subsequent amendments in 1934 and 1935 expanded the list of basic commodities to include rye, barley, grain sorghum, peanuts, sugar beets, sugar cane, potatoes; the administration targeted these commodities for the following reasons: Changes in the prices of these commodities had a strong effect on the prices of other important commodities. These commodities were running a surplus at the time; these items each required some amount of processing. "The goal of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, restoring farm purchasing power of agricultural commodities or the fair exchange value of a commodity based upon price relative to the prewar 1909–14 level, was to be accomplished through a number of methods.
These included the authorization by the Secretary of Agriculture to secure voluntary reduction of the acreage in basic crops through agreements with producers and use of direct payments for participation in acreage control programs. This was to be done by readjusting farm production at a level that would not increase the percentage of consumers' retail expenditures above the percentage returned to the farmer in the prewar base period."The juxtaposition of huge agricultural surpluses and the many deaths due to insufficient food shocked many, as well as some of the administrative decisions that happened under the Agricultural Adjustment Act. For example, in an effort to reduce agricultural surpluses, the government paid farmers to reduce crop production and to sell pregnant sows as well as young pigs. Oranges were being soaked with kerosene to prevent their consumption and corn was being burned as fuel because it was so cheap. There were many people, however, as well as livestock in different places starving to death.
Farmers slaughtered livestock because feed prices were rising, they could not afford to feed their own animals. Under the Agricultural Adjustment Act, "plowing under" of pigs was common to prevent them reaching a reproductive age, as well as donating pigs to the Red Cross. In 1935, the income generated by farms was 50 percent higher than it was in 1932, due to farm programs such as the AAA; the Agricultural Adjustment Act affected nearly all of the farmers in this time period. Tenant farming characterized the tobacco production in the post-Civil War South; as the agricultural economy plummeted in the early 1930s, all farmers were badly hurt but the tenant farmers and sharecroppers experienced the worst of it. To accomplish its goal of parity, the Act reduced crop production; the Act accomplished this by offering landowners acreage reduction contracts, by which they agreed not to grow cotton on a portion of their land. By law, they were required to pay the tenant farmers and sharecroppers on their land a portion of the money.
The farm wage workers who worked directly for the landowner suffered the greatest unemployment as a result of the Act. There are few people gullible enough to believe that the acreage devoted to cotton can be reduced one-third without an accompanying decrease in the laborers engaged in its production. Researchers concluded that the statistics after the Act took effect "... indicate a consistent and widespread tendency for cotton croppers and, to a considerable extent, tenants to decrease in numbers between 1930 and 1935. The decreases among Negroes were greater than those among whites." Another consequence was that the