Štip is the largest urban agglomeration in the eastern part of North Macedonia, serving as the economic, industrial and educational focal point for the surrounding municipalities. As of the 2002 census, the Štip municipality alone had a population of about 47,796. Štip is the largest textile production center in the country. The city of Štip is the seat of Štip Municipality; the city is located at the intersection of the Lakavica, Ovče Pole, Kočani valleys. Two rivers pass through Štip, the Bregalnica, the second largest in North Macedonia, the Otinja which divides the city center; the hill Isar, with its early medieval fortress on top, dominates the city and provides for the common reference as The city under the Isar. The area surrounding the city is suffering from deforestation, contributing to the temperature extremes, summers being hot and dry with mean temperatures around 32 °C and days above 40 °C being common. Winters are short and mild with normals around −2 °C, but with occasional drops down to −10 °C.
Spring comes in February, when most of the foliage is regenerating, although freak snow storms could appear as late as May. The soil is sandy, has large patches of red soil which indicates large percentage of Iron in the soil; the geographical area of the city of Štip is bordered by the mountain Plačkovica east, by the Krivolak valley south-east, the estuary of the river Bregalnica in the south-west, by its alluvial plain in the north. It is probable; the Paeonians were situated in the region west of the fertile river Axius basin, around the 5th and 4th centuries BC. The two tribes that lived along the river Astibo, an estuary to the Axius, were the Derrones, named after their god of healing and the Laeaeans, who minted their own heavy coins as a sign of their sovereignty following the example of the Greek city-states on Chalkidiki. Although these tribes were weakened by the Persian invasion of 480 BC, led by King Xerxes I, they remained a formidable power and a well-organized people, renowned for the production of their exceptionally heavy coins with emblems including domesticated specimens of the wild aurochs for which Paeonia was famous.
They were absorbed into the Macedonian empire by Alexander I before 360 BC. The area itself is first mentioned in the writings of the historian Polien from the 3rd century BC, who talks of a river named "Astibo", presumed to be the river Bregalnica today. Polien states that the Paeonian emperors were crowned in Astibo; the first mention of a settlement dates to the reign of Roman emperor Tiberius, when Estipeon is mentioned as an important settlement in the Roman province of Paeonia and the second stop on the Roman road from Stobi to Pautalia. In the 6th century, the Slavs raided the Balkans and destroyed the Byzantine settlement, the Slavic tribe of Sagudats permanently settled the area. In the 9th century and Methodius crossed this region and Christianized it, on their way to Great Moravia. Many rulers controlled the area of Štip during the early Middle Ages. Štip was part of the Bulgarian Empire but after the Byzantine victory in the Battle of Kleidion in 1014 it fell again under Byzantine rule until the reestablishment of the Bulgarian Empire in 1185.
From the mid-13th century the town changed hands several times. By 1284, Serbian King Stefan Milutin conquered the region. In 1334, the Church of the Holy Archangel in Štip, built by protosebastos Hrelja who held the region under the Serbian crown, was according to his wish granted to Hilandar, in a charter of King Stefan Dušan; the region was annexed by the Ottoman Empire after a raid in 1385. It was made seat of a sanjak. There is little information about the development of Štip during Ottoman rule which would continue for the next five centuries, interrupted only during 1689–1690 when the city was invaded by the Austrians for two years. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Štip was part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. In 1912, at the start of the Balkan Wars, Štip and the surrounding area was occupied by Bulgaria, but Bulgaria's defeat by its former allies Serbia and Greece, in 1913, resulted in annexation to the Kingdom of Serbia. Stip was re-taken by Bulgaria from 1915-18.
Events concerning the Kingdom of Serbia meant that Štip became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes together with the rest of Vardar Macedonia. From 1929 to 1941, Štip was part of the Vardar Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On 6 April 1941, when Yugoslavia was attacked by Nazi Germany, the city was bombed by German planes which took off from Bulgaria. During the Second World War the Axis-allied Bulgarian forces occupied the city until early September, 1944, after which it was taken by German troops. Štip was retaken by the Macedonian National Liberation Army and the newly allied Bulgarian Army, now part of the anti-Axis coalition on 8 November 1944. Thus 8 November is celebrated as'Liberation Day' in the city and municipality of Štip, is a non-working holiday. According to the National Census of 2002 the populations of Štip Municipality breaks down as follows: Today, Štip is the center of the country’s textile and fashion industry; the home of such industrial giants in Former Yugoslavia like the Cotton Industry "Makedonka" - Štip, with
Scouting Nederland is the national Scout organisation of the Netherlands with 110,000 members (53,324 male and 54,663 female, 87,000 youth members, as of 2010. The official patron of Scouting Nederland is Queen Máxima, the wife of the Dutch King, Willem-Alexander. From 2005 Scouting Nederland has been affiliated with the International Guide Fellowship. Scouting for boys was started in the Netherlands in the summer of 1910 when the first Scout troops were formed in a few cities. Scouting started about a year for girls. Dutch Scouts were among the founding members of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1928 and among the charter members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1920. On 7 January 1911 the first national organisation was founded, the Nederlandsche Padvinders Organisatie, they merged with the Nederlandsche Padvinders Bond on 11 December 1915 and became known as De Nederlandse Padvinders. In 1933 some Scout Groups broke away from the NPV to form the Padvinders Vereniging Nederland, because difficulties concerning the Scout Promise arose.
The difficulty was that boys who recognised no god still had to promise "To do my duty to God and my country". The Scout Groups found; the NPV and the PVN reunited in 1940. The PVN was not refounded after World War II. Although the NPV was open to boys of all religions, a Roman Catholic organisation was founded in 1930, the Katholieke Verkenners. First inside the NPV, but after 1938 as a separate organisation. After World War II the Roman Catholic Church wanted to merge all Roman Catholic youth organisations. After negotiations the Katholieke Verkenners were allowed to go on as Verkenners van de Katholieke Jeugdbeweging; the Katholieke Verkenners became a separate organisation again in 1961. Girls got their first own organisation in 1911, Eerste Nederlandsche Meisjes Gezellen Vereeniging, but this organisation never got many members. Girls had been member of the NPO and NPB but the NPV was boys only. On 16 January 1916 the Het Nederlandsche Meisjesgilde started, which changed its name to Het Nederlandse Padvindsters Gilde, followed in 1945 by the founding of a separate Catholic organisation, the Nederlandse Gidsenbeweging, which changed its name to Nederlandse Gidsen.
During World War II all Scouting movements were prohibited and dissolved in the Netherlands, because the organizations refused to merge with National Youth Storm, the Dutch Nazi youth organization. Still, many continued their activities secretly. After the end of the war, Scouting again became popular and therefore many of the current local Scout Groups in the Netherlands were founded in 1945 or 1946; the four separate organisations existed until 1973. The emblem of "De Nederlandse Padvinders" consisted of a Fleur-de-lis and a banner with the Scout Motto "Weest Paraat"; the emblem of "Het Nederlandse Padvindstersgilde" consisted of a ten-point white star for the ten lines in the Girl Scouts law on a blue Trefoil for Girl Scouting/Guiding with the Scout Motto "Wees Bereid", variants are still in use by Het Surinaamse Padvindsters Gilde, Het Arubaanse Padvindsters Gilde and Padvindstersvereniging van de Nederlandse Antillen. Before 1936 the NPG had the same emblem with an eight-point star because of an eight-point law.
Het Nederlandsche Meisjesgilde had the same emblem with an eight-point star but with the letters NMG. The emblem of the "Katholieke Verkenners", consisted of a Fleur-de-lis for Boy Scouts, on a cross potent for Catholic Scouts, a variant was used by the Katholieke Verkenners Suriname; the emblem of the Nederlandse Gidsen consisted of a light blue Trefoil for Girl Scouting/Guiding on a yellow Cross potent for Roman Catholic Scouting/Guiding, a variant is still in use by the Gidsen Suriname. The emblems of the Leger des Heils Padvindersbond and Leger des Heils Padvindstersbond were based on the emblems of British Salvation Army Scouts and Guards, they show a lifebuoy with in the centre a Boy or Girl Scout and on the lifebuoy the name of the organisation. On banner is the motto "to Serve" written in Dutch; the symbols in the loops are: bible for caring for the soul, lamp for caring for others, eye for caring for the mind and gymmnastics clubs for caring for the body. Het Nederlandsche Meisjesgilde / Het Nederlandse Padvindstersgilde 1916-1936 Be much at home Do not despise any kind of work Be honest and faithful Be helpful for human and animal Speak and think no harm Obey without complaining Wear disappointment with cheerfulness Care for your healthThe NPG after 1936 and the NPV, KV, NG had a law, a direct translation / adaptation of the Scout Law.
Jean Jacques Rambonnet - chairman N. P. V. Chief Scout A. E. Oosterlee - May 1938 - Headquarters commissioner N. P. V; the Scout Motto is in not much use after the merger. The Motto before the merger was for Girl Guides Wees Bereid; the Dutch Scout Promise is one of the few in the world. It makes the Netherlands an exception to the WOSM guidelines; the Constitution of WOSM states that the Promise should include a reference to Duty to God, but six countries, including the Netherlands were granted the right in the 1920s by Lord Baden-Powell to addition
Kumanovo. Municipal institutions include a city council and other administrative bodies; the name of the city in Macedonian and Bulgarian is Kumanovo. In Albanian, it is Kumanova or Kumanovë. Kumanovo derives from the name of the Cumans, a western branch of Kipchaks, the tribe that settled in the area in the early 12th century. Kumanovo is situated near the capital city of Skopje; the coordinates of the city are 42°05'N and 21°40'E. Kumanovo lies 340 metres above sea level and is surrounded by the Karadag part of Skopska Crna Gora mountain on its western side, Gradištanska mountain on its southern side, Mangovica and German mountain on the Eastern side. Skopje airport serves Kumanovo. Kumanovo has a humid subtropical climate. Goce Delčev, Zelen rid, Pero Čičo, Karpoš, Igor Tričkovik, Vera Kotorka, Jane Sandanski, Sredorek. Oktomvriska Revolucija, Gorče Petrov, Treta Makedonska Udarna Brigada, Goce Delčev, Narodna Revolucija, Nikola Tesla, Leninova, 11 Oktomvri, Moša Pijade, Ivo Lola Ribar, Srbo Tomovik, Tode Mendol and Pero Čičo, Bajram Shabani, Franc Rozman.
Straso Pindjur Most old neighborhood consist of shops and few houses. Veleshka Maalo is an old neighbourhood of Kumanovo; the name comes from the merchants from the town of Veles who passed through the neighbourhood to sell their products by the rivers Vardar and Pchinja, the Konjarinja villages Studena and Krasta. The main street, which today is named Narodna Revolucija, was their shortest way to the center of the city. Karapsko maalo was located across today's south side of Goce Delchev High School through to the end of Mosha Pijade street; the name of the neighborhood came from the Ottomans. Every house in the neighborhood had a yard, neighboring yard were connected with doors, used by anyone chased by the Ottomans. Macedonians and revolutionaries used this scheme to escape to the towns outskirts and the town itself; the Ottomans called it the secret neighborhood. Varoš maalo, Endek maalo, Muhamedbegovo maalo, Ortabunar maalo, Bedinsko maalo, Novo maalo, Lipkovsko maalo, Teke maalo, Tatar maalo and Muandzisko maalo, Sokolana maalo.
Endek maalo was placed across today's city hall on two banks of the former river of Serava. Opančarsko sokače, Nagorički sokak, Proevski sokak, Veleški sokak, Romanovski sokak, Ukumat sokak and Vranjsko Dzade. Military base Boro Menkov is one of the military installation of ARM in Kumanovo; the base was established by JNA. MB Hristijan Todorovski Karposh is the second base in Kumanovo, it was established by the JNA and was inherited by the ARM. Today part of the installation is converted into a University and another part was inherited by the Ministry of Interior. There was an idea of turning the base into an economic industrial zone. In Kumanovo's Elezov kamen area there is a Military Warehouse Base that operates today; the area boasts several prehistoric settlements, among which are the Kostoperska karpa, the Bronze Age Gradiste near the village of Pelince, the Neolithic site of Mlado Nagoričane, the Iron Age tumulus Groblje at Vojnik, the Roman Necropolis Drezga of Lopate, the Roman Settlement Vicianus at village of Klečovce.
The first written mentioning of the individual modern villages of the Kumanovo region originate in the 14th century. These are, for the most part, found in Serbian charters: of King Stefan Milutin, Emperor Stefan Dušan, Sevastokrator Dejan, Jevdokija Dejanović, Dejan's sons and Konstantin. In this time, the Kumanovo region received its geographical location and certain settlement picture. According to a charter of the monastery of Arhiljevica dated 1355, sevastokrator Dejan held a major domain east of Skopska Crna Gora, it included the old župe of Preševo. The town was first mentioned in 17th century. Evliya Çelebi described it in 1660–61: "The colony of Kumanovo is situated on the territory of the Skopje sanjak and represents one county; the city is embellished with 600 tile-roofs houses. The mosque in the downtown is beautiful, there are tekke, hammam, a number of shops and water mills. There are many vineyards and gardens". In 1689, Karposh, a brigand commander in the region of Dospat, who served as an Ottoman Christian auxiliary force commander, took advantage of the weakening of the Ottomans and discontent that arose concerning higher Ottoman taxation policies, organized a revolt while Austria staged an attack on the Ottomans.
Karposh's Rebellion spread, resulting in the liberation of Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Kumanovo, Kačanik and other towns. Together with the Austrian army led by Emperor Leopold I, the local Christian population fought to liberate Skopje and Štip. Changes in the military and political situation in the Balkans had crucial downwards effect on the revolt; the Austrian army was forced to withdraw and the reinforced Ottomans attacked the rebels, taking Kriva Palanka, the rebel stronghold, attacked Kumanovo and its newly constructed fortress, where they captured Karposh and put him to death on the Stone Bridge across the Vardar. Kumanovo became an urban settlement and administrative center of the region at the end of the 16th century or the be
Lietuvos skautija, the primary national Scouting organization of Lithuania, became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1997. The coeducational Lietuvos skautija has 1,446 members as of 2012. Scouting first came to Lithuania as part of the Russian Empire; the indigenous Lithuanian Scout movement began in 1918, when the first Scout patrol and troop was founded in Vilnius by Scouter Petras Jurgėla. In 1922, the first Scout General Assembly united the Lithuanian Scout Movement into the Scout Association of Lithuania. In 1924, the Scout Association of Lithuania was registered as a member of the World Bureau. Lithuania was a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1923 to 1940. Scouting prospered until 1940. In 1940, the Soviet occupation of Lithuania resulted in Scouting being banned. In the years after World War II, a displaced Scouting movement started in the camps for displaced persons, provided a makeshift but quite effective camp postal system, using Scout postage stamps like the one illustrated.
Many of the Scouts-in-Exile soon moved to the United States and Australia. The organization was able to continue its work abroad, grew into a large organization with Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts and academic Scout divisions in Canada, the United States, England, Italy, Argentina and Brazil. If the Scouting movement had not been kept alive in the diaspora, Scouting would have had a slower time being reestablished upon Lithuania's regaining of independence. On April 29, 1989, on the eve of Lithuanian independence, the Scout Movement in Lithuania was reestablished and Scouting activity restarted. Regular contacts were established and maintained with WOSM. In November, 1989, after the fall of communism, Scouting formally reemerged in the newly democratic Lithuania. Scouting in Lithuania is conducted by several organizations. In 1992, Scouting in Lithuania applied for membership in WOSM, their constitution was approved by the World Committee. However, serious conflicts with the organization of Lithuanian Scouting former Scouts, resulted in the postal vote being suspended.
From 1992 to 1995, attempts were made to insure democratic decision-making processes and to simplify structure, with little progress made. A new association, formed by the majority of youth leaders in all regions of Lithuania as well as by key members of the former National Council, was created in the spring of 1995 under the name Lietuvos skautija, it was registered by the Ministry of Justice in September, 1995. A meeting of the general assembly was called in November, 1996, open to all active leaders registered in any of the several Scout Associations existing in Lithuania. A new constitution, conforming to WOSM requirements, was adopted and a new National Council was elected. Members of Lietuvos skautija, Lietuvos Skautų Sąjunga and the Lithuanian Sea Scout Association attended as delegates; the Lietuvos Lenkų Skautų Sajunga attended as observers. Representatives of all the above-mentioned associations were involved in the drafting of the constitution and planning the meeting, it was confirmed by the General Assembly that the name of the organization would henceforth be Lietuvos skautija, Lithuanian Scouting.
Lietuvos skautija is the World Organization of the Scout Movement recognized Scout organization. Lithuania was readmitted as a national member organization of WOSM on July 25, 1997. Lietuvos skautija has a membership of around 1,500 boys and girls as of 2014, spread throughout the country. Lietuvos skautija has sent contingents to World Scout events. Lietuvos skautija was represented at the 1995, 1998, 2007, 2011 World Jamborees, held a national camp in 1998 in Nemunaitis near Alytus to celebrate the 80th anniversary of the founding of Scouting in Lithuania. National jamborees are held every 5 years and were organized in 2003, 2008, in 2013 and in 2018. Lietuvos skautija contains Sea Scout and Air Scout units, with different uniforms; the Scout Motto is Budėk!, translating as Be Prepared in Lithuanian. The Lithuanian noun for a single Scout is Skautas; the Cub Scout programme is based on Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book, the focus of the programme is on learning through play. Scout troops are organised in patrols and the programme takes Scouts through 3 Achievement Levels before they are invested into Venture Scouts.
The youth programme for 6-18 year-olds includes a variety of activity badges. The rover/ranger section follows the tradition of accepting new members into crews for a candidacy period before proper investment. Do not expect anything from others, always give them what you can. Live for your Motherland and mankind. Be a gentleman and a protector of the poor and weak, always take the right road. Strengthen your body and soul and educate yourself. May your will be as a bowstring resiliently drawn. Follow Saint George, the patron of Scouts: exterminate the evil in the world, but first of all in yourself. First think of others and only yourself. Grow up as a mighty oak tree and do not bow down as a weeping willow. Be better tomorrow than you are today or than you were yesterday. Keep God in your heart and remember your motto "Be Prepared". A Scout keeps their word. A Scout is faithful to Motherland. A Scout helps neighbors. A Scout is a brother or sister to other Scouts. A Scout is polite. A Scout is a friend of nature.
A Scout obeys the authorities. A Scout does not lose both self-control and hope. A Sc
Savez Izviđača Srbije
Savez Izviđača Srbije, English: Scout Association of Serbia) is the primary national Scouting organization of Serbia. A referendum on independence was held in Montenegro on May 21, 2006, voting to leave its state union with Serbia by a narrow margin. Montenegro became the world's 193rd recognized sovereign state, which has split the Savez Izviđača Srbije i Crne Gore, as happened with Czechoslovakia in 1993, meaning that the membership in the World Organization of the Scout Movement was transferred to Savez Izviđača Srbije; the first Scout units in what was to become Yugoslavia were founded in 1911 by Dr. Miloš Popović, in Belgrade, Kragujevac and Valjevo; as Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Serbia served as one of the 20 original signatories that founded the World Organization of the Scout Movement, from 1922 to 1950. The Russian Scout association Русский Скаут went into exile after World War I, continued where fleeing White Russian émigrés settled, establishing groups in Serbia; the outbreak of World War II saw the suspension of Scouting in Serbia in 1941, when Yugoslavia was occupied by the Germans.
Scouting in Yugoslavia was co-opted by the Tito government in 1950, at which time WOSM membership was forfeited, as the new organization did not meet all the criteria for membership, as there were close connections with the communist government. In 1951, individual Scout associations were founded in all then-Yugoslav republics; the Scout Association of Yugoslavia was renewed under the former Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia on November 24, 1951 at a meeting held in Zagreb, now in Croatia. Individual branches were created for each constituent republic, the Scout movement grew and thrived until the Yugoslav dissolution in 1991. Yugoslavia, as Serbia and Montenegro, returned as the 137th member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement on September 1, 1995. In the prevailing situation in the Balkans, the association is active in social work for all segments of the population, cooperates with the Red Cross in providing aid to refugees, opportunities for the disabled, help for orphans and general aid to areas in crisis.
The SIS has been featured in news stories about the work they are doing for the environment. The SIS is active in a campaign to introduce new methods and materials of packaging, different schemes for garbage collection and recycling programmes. Serbia and Montenegro fielded a contingent EuroJam 2005; the Savez Izviđača Srbije is a voluntary, independent and social organization of children and adults, for development of their physical and spiritual potential. Every citizen of Serbia could become a member of the Savez Izviđača Srbije, if he or she accepts the Program of the Association and acts in accordance with the Scout Laws and regulations of the Constitution of Savez Izviđača Srbije, is active in his or her unit and in the Association; the President of Savez Izviđača Srbije is Mr. Nikola Petrović from Kraljevo, the former Vice-President elected in March 1995, he serves a four-year term. The Savez Izviđača Srbije does not presently own its own centers, nor do the individual Scout Organizations of Serbia.
A number of Scout Groups have their own centers, including groups in Buljarice, Debelo Brdo, Brezovica. Where most countries have a formalized structure of Councils and Groups, Serbia has a less formal organization. At the heart of Savez Izviđača Srbije are the Groups much bigger than Groups in other countries, containing several Cub packs, Scout troops and Senior Scout units. For example, the France Prešern Group in Belgrade, founded in 1957, has had over 11,000 members, over 200 new members a year; the Scout Association of Vojvodina has been active since 1911, when the first local Scout units were founded in Novi Sad, Pančevo and other places. The Scout Association of Vojvodina, which has around 2000 members, unites the work of 35 Scout units from towns and villages across Vojvodina; the work of the Scout Association of Vojvodina includes camps, various activities, training of leaders, meetings and competitions, Scout jamborees of Vojvodina gathering up to 2000 participants, orienteering all-around competitions, an international Scout artists' colony, the Eurostep program, including an Eco-camp in Pančevo, the Archeology camp in Sremska Mitrovica, the International Scout Artists' Colony in Kovačica and the Camp for River Scouts in Kanjiža.
If there are a number of Scout Groups in a locality, local Scout Councils may be formed. There are City Scout Councils in Belgrade and Niš and 12 District Scout Councils around Serbia in Ada, Požarevac, Velika Plana, Bačka Topola, Vranje, Čukarica, Šabac, Zaječar, Kruševac and Zvezdara; the UK - Serbia and Montenegro National Scout Fellowship is the newest of United Kingdom Scout Association's country focused networks, a forum where members of The Scout Association with a specific interest in Serbia and Montenegro visit the country and work to raise awareness within the UKSA of Scouting there and in the Balkans in general. SAMnet was formed in May 2004 after a Scout Association study visit to the country. Groups may belong to Local Scout Councils and/or Regional Scout Organizations, but many Groups report directly to Savez Izviđača Srbije. Scout Groups in Serbia tend to be named after people - either from local history or the founders of the Group; each Scout Group has its own neckerchief, the vibrant colors of which are chosen by the members.
Scout Groups are led by a Group Commissioner and have a number of Sectio
North Macedonia the Republic of North Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in September 1991 under the name Republic of Macedonia; the country became a member of the United Nations in April 1993, but as a result of a dispute with Greece over the name, it was admitted under the provisional description the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, a term, used by some other international organisations. In June 2018, Macedonia and Greece resolved the conflict with an agreement that the country should rename itself Republic of North Macedonia; this renaming came into effect in February 2019, with a several-months-long transition for passports, licence plates, customs, border signs, government websites, among other things. A landlocked country, North Macedonia has borders with Kosovo to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, Albania to the west.
It constitutes the northern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia, which comprises the neighbouring parts of northern Greece and southwestern Bulgaria. The country's geography is defined by mountains and rivers; the capital and largest city, Skopje, is home to a quarter of the nation's 2.06 million inhabitants. The majority of the residents are a South Slavic people. Albanians form a significant minority at around 25%, followed by Turks, Serbs, Bosniaks and Bulgarians; the history of the region dates back to antiquity, beginning with the kingdom of Paeonia a mixed Thraco-Illyrian polity. In the late sixth century BC, the area was incorporated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire annexed by the kingdom of Macedonia in the fourth century BC; the Romans conquered the region in the second century BC and made it part of the much larger province of Macedonia. Τhe area remained part of the Byzantine Empire, but was raided and settled by Slavic tribes beginning in the sixth century of the Christian era.
Following centuries of contention between the Bulgarian and Serbian Empire, it was part of the Ottoman dominion from the mid-14th until the early 20th century, when following the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, the modern territory of North Macedonia came under Serbian rule. During the First World War it was ruled by Bulgaria, but after the end of the war, it returned under Serbian rule as part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During the Second World War, it was ruled by Bulgaria again, in 1945 it was established as a constituent communist republic into the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, which it remained until its peaceful secession in 1991. North Macedonia is of the Council of Europe. Since 2005, it has been a candidate for joining the European Union and has applied for NATO membership. One of the poorest countries in Europe, North Macedonia has made significant progress in developing an open, market-based economy; the state's name derives from a kingdom named after the ancient Macedonians.
Their name, Μακεδόνες, derives from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning tall or taper, which shares the same root as the adjective μακρός, meaning long, tall, or high, in ancient Greek. The name is believed to have meant either highlanders or the tall ones descriptive of the people. According to linguist Robert S. P. Beekes, both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology. Prior to June 2018, the use of the name Macedonia was disputed between Greece and the then-Republic of Macedonia; the Prespa agreement, signed by Macedonia and Greece on 17 June, saw the country change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia eight months later. A non-binding national referendum on the matter passed with 90% approval but did not reach the required 50% turnout due to a boycott, leaving the final decision with parliament to ratify the result. Parliament approved of the name change on 19 October, reaching the required two-thirds majority needed to enact constitutional changes.
The vote to amend the constitution and change the name of the country passed on 11 January 2019 in favour of the amendment. The amendment entered into force on 12 February, following the ratification of the Prespa agreement and the Protocol on the Accession of North Macedonia to NATO by the Greek Parliament. On 25 January, the Greek parliament had narrowly voted to back the agreement, with 153 approving and 146 against. Prior to February 2019, in Macedonian the country name was Македонија Република Македонија. North Macedonia geographically corresponds to the ancient kingdom of Paeonia, located north of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia. Paeonia was inhabited by the Paeonians, a Thracian people, whilst the northwest was inhabited by the Dardani and the southwest by tribes known as the Enchelae and Lyncestae. In the late 6th century BC, the Achaemenid Persians under Darius the Great conquered the Paeonians, incorporating w
Polish Scouting and Guiding Association
The Polish Scouting and Guiding Association is the coeducational Polish Scouting organization recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. It was founded in 1918 and is the largest Scouting organization in Poland; the first ZHP was founded in 1916, the current one is the fourth organization with this name. It is a public benefit organization as defined by Polish law; the Polish Scout movement was started in 1910. The ideas of Scouting were implemented by Andrzej Małkowski and his wife Olga; the three main branches of Polish Scouting included the Strzelec paramilitary organization for boys, a sport and education society Sokół and the anti-alcoholic association Eleusis. However, it wasn't until the Partitions of Poland came to an end that the ZHP would be founded by the merging of existing groups. Soon after the merger in 1918, the ZHP members fought in all the conflicts Poland was engaged in around this time: Great Poland Uprising, Polish-Bolshevik War, Silesian Uprisings, Polish-Ukrainian War, much like their predecessors during the Siege of Mafeking.
All of the units joined together in 1918 and formed the ZHP, one of the founding members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Although many units retained their own traditions, a common law, common symbols and a common oath was introduced; the primary difference between most Scouting organizations and the Polish Harcerstwo was described by Andrzej Małkowski: Harcerstwo is Scouting plus independence. Before 1939 the ZHP was one of the largest social and educational associations in Poland with over 200,000 members. Among the "sponsors" of Polish Harcerstwo were all the presidents of Poland and several high-ranking officers, including general Józef Haller. After the invasion of Poland of 1939, the ZHP were branded criminals by Nazi Germany, who had executed many Scouts and Guides, along with other possible resistance leaders, but the ZHP carried on as a clandestine organization. In 1940, the Soviet Union executed most of the Boy Scouts held at Ostashkov prison; the wartime Scouts evolved into the paramilitary Szare Szeregi, cooperating with the Polish underground state and the Armia Krajowa resistance.
Older Scouts carried out sabotage, armed resistance, assassinations. The Girl Guides formed auxiliary units working as nurses and munition carriers. At the same time the youngest Scouts were involved in so-called small sabotage under the auspice of the Wawer organization, which included dropping leaflets or painting the kotwica sign on the walls. During Operation Tempest, during the Warsaw Uprising, the Scouts participated in the fighting, several Szare Szeregi units were some of the most effective in combat. In December 1944 the Polish Committee of National Liberation reformed the Scouting movement under the name of the pre-WWII Scouting organization, though with authorities loyal to the puppet government and an ethos in line with that of the Soviet Pioneer Movement, pressuring the organization to become a member thereof altogether disbanding in in that form in 1949; the organization was integrated into the Polish United Workers' Party, with most of its members now part of a new Soviet style, government-sponsored Pioneer organization - the Scouts of the Working Youth of Poland, which retained the original Polish Scouting movement's motto while adopting Pioneer traditions of Eastern Bloc countries, save for the uniform.
The only existing part of pre-war ZHP is the ZHP pgK, established to serve Polish Scouts outside their homeland. In 1956, after Stalin's and Bolesław Bierut's death, the Polish United Workers' Party youth movement ZMP OH was transformed and renamed to ZHP; however the new ZHP did not consider itself as a continuation of the pre-war ZHP, but as a new organization. After 1958 many pre-war instructors were removed from the new ZHP or marginalized and the original oath, educational content and methods were changed, but the most visible change was the transformation from the Pioneer salute back to the two-finger salute. Despite this, the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association became one of the few official organizations that retained some independence from the communist party; because of this, its growth was rapid, in 1980 it had more than three million active members. The Polish Scouts were engaged in a variety of duties, varying from helping in the fields of the most poor regions to organizing the visits of Pope John Paul II.
After the martial law was imposed in 1981 the ZHP was the only large social organization not to be banned. The "VIII ZHP Convention" supported the martial law. However, many of its high-ranking officials were interned because of their involvement in the Solidarność movement, as well as several Scoutmasters; the ZHP would be admitted in the 1980s as part of the Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth. In 1989 after the period of peaceful transformation began, many groups of instructors formed separate Scouting organizations; these moves were prompted by political disagreements with the character of ZHP. ZHR's founding will serve as an adequate ex