A four-stroke engine is an internal combustion engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft. A stroke refers in either direction; the four separate strokes are termed: Intake: Also known as suction. This stroke of the piston ends at bottom dead center. In this stroke the intake valve must be in the open position while the piston pulls an air-fuel mixture into the cylinder by producing vacuum pressure into the cylinder through its downward motion; the piston is moving down. Compression: This stroke begins at B. D. C, or just at the end of the suction stroke, ends at T. D. C. In this stroke the piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during the power stroke. Both the intake and exhaust valves are closed during this stage. Combustion: Also known as power or ignition; this is the start of the second revolution of the four stroke cycle. At this point the crankshaft has completed a full 360 degree revolution. While the piston is at T. D. C.
The compressed air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark plug or by heat generated by high compression, forcefully returning the piston to B. D. C; this stroke produces mechanical work from the engine to turn the crankshaft. Exhaust: Also known as outlet. During the exhaust stroke, the piston, once again, returns from B. D. C. to T. D. C. While the exhaust valve is open; this action expels the spent air-fuel mixture through the exhaust valve. These four strokes can be remembered by the colloquial phrase, "Suck, Bang, Blow". Nikolaus August Otto was a traveling salesman for a grocery concern. In his travels, he encountered the internal combustion engine built in Paris by Belgian expatriate Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. In 1860, Lenoir created a double-acting engine that ran on illuminating gas at 4% efficiency; the 18 litre Lenoir Engine produced only 2 horsepower. The Lenoir engine ran on illuminating gas made from coal, developed in Paris by Philip Lebon. In testing a replica of the Lenoir engine in 1861, Otto became aware of the effects of compression on the fuel charge.
In 1862, Otto attempted to produce an engine to improve on the poor efficiency and reliability of the Lenoir engine. He tried to create an engine that would compress the fuel mixture prior to ignition, but failed as that engine would run no more than a few minutes prior to its destruction. Many other engineers were trying to solve the problem, with no success. In 1864, Otto and Eugen Langen founded the first internal combustion engine production company, NA Otto and Cie. Otto and Cie succeeded in creating a successful atmospheric engine that same year; the factory ran out of space and was moved to the town of Deutz, Germany in 1869, where the company was renamed to Deutz Gasmotorenfabrik AG. In 1872, Gottlieb Daimler was technical director and Wilhelm Maybach was the head of engine design. Daimler was a gunsmith. By 1876, Otto and Langen succeeded in creating the first internal combustion engine that compressed the fuel mixture prior to combustion for far higher efficiency than any engine created to this time.
Daimler and Maybach left their employ at Otto and Cie and developed the first high-speed Otto engine in 1883. In 1885, they produced the first automobile to be equipped with an Otto engine; the Daimler Reitwagen used a hot-tube ignition system and the fuel known as Ligroin to become the world's first vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine. It used a four-stroke engine based on Otto's design; the following year, Karl Benz produced a four-stroke engined automobile, regarded as the first car. In 1884, Otto's company known as Gasmotorenfabrik Deutz, developed electric ignition and the carburetor. In 1890, Daimler and Maybach formed a company known as Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. Today, that company is Daimler-Benz; the Atkinson-cycle engine is a type of single stroke internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. The Atkinson cycle is designed to provide efficiency at the expense of power density, is used in some modern hybrid electric applications; the original Atkinson-cycle piston engine allowed the intake, compression and exhaust strokes of the four-stroke cycle to occur in a single turn of the crankshaft and was designed to avoid infringing certain patents covering Otto-cycle engines.
Due to the unique crankshaft design of the Atkinson, its expansion ratio can differ from its compression ratio and, with a power stroke longer than its compression stroke, the engine can achieve greater thermal efficiency than a traditional piston engine. While Atkinson's original design is no more than a historical curiosity, many modern engines use unconventional valve timing to produce the effect of a shorter compression stroke/longer power stroke, thus realizing the fuel economy improvements the Atkinson cycle can provide; the diesel engine is a technical refinement of the 1876 Otto-cycle engine. Where Otto had realized in 1861 that the efficiency of the engine could be increased by first compressing the fuel mixture prior to its ignition, Rudolf Diesel wanted to develop a more efficient type of engine that could run on much heavier fuel; the Lenoir, Otto Atmospheric, Otto Compression engines were designed to run on Illuminating Gas. With the same motivation as Otto, Diesel wanted to create an engine that would give small industrial companies their own power source to enable them to compete against larger companies, like Otto
Centralne Warsztaty Samochodowe
Centralne Warsztaty Samochodowe was a Polish pre-war car and motorcycle manufacturer. Created by the Polish Ministry of War Affairs in 1918, the run company was entitled to service of all the mechanical equipment of the Polish Army, including tanks, armoured cars and lorries. With time, the CWS started to produce its own designs of cars and motorcycles. Among the most notable designs were the CWS T-1, T-2 and T-8 limousines, as well as the successful Sokół motorcycle series. In 1928 the company was nationalized and renamed to Państwowe Zakłady Inżynieryjne, but it continued to use the old name of CWS as the brand name for the motorcycles until the outbreak of the Invasion of Poland
Polish Land Forces
The Land Forces are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland. They contain some 65,000 active personnel and form many components of European Union and NATO deployments around the world. Poland's recorded military history stretches back for hundreds of years – since the 10th century, but Poland's modern army was formed after 1918; when Poland regained independence in 1918, it recreated its military which participated in the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921, in the two smaller conflicts. Right after the First World War, Poland had five military districts: Poznań Military District, HQ in Poznań Kraków Military District, HQ in Kraków Łódź Military District, HQ in Łódź Warsaw Military District, HQ in Warsaw Lublin Military District, HQ in Lublin; the Polish land forces as readied for the Polish–Soviet War was made up of soldiers who had served in the various partitioning empires, supported by some international volunteers. There appear to have been a total of around 30 Polish divisions involved.
Boris Savinkov was at the head of an army of 20,000 to 30,000 Russian POWs, was accompanied by Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Zinaida Gippius. The Polish forces grew from 100,000 in 1918 to over 500,000 in early 1920. In August 1920, the Polish army had reached a total strength of 737,767 people. Given Soviet losses, there was rough numerical parity between the two armies. Among the major formations involved on the Polish side were a number of Fronts, including the Lithuanian-Belarusian Front, about seven armies, including the First Polish Army; the German invasion of Poland began on 1 September 1939, the Wehrmacht seized half the country despite heavy Polish resistance. Among the erroneous myths generated by this campaign were accounts of Polish cavalry charging German tanks, which did not, in fact, take place. In the east, the Red Army took the other half of the country in accordance with the Nazi-Soviet Pact. Following the country's fall, Polish soldiers began regrouping in what was to become the Polish Army in France.
Both the Polish Armed Forces in the West and the Polish Armed Forces in the East, as well as interior forces represented by the Home Army had land forces during the Second World War. While the forces fighting under the Allied banner were supported by the Polish air force and navy, the partisan forces were an exclusive land formation; however the army operational today has its roots in the surrogate force formed in support of Soviet interests during the establishment of the People's Republic of Poland after the Second World War. Two Polish armies, the First Army and the Second Army fought with the Red Army on the Eastern Front, supported by some Polish air force elements; the formation of a Third Army was begun but not completed. The end of the war found the Polish Army in the midst of intense organisational development. Although the implementation of the Polish Front concept was abandoned, new tactical unit and troop types were created; as a result of mobilisation, troop numbers in May 1945 reached 370,000 soldiers, while in September 1945 440,000.
Military districts were organised in liberated areas. The districts exercised direct authority over the units stationed on the territory administered by them. Returning to the country, the Second Army was tasked with the protection of the western border of the state from Jelenia Gora to Kamien Pomorski, on the basis of its headquarters, the staff of the Poznan Military District was created at Poznań; the southern border, from Jelenia Gora to the Użok railway station was occupied by the First Army. Its headquarters staff formed the basis of the Silesian Military District. In mid-1945, after the end of World War II, the Polish Army, as part of the overall armed forces, the People's Army of Poland, was divided into six districts; these were the Warsaw Military District, HQ in Warsaw, the Lublin Military District, HQ in Lublin, the Kraków Military District, HQ in Kraków, the Lodz Military District, HQ in Lodz, the Poznan Military District, HQ in Poznan, the Pomeranian Military District, HQ in Torun and the Silesian Military District, HQ in Katowice, created in the fall of 1945.
In June 1945 the 1st, 3rd and 8th Infantry Divisions were assigned internal security duties, while the 4th Infantry Division was reorganised for the purpose of creating the Internal Security Corps. The rule was that military units were used against the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, while the Internal Security Corps was used to fight the armed underground independence; however army units fought the underground resistance, vice versa. The culmination of the UPA suppression operation was the so-called'Wisła Action' which took place in 1947. At the same time demobilisation took place. On 10 August 1945 a "decree of the partial demobilisation" of the armed forces was issued; the next demobilisation phase took place in February and December 1946. One of the most important tasks facing the army after the war was national mine clearance. Between 1944 and 1956 the demining operation involved 44 engineering units or about 19,000 sappers, they cleared mines and other munitions in a cle
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
A sidecar is a one-wheeled device attached to the side of a motorcycle, scooter, or bicycle, making the whole a three-wheeled vehicle. A motorcycle with a sidecar is sometimes called an outfit, a rig or a hack. Mr M Bertoux, a French army officer, secured a prize offered by a French newspaper in 1893 for the best method of carrying a passenger on a bicycle; the sidecar wheel was mounted on the same lateral plane as the bicycle's rear and was supported by a triangulation of tubes from the bicycle. A sprung seat with back rest was mounted above a footboard hung below. A sidecar appeared in a cartoon by George Moore in the January 7, 1903, issue of the British newspaper Motor Cycling. Three weeks a provisional patent was granted to Mr. W. J. Graham of Graham Brothers, Middlesex, he partnered with Jonathan A. Kahn to begin production. One of Britain's oldest sidecar manufacturers, was founded in 1912, it is still trading as Watsonian Squire. Automobile producer Jaguar Cars was founded in 1922 as a sidecar manufacturer, the Swallow Sidecar Company.
In 1913, American inventor Hugo Young, of Loudonville, designed a new sidecar, not rigidly fixed to the motorcycle. Instead, his invention employed a flexible connection, which allowed the sidecar to turn and lower without affecting the balance of the motorcycle; this was a great improvement over the original design, allowing for much safer and more comfortable experiences for both the passenger and driver. Young opened up the Flxible Sidecar Company in Loudonville and soon became the largest sidecar manufacturer in the world; when the motorcycle craze began to fade in the 1920s due to more affordable cars being marketed, as well as the banishment of sidecar racing in the United States, the Flxible Sidecar Company began producing transit buses and hearses. Until the 1950s sidecars were quite popular. A sidecar motorcycle is a three-wheeled vehicle with the side wheel not directly aligned with the rear motorcycle wheel, is powered by the rear wheel only; this is different from a motor tricycle, where both rear wheels share a common axle.
However, either P. V. Mokharov of the Soviet Union or H. P. Baughn of Great Britain seem to have been the first to employ a driven sidecar wheel in 1929. Baughn two-wheel-drive outfits were so successful in trials events in the early 1930s that there were attempts to have the ACU ban them from competition. A great many companies experimented with two-wheel drive in sporting events and indeed many companies employed them in military vehicles prior to the commencement of World War II; the Russian manufacturer Ural produces several models with two-wheel drive that can be engaged as desired. The sidecar consists of a body; the frame may either be fixed to the bike, or it may be attached in a way which makes the bike able to lean in the same manner as bikes without sidecars. Ural had a reversible sidecar for the European market; the body provides one passenger seat and a small trunk compartment behind. In some cases the sidecar has a removable soft top. In some modifications, the sidecar's body is used for carrying cargo or tools, like a truck's platform.
The sidecar is mounted so that the motorcycle is closer to the centre of the road, i.e. with the sidecar on the right for right-hand traffic. A sidecar makes the bike asymmetrical. A fixed mounted rig with right mounted sidecar can go faster in left turns than in right turns because the sidecar prevents it from tipping over. In right turns, they can tip over; some techniques can be used to take a right curve faster without tipping, like usage of the brake on the sidecar, if one is fitted. While a sidecar pilot is described as driving rather than riding, with all but the heaviest rigs, the comparison to a car is weak. Driver and passenger body position affect higher speed handling on dirt or other uneven surfaces. If the sidecar and bike geometry are not coordinated the combination will be unstable at speed, with shimmy upon acceleration or deceleration. In rigid mounted rigs, leaning the motorcycle by clamping it rigidly a few degrees away from the sidecar is used along with a few degrees of "toe-in" of the sidecar wheel toward the centerline of the vehicle to allow for road camber and provide a balance resulting in comfortable, straight line travel.
Most sidecars are fitted with steering damping devices of either friction or hydraulic type to lessen the effects of sudden inputs, as encountered on rough roads, upon the vehicle's handling. Sidecar racing events exist in Motocross, Grasstrack, road racing and Speedway with sidecar classes; the sport has followers in Europe, the United States, Japan and New Zealand. The sidecars are classed by age or engine size, with historic sidecar racing being more popular than its modern counterpart. Older classes in road racing resemble solo motorcycles with a platform attached, where modern racing sidecars are low and long and borrow much technology from open wheel race cars. In all types of sidecar racing there is a rider and a passenger who work in unison to make the machine perform, as they would be unrideable without the passenger in the correct position. Road racing sidecars began to change away from normal motorcycle development in the 1950s with them becoming lower and using smaller diameter wheels and they kept the enclosed "dustbin fairing" banned in solo competition in 1957.
By the 1970s, they wer
A V-twin engine called a V2 engine, is a two-cylinder internal combustion engine where the cylinders are arranged in a V configuration. Although associated with motorcycles, V-twin engines are produced for the power equipment industry and are found in riding lawnmowers, small tractors and electric generators. Gottlieb Daimler built a V-twin engine in 1889, it was used to power boats. It was used in Daimler's second automobile, the 1889 Stahlradwagen; the engine was manufactured under licence in France by Panhard et Levassor. In November 1902 the Princeps AutoCar Co advertised a V-twin engined motorcycle, in 1903 V-Twins were produced by other companies, including the 90 degree XL-ALL. In 1903, Glenn Curtiss in the United States, NSU in Germany began building V-twin engines for use in their respective motorcycles. Peugeot, which had used Panhard-built Daimler V-twins in its first cars, made its own V-twin engines in the early 20th century. A Norton motorcycle powered by a Peugeot V-twin engine won the first Isle of Man Tourist Trophy twin-cylinder race in 1907.
Most V-twin engines have a single crankpin, shared by both connecting rods. The connecting rods may sit side-by-side with offset cylinders, or they may be "fork & blade" items with cylinders in the same plane without an offset; some notable exceptions include the Moto Guzzi 500cc that Stanley Woods rode to win the 1935 Isle of Man TT. A two-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged at any angle greater than zero degrees and less than 180 degrees may be classified as a V-twin, although an angle that approaches zero is not practical. Despite Ducati referring to its 90 degree twin cylinder engine as an "L-twin"—with the front cylinder nearly horizontal and the rear cylinder vertical, there is no technical distinction between V-twin and L-twin engines. Assuming correct counterweighting, a 90 degree V-twin will achieve perfect primary balance. However, the 90 degree layout will produce an uneven firing interval, with the second cylinder firing 270 degrees of crankshaft rotation after the first cylinder, followed by 450 degrees of rotation before the first cylinder again fires.
A V-twin with an angle of less than 90 degree cannot achieve perfect primary balance unless offset crankpins, a balance shaft, or both are employed to counteract reciprocating forces. However, the firing interval will not be as uneven as with the 90 degree layout; the terms longitudinal engine and transverse engine are most used to refer to the crankshaft orientation, some sources, most prominently Moto Guzzi, use the terminology in the opposite way. A Moto Guzzi Technical Services representative tried to explain to LA Times columnist Susan Carpenter that Moto Guzzi engines are "called'transverse' because the engine is mounted with the crankshaft oriented front to back instead of left to right." In spite of this, it could be assumed that those who call V-twin motorcycle engines "transverse" when they are mounted with the crankshaft front-to-back and the cylinders sticking out the sides are saying that to them, the engine's axis is the line passing from one cylinder to the other, at a right angle to the crankshaft, rather than going by the crankshaft's axis.
Technical sources, such as V. Cossleter's Motorcycle Dynamics, or Gaetaeno Cocco's Motorcycle Design and Technology are careful not to use the terms "longitudinal engine" or "transverse engine," but rather to specify that they mark the engine's orientation based on the crankshaft, so they will say "transverse crankshaft engine" or "longitudinal crankshaft engine", or, conversely, "transversely mounted cylinders" in referenced to the classic BMW orientation, with a longitudinal crankshaft and cylinders at a right angle to the axis of the frame; the engine can be mounted in transverse crankshaft position as on Harley-Davidsons and many recent Japanese motorcycles. This layout produces a twin cylinder motorcycle engine, little or no wider than a single. A narrower engine can be mounted lower in the frame with handling benefits. A disadvantage of this configuration for air-cooled engines is that the two cylinders receive different air-flows and cooling of the rear cylinder tends to be restricted.
Cooling problems are somewhat mitigated by having all "four" sides of each cylinder exposed to air flow. This differs from a parallel-twin cylinder engine which has a distinct front and sides, but the inside of each cylinder is not exposed to airflow as the cylinders are joined together with a cam chain running up through the block in-between the cylinders; some transverse V-twins use a single carburettor in the middle of the V-angle to feed both cylinders. While this allows an economy of parts, it creates further cooling problems for the rear cylinder by placing its hot exhaust port and pipe at the back of the cylinder, where it may be exposed to less cooling airflow; some cooling strategies of transverse-crankshaft 90° V-twins The longitudinal crankshaft two-cylinder V as seen on Moto-Guzzis and some Hondas is less common. This orientation is suited to shaft drive, eliminating the need for a 90° bevel gear at the transmission end of the shaft. A longitudinal crankshaft engine fits neatly into a typical motorcycle frame, leaving ample room for the transmission, cooling is facilitated by cylinder heads and exhausts protruding into the air stream.