The Sokolsky Opening is an uncommon chess opening that begins with the move: 1. B4According to various databases, out of the twenty possible first moves from White, the move 1.b4 ranks ninth in popularity. It is considered an irregular opening, so it is classified under the A00 code in the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings; the opening has never been popular at the top level, though a number of prominent players have employed it on occasion. Soviet player Alexei Pavlovich Sokolsky wrote a monograph on this opening in 1963, Debyut 1 b2–b4, its most famous use came in the game Tartakower versus Maróczy, in the New York 1924 chess tournament on March 21, 1924. The name "Orangutan Opening" originates from that game: the players visited the Bronx Zoo the previous day, where Tartakower consulted an orangutan named Susan, she somehow indicated, Tartakower insisted, that he should open with b4. Tartakower noted that the climbing movement of the pawn to b5 reminded him of the orangutan. In that particular game, Tartakower came out of the opening with a decent position, but the game was drawn.
Alekhine, who played in the tournament and wrote a book on it, said that 1.b4 was an old move, that the problem is that it reveals White's intentions, before White knows what Black's intentions are. The opening is based upon tactics on the queenside or the f6- and g7-squares. Black can respond in a variety of ways: For example, Black can make a claim on the centre with 1...d5, 1...e5 or 1...f5. Less ambitious moves like 1... Nf6, 1...c6, 1...e6 are reasonable. Rarer attempts have been made with 1...a5 or 1...c5. Black's reply 1...e6 is followed by...d5... Nf6 and an eventual...c5. After 1.b4 e5 it is normal for White to ignore the attack on the b-pawn and play 2. Bb2, when 2...d6, 2...f6, 2... Bxb4 are all playable. After 1...a5 White will most play 2.b5 and take advantage of Black's queenside weakness. Black's 1...c5 is much sharper and more aggressive and is used to avoid theory. After the capture Black will place pressure on the c5-square and will develop an attack against White's weak queenside structure at the cost of an inferior central position.
List of chess openings List of chess openings named after people 1...c5 1...c6 1...c6 2. Bb2 a5 3.b5 cxb5 4.e4 1...d5 2. Bb2 c6 3.a4 1...d5 2. Bb2 Qd6 3.a3 e5 4. Nf3 e4 5. Nd4 Nf6 6.c4! dxc4 7.e3 Be7 8. Bxc4 O-O 9. Nc3 1...e5 2.a3 1...e5 2. Bb2 c5 1...e5 2. Bb2 f6 3.e4 Bxb4 1...e5 2. Bb2 f6 3.e4 Bxb4 4. Bc4 Nc6 5.f4 Qe7 6.f5 g6 1... Na6 1... Nc6 1... Nf6 2. Bb2 g6 3.g4 1... Nh6 1...b5 Bibliography Dunnington, Angus. Winning Unorthodox Openings. Everyman Chess. ISBN 978-1-85744-285-4. Hooper, David; the Oxford Companion to Chess. Oxford University. ISBN 0-19-280049-3. Konikowski, Jerzy. Russell Enterprises, Milford USA 2009, ISBN 978-1-888690-65-1 Lapshun, Yury. Play 1b4!: Shock your opponents with the Sokolsky. Everyman Chess. ISBN 978-1-85744-560-2. Schiller, Eric. Unorthodox Chess Openings. Cardoza Publishing. Pp. 354–57. ISBN 1-58042-072-9. ECO A00: Polish opening 1. B4 variations and games by Marek Trokenheim Sokolsky Opening Report. Birmingham Gambit: 1.b4 c5 Opening Report. Tartakower Gambit: 1.b4 e5 2. Bb2 f6 3.e4 Bxb4
The 2006 European heat wave was a period of exceptionally hot weather that arrived at the end of June 2006 in certain European countries. The United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, the Czech Republic, Hungary and western parts of Russia were most affected. Several records were broken. In the Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom, July 2006 was the warmest month since official measurements began. Belgium experienced two heat waves in July 2006. Before 1990 a heat wave occurred about once every 8 years, but during the last decade the country averages one heat wave per year. On 19 July 2006, temperatures throughout the entire country rose to 36 °C, making it the hottest July day in 60 years; the highest temperatures were recorded at the stations of Kleine Brogel and Genk, which measured 37.5 °C and 38.3 °C, respectively. There were 36 consecutive days of temperatures above 25 °C where the heat wave lasted for 34 days straight. In the rest of the country, the second heat wave lasted for 17 days.
July 2006 became the warmest month in Belgian history, with an all-time high mean temperature of 23.0 °C. At 14:32 BST on Wednesday, 19 July 2006, it was confirmed that 36.5 °C had been recorded at Wisley, Surrey. This confirmed. However, despite some predictions, the United Kingdom's all-time temperature high of 38.5 °C attained at Faversham, Kent, on 10 August 2003 was not reached. Whilst a disputed 42.0 °C was recorded at Wisley Airfield on 18 July, this figure has never been accepted and the figure of 36.5 °C from 19 July is the highest acceptable value. This figure is deemed to be erroneous and it has been suggested that the recorded temperature was in fact 32.0 °C. Another theory is that the 42.0 °C record on 18 July 2006 was recorded in the sunshine, not in standard'shaded' areas. Similar temperatures were recorded in the sunshine during a brief heatwave at Wimbledon on 1 July 2015; the heatwave warmed the cool and wet Scottish summer, with Glasgow having a July high of 22.7 °C and low of 13.7 °C, which made it the warmest month on record.
Because of the northerly location and marine nature, it was not a heat wave in a general sense, but rather unusually warm weather. Drought was an issue in many parts of the United Kingdom after a dry winter. There was warning of drought occurring from the early months of 2006. Following the dry winter, with extreme temperatures occurring in the country and little rain, increasing strain was put on water supplies, hose-pipe bans were issued in many counties; the Environment Agency claimed. Some power cuts occurred, some after lightning strikes and some due to large amounts of electricity used by air conditioners. In Central London on 27 July 2006 a series of power cuts hit Piccadilly Circus, Regent Street, Turner Broadcasting UK and Oxford Circus causing the closure of shops and businesses, when pre-existing faults were worsened by heavy demand; the Met Office confirmed that July 2006 was the warmest July, as well as the warmest single month, across the UK, a number of regional records were broken.
The tarmac on some roads melted in England. In Germany most of the July temperature average records were broken. In Mannheim/Ludwigshafen a July average of 26 °C was recorded, which means a temperature anomaly of 6 °C, a new record for a monthly average in Germany. In Berlin an average temperature of 25 °C was recorded; such numbers were recorded all over Germany. The biggest problem was the precipitation, which fell in intense thunderstorms. At least 20 people died in this heatwave. Denmark experienced the warmest July with an average temperature of 19.8 °C, breaking a record of 19.5 °C set in 1994. It was the second-warmest month behind August 1997 at 20.4 °C. It was the sunniest July and the second-sunniest at 321 hours. In fact, the previous July record was 290 hours. Since Denmark escaped the extremes seen further south, it is now known as one of the best summer months in history. High temperatures in France destroyed many crops, just days before the harvest period, while French officials said at least 40 people were confirmed to have been killed by the heat wave directly.
Temperatures as high as 37 °C were recorded in Paris during the heatwave. July 2006 was in many regions the warmest July recorded. In many regions weather was stormy. In Nice, the all-time high temperature record was beaten with a 37.7 °C recorded on 1 August. Ireland was affected from the heat wave from the start of June, the warm weather continued until the end of July. Temperatures were well above average for both months; the highest recorded in June was 27.1 °C at County Kerry on 9 June. In Kilkenny, County Kilkenny, there were 29 consecutive days in July with temperatures over 20.0 °C, nine of these days had temperatures over 25.0 °C. July 2006 was the warmest July in Ireland. By the end of July, temperatures returned to average figures. On 18 July, a temperature of 30.1 °C was recorded in County Offaly. However, temperatures again rose to 31.0 °C at Casement Ae
Pirate radio in Ireland has had a long history, with hundreds of radio stations having operated within the country. Due to past lax enforcement of the rules, the lack of commercial radio until 1989, the small physical size of the country, pirate radio has proliferated up to recent years, they were tolerated to a point by the government which only raided them in an effort to show compliance with Irish law, although the national broadcaster, RTÉ, took a harsher approach, including radio jamming. In 1940 Mayo man Jack Sean McNeela died on Hunger strike in Arbour Hill Military Detention Barracks after 55 days protesting his arrest for operating a pro IRA pirate radio station. While the number of recorded pirate radio stations was in the hundreds, only a few have been notable enough to be remembered. Pirate radio reached its height of popularity in Ireland in the 1980s after UK entrepreneurs Robbie Robertson and Chris Cary launched Sunshine Radio and Radio Nova in Dublin, they were soon joined by Irish business entrepreneurs.
It was commercial music radio at a time when state broadcaster RTE struggled to capture the youth market. This was followed by the arrival in 1982 of ABC Tramore and Radio ERI in Cork; these were pirate radio stations run for the first time on a commercial basis with the critical support of Ireland's advertising industry based in Dublin. Radio Nova in Dublin, launched as a'clutter free' radio station, was arguably the catalyst for a sea change in radio in Ireland, it was an era of unregulated freedom on air that produced what many view as the most exciting era for radio in Ireland. Professional market research conducted in the 1980s by reputable market research companies such as Lansdowne Research, Irish Marketing Surveys and Behaviours and Attitudes showed that these radio stations lead RTE in terms of reach and market share. In Cork, Radio ERI had a consistent reach in excess of 50% with a reach of 63% recorded in 1986/87, an unprecedented listenership figure; the station boasted an extensive marketing and sales department which produced no fewer than six future local radio managing directors or chief executives throughout Ireland under the legalised regime after 1989.
In 1988 it, along with stations such as Sunshine and Q102 run by Mike Hogan and owned by nightclub impresario Pierre Doyle, had annual sales revenues in millions of pounds. These commercial radio stations and others such as Radio West in Mullingar, Coast 103 FM in Galway and WLR in Waterford changed the landscape of radio in Ireland; the outcry and public protest which galvanised the country in 1983, when Radio Nova and Sunshine were raided, lead to a position where successive Irish governments refrained from action and tacitly accepted the super pirates. Many politicians, including future taoisigh and ministers, were guests on these stations interviewed by well organised news departments; this led to a new Radio and Television Act in 1988 which paved the way, with the cooperation of nearly all pirate radio stations, to a new era in independent local radio in Ireland which commenced in 1989. It was a great success and offered secure employment to many pirate radio stars who have since thrived and been joined by younger broadcasters over the decades in a flourishing local radio industry.
The 1988 Act limited future pirate radio stations by making it illegal to advertise or support them with stiff penalties. The 1980s were therefore the heyday of pirate radio in Ireland. Unlike other countries, Irish pirate stations were always on land, with publicly available phone numbers and addresses and known presenters. A recent government crackdown now means Ireland has one of the most hardline anti-pirate policies in Europe, few major stations survive. Stations nowadays are FM-based. In the 1980s however, most major stations broadcast on both MW and FM. There have been several shortwave pirate stations in Ireland, but pirate shortwave broadcasting has declined as with SW broadcasting in general; the early pioneering pirates were MW only. One of the first stations was Radio Milinda which broadcast on 300 metres MW, it was the first radio station to be prosecuted. It was raided on the 17 December 1972 and the subsequent court case took place on the 8 February 1973, they were fined £2 each and their equipment was confiscated.
In 2002 a new radio regulation body, the Commission for Communications Regulation, was founded by the Irish government to replace the Office of the Director of Telecommunications Regulation. Part of the reason for the change was pressure from the licensed radio community, which felt that pirate operators were taking their listeners, that a level playing field needed to be restored. ComReg had much more funding and resources than its predecessor – and these were put to use in May 2003, when a major crackdown on Dublin pirates saw every station wiped off the band; this series of raids, conducted over two days and involved Garda Síochána officers and ESB staff, was referred to as "Black Tuesday" by the free radio community. Follow-up action in the years to come meant that any station that ventured on air didn't last that long – with the officials tracking down and closing operators sometimes within five working days; the hardline stance has been extended to other pirate heartlands such as Cork and the border counties.
For the first time, ComReg began to carry out raids at night and weekends – removing the only remaining "safe" time to broadcast without a licence. Today Ireland has few pirate stations. In Dublin a couple venture on air at the weekends, using low power. Outside Dublin th