Tyvek /taɪˈvɛk/ is a brand of flashspun high-density polyethylene fibers, a synthetic material, the name is a registered trademark of DuPont. It is often used as housewrap, a synthetic material used to protect buildings during construction. The material is strong, it is difficult to tear. Water vapor can pass through Tyvek, but liquid water cannot, all of these properties make Tyvek useful in a variety of applications. Tyvek is a nonwoven product consisting of spunbond olefin fiber and it was first discovered in 1955 by DuPont researcher Jim White who saw polyethylene fluff coming out of a pipe in a DuPont experimental lab. It was trademarked in 1965 and was first introduced for purposes in April 1967. According to DuPonts website, the fibers are 0. 5–10 µm, the nondirectional fibers are first spun and bonded together by heat and pressure, without binders. Tyvek is manufactured at the Spruance plant in Richmond, among Tyveks properties are, Light weight Class A flammability rating. Dielectric bonding can be effective in some circumstances, as is ultrasonic sealing, Tyvek is used by the United States Postal Service for some of its Priority Mail and Express Mail envelopes.
FedEx uses it for some of its document envelopes, new Zealand used it for its drivers licenses from 1986 to 1999. Costa Rica, the Isle of Man, and Haiti have made banknotes from it and these banknotes are no longer in circulation and have become collectors items. They are used for some light HAZMAT applications, such as asbestos and radiation work, tychem is a sub-brand of Tyvek rated for a higher level of liquid protection, especially from chemicals. DuPont makes Tyvek clothing in different styles from laboratory coats and aprons to complete head-to-toe coveralls with hoods, the latter was notably used by the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force as emergency limited CBRN gear during the Fukushima nuclear incident. In 1976, fashion house Fiorucci made an entire collection out of Tyvek, more recently fashion retailer and manufacturer American Apparel has included white Tyvek shorts as part of its range. Rock band Devo is known for wearing large, two-piece Tyvek suits with black elastic belts, in 1979, Devo appeared with Tyvek leisure suits and shirts made specifically for the band, with the bands own designs and images.
In 2005, Dynomighty Design introduced a Tyvek wallet made from a sheet of Tyvek. The ultralight backpacking community has begun to use Tyvek for the construction of extremely light yet durable backpacks, in 2012, The Open Company released a foldable city map made of one of the stiffer variants of Tyvek. Increasingly, reused Tyvek material is being used by home crafters, protective sleeves for Compact Discs and DVDs, tote bags, and origami wallets use Tyvek-containing materials
In the 20th century, DuPont developed many polymers such as Vespel, nylon, Teflon, Kapton, Zemdrain, M5 fiber, Tyvek, Sorona and Lycra. DuPont developed Freon for the refrigerant industry, and more environmentally friendly refrigerants and it developed synthetic pigments and paints including ChromaFlair. In 2014, DuPont was the fourth largest chemical company based on market capitalization. Its stock price is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, DuPont was founded in 1802 by Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, using capital raised in France and gunpowder machinery imported from France. It began as a manufacturer of gunpowder, as du Pont noticed that the industry in North America was lagging behind Europe, the Eleutherian Mills site is now a museum and a National Historic Landmark. DuPont continued to expand, moving into the production of dynamite, in 1902, DuPonts president, Eugene du Pont and the surviving partners sold the company to three great-grandsons of the original founder. Charles Lee Reese was appointed as director and the company began centralizing their research departments, the company subsequently purchased several smaller chemical companies, and in 1912 these actions gave rise to government scrutiny under the Sherman Antitrust Act.
The courts declared that the dominance of the explosives business constituted a monopoly. The court ruling resulted in the creation of the Hercules Powder Company, at the time of divestment, DuPont retained the single base nitrocellulose powders, while Hercules held the double base powders combining nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. DuPont subsequently developed the Improved Military Rifle line of smokeless powders, in 1910, DuPont published a brochure entitled Farming with Dynamite. DuPont established two of the first industrial laboratories in the United States, where began the work on cellulose chemistry, lacquers. DuPont Central Research was established at the DuPont Experimental Station, across the Brandywine Creek from the powder mills. In 1914, Pierre S. du Pont invested in the automobile industry. The following year he was invited to sit on GMs board of directors, the DuPont company would assist the struggling automobile company further with a $25 million purchase of GM stock. In 1920, Pierre S.
du Pont was elected president of General Motors, under du Ponts guidance, GM became the number one automobile company in the world. However, in 1957, because of DuPonts influence within GM, in the 1920s, DuPont continued its emphasis on materials science, hiring Wallace Carothers to work on polymers in 1928. Carothers invented neoprene, a rubber, the first polyester superpolymer. The invention of Teflon followed a few years later, DuPont introduced phenothiazine as an insecticide in 1935
Lee M. Thomas
Lee Muller Thomas was Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency from 1985 to 1989 under President Ronald Reagan. Thomas led the EPA when the report Unfinished Business, A Comparative Assessment of Environmental Problems was released, Thomas earned his Masters in Education from the University of South Carolina, where he did postgraduate work in psychology. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology from the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee and he went on to become President and Chief Operating Officer of Georgia-Pacific Corporation in 2005. He was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of Rayonier, Inc. on March 1,2007, media related to Lee M. Thomas at Wikimedia Commons EPA Alumni Association - Interview with Lee M. Thomas regarding his career at EPA
Eugene du Pont
Eugène du Pont was an American businessman who served as the first head of the modern-day DuPont corporation. Du Pont was born on November 16,1840 at Hagley House in New Castle County, Eugène was the first head of the modern DuPont corporation, seeing the corporation into the 20th century. Eugène graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1861 with a bachelor of arts degree and he became junior partner in 1864. He succeeded his uncle, Henry du Pont, as partner in 1889. As senior partner, du Pont saw the completion of a new office in Wilmington and he saw the rise of the dynamite industry and helped form the Eastern Dynamite Company in 1895. 1912, the Eastern Dynamite Company formally merged with DuPont, after du Ponts death, the company was brought under control by three of his nephews, Alfred I. du Pont, T. Coleman du Pont and Pierre S. du Pont. Eugène married Amélia Elizabeth du Pont, who was born a du Pont, she was the granddaughter of Charles I. du Pont. Together they had had, Anne Ridgely du Pont Alexis Irénée du Pont III Mary Van Dyke du Pont Eugene Irenee du Pont Jr.
Amy Elizabeth du Pont, who did not marry. Julia Sophia du Pont Eugène du Pont died at his home in Christiana Hundred near Wilmington and his daughter Amy Elizabeth du Pont was a prominent benefactor of the University of Delaware. The painter George Alexis Weymouth was his great-grandnephew by his nephew, Eugene Eleuthere du Pont, as was his granddaughter, Ethel du Pont, the first wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr
Polytetrafluoroethylene is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The best known name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon by Chemours. Chemours is a spin-off of DuPont Co. which discovered the compound in 1938, PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic, neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction of any solid. PTFE is used as a coating for pans and other cookware. It is very non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds, where used as a lubricant, PTFE reduces friction and energy consumption of machinery. It is commonly used as a material in surgical interventions. Also, it is employed as coating on catheters, this interferes with the ability of bacteria and other infectious agents to adhere to catheters. PTFE was accidentally discovered in 1938 by Roy Plunkett while he was working in New Jersey for DuPont.
Since Plunkett was measuring the amount of gas used by weighing the bottle, he became curious as to the source of the weight and he found the bottles interior coated with a waxy white material that was oddly slippery. Analysis showed that it was polymerized perfluoroethylene, with the iron from the inside of the container having acted as a catalyst at high pressure, Kinetic Chemicals patented the new fluorinated plastic in 1941, and registered the Teflon trademark in 1945. By 1948, DuPont, which founded Kinetic Chemicals in partnership with General Motors, was producing two million pounds of Teflon brand PTFE per year in Parkersburg, West Virginia. In 1954, the wife of French engineer Marc Grégoire urged him to try the material he had been using on fishing tackle on her cooking pans and he subsequently created the first Teflon-coated, non-stick pans under the brandname Tefal. In the United States, Marion A. Trozzolo, who had been using the substance on scientific utensils, marketed the first US-made Teflon-coated pan, The Happy Pan, Tefal was not the only company to utilize PTFE in nonstick cookware coatings.
Other cookware companies, such as Meyer Corporations Anolon, use Teflon nonstick coatings purchased from DuPont, in the 1990s, it was found that PTFE could be radiation cross-linked above its melting point in an oxygen-free environment. Electron beam processing is one example of radiation processing, cross-linked PTFE has improved high-temperature mechanical properties and radiation stability. This was significant because, for years, irradiation at ambient conditions has been used to break down PTFE for recycling. This radiation-induced chain scission allows it to be more easily reground, PTFE is produced by free-radical polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, more specifically aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides. They can be melt-processed into fibers, films or shapes, the first example of nylon was produced on February 28,1935, by Wallace Carothers at DuPonts research facility at the DuPont Experimental Station. Nylon polymers have significant commercial applications in fibers, in shapes. Nylon is made of repeating units linked by bonds and is a type of polyamide and is frequently referred to as such. Nylon was the first commercially successful synthetic thermoplastic polymer, nylon polymer is made by reacting monomers which are either lactams, acid/amines or stoichiometric mixtures of diamines and diacids. Mixtures of these can be polymerized together to make copolymers, Nylon polymers can be mixed with a wide variety of additives to achieve many different property variations. Nylon was invented accidentally by Julian W. Hill, a chemist for DuPont under Wallace Carotherss supervision and it was only given this name at the 1939 New York Worlds Fair.
The patents were owned by DuPont, Nylon was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk and substituted for it in many different products after silk became scarce during World War II. It replaced silk in military applications such as parachutes and flak vests, after initial commercialization of nylon as a fiber, applications in the form of shapes and films were developed. The main market for nylon shapes now is in auto components, in 1940, John W. Eckelberry of DuPont stated that the letters nyl were arbitrary and the on was copied from the suffixes of other fibers such as cotton and rayon. A publication by DuPont explained that the name was intended to be No-Run. Since the products were not really run-proof, the vowels were swapped to produce nuron, for clarity in pronunciation, the i was changed to y. Most nylons are made from the reaction of an acid with a diamine or a lactam or amino acid with itself. In the first case, the structure is so-called ABAB similar to polyesters and polyurethanes, in the second case, the repeating unit corresponds to the single monomer.
It is difficult to get the proportions exactly correct, and deviations can lead to termination at molecular weights less than a desirable 10,000 daltons. To overcome this problem, a crystalline, solid nylon salt can be formed at room temperature, using an exact 1,1 ratio of the acid, the salt is crystallized to purify it and obtain the desired precise stoichiometry. Heated to 285 °C, the salt reacts to form nylon polymer with the production of water, Wallace Carothers at DuPont patented nylon 66, but overlooked the possibility to use lactams. That synthetic route was developed by Paul Schlack at IG Farben, leading to nylon 6, the peptide bond within the caprolactam is broken with the exposed active groups on each side being incorporated into two new bonds as the monomer becomes part of the polymer backbone
Corian is the brand name for a solid surface material created by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Its primary use is as a surface, though it has many other applications. It is composed of polymer and alumina trihydrate, a material derived from bauxite ore. Corian is the material of this type, created by DuPont scientists in 1967. A number of solid surface competitors to Corian have emerged since the expiration of DuPont’s patent on solid surfaces. Corian is manufactured in three thicknesses,6 millimetres,12 millimetres, and 19 millimetres, most Corian is manufactured at a DuPont facility near Buffalo, New York. Cross-section cuts show consistent color and particulate patterning evenly distributed throughout the material, giving rise to the category name “Solid Surface. ”Corian must be sold and installed by a DuPont certified fabricator and such installations come with a 10-year warranty covering both product and installation, for interior residential applications. Dr. Donald Slocum, a DuPont chemist, is credited as the inventor of Corian solid surface in 1967 and his name appears on the patent issued in October 1968.
A “Space Age” material, the product has evolved since its invention, the product was first introduced for sale in 1971, at the National Association of Home Builder’s meeting in Houston, Texas. Originally conceived as a kitchen/bath material available in a single color, in the years subsequent to its market debut, DuPont introduced “integrated” Corian sinks that could be seamlessly integrated with a Corian countertop in a kitchen or bathroom. The enhancement allows for the material to be created in deeper, darker colors that are resistant to scratches. DuPont has issued various sub-branded releases of the material which contain unique design elements and/or methods of manufacture, notably these have included, Corian Private Collection, First colors introduced in 2002, This product line is inspired by the randomness of patterns found in nature. Some colors and patterns in this product line resemble stone and other natural materials, Corian Terra Collection, First colors introduced in the 2000s, This product line contains between 6-20% recycled content.
Corian Illumination Series, First colors introduced in 2007, This product line is semi-translucent allowing for new designs calling for backlit applications, Corian Metallics Series, First colors introduced in 2010, This product line contains particulate of gold and silver fleck to give the product a metallic appearance. This creates a depth that simulates movement and variation of color when the installation is viewed from different angles. Martha Stewart Living Collection, First colors introduced in the United States in 2010, Corian DeepColor Technology, First colors introduced in 2013, This product line uses new Deep Color technology to produce darker, more scratch-resistant colors. Corian is, Non-porous Stain resistant Seamless, In the fabrication process, the pieces are clamped tightly together in order to express any excess adhesive. After the adhesive dries, the area is sanded and polished to create a seamless joint and this seamless appearance is a signature characteristic of the material
Neoprene or polychloroprene is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene. Neoprene exhibits good chemical stability and maintains flexibility over a temperature range. Neoprene is produced by polymerization of chloroprene. In commercial production, this polymer is prepared by free radical emulsion polymerization, polymerization is initiated using potassium persulfate. Bifunctional nucleophiles, metal oxides, and thioureas are used to crosslink individual polymer strands, outside of Russia and China, about 300,000 tons of neoprene are produced annually. After DuPont purchased the patent rights from the university, Wallace Carothers of DuPont took over development of Nieuwlands discovery in collaboration with Nieuwland himself. Arnold Collins at DuPont focused on monovinyl acetylene and allowed it to react with hydrogen chloride gas, DuPont first marketed the compound in 1931 under the trade name DuPrene, but its commercial possibilities were limited by the original manufacturing process, which left the product with a foul odor.
A new process was developed, which eliminated the odor-causing byproducts and halved production costs, to prevent shoddy manufacturers from harming the products reputation, the trademark DuPrene was restricted to apply only to the material sold by DuPont. By 1939, sales of neoprene were generating profits over $300,000 for the company, Neoprene resists degradation more than natural or synthetic rubber. This relative inertness makes it suited for demanding applications such as gaskets, hoses. It can be used as a base for adhesives, noise isolation in power transformer installations and it resists burning better than exclusively hydrocarbon based rubbers, resulting in its appearance in weather stripping for fire doors and in combat related attire such as gloves and face masks. Because of its tolerance of extreme conditions, neoprene is used to line landfills, neoprenes burn point is around 260°C. Neoprene foam is used in many applications. Neoprene foam can be produced in either closed-cell or open-cell form, the closed-cell form is waterproof, less compressible and more expensive.
The open-cell form can be breathable, Neoprene is used as a load bearing base, usually between two prefabricated reinforced concrete elements or steel plates as well to evenly guide force from one element to another. Neoprene is commonly used as a material for fly fishing waders, Neoprene waders are usually about 5 mm thick, and in the medium price range as compared to cheaper materials such as nylon and rubber. However, neoprene is less expensive than breathable fabrics, a foamed neoprene containing gas cells is used as an insulation material, most notably in wetsuits. Foamed neoprene is used in other insulation and shock-protection applications
Board of directors
A board of directors is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of a corporation or organization, which can include a non-profit organization or a government agency. A board of directors activities are determined by the powers and responsibilities conferred on it by an authority outside itself and these matters are typically detailed in regulations or in the organizations constitution and bylaws. These authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, and how often they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, and might be subordinate to, the full membership. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, the board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors are often done by the board itself, in a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself.
Other names include Board of directors and advisors, board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees and it may be called the executive board and is often simply referred to as the board. For companies with publicly trading stock, these responsibilities are typically much more rigorous, the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman, who holds whatever title is specified in the bylaws or articles of association. However, in organizations, the members elect the president of the organization. The directors of an organization are the persons who are members of its board, several specific terms categorize directors by the presence or absence of their other relationships to the organization. An inside director is a director who is an employee, chief executive, major shareholder, inside directors represent the interests of the entitys stakeholders, and often have special knowledge of its inner workings, its financial or market position, and so on. Executive directors often have an area of responsibility in the organization, such as finance, human resources.
An outside director is a member of the board who is not otherwise employed by or engaged with the organization, a typical example is a director who is president of a firm in a different industry. Outside directors are not employees of the company or affiliated with it in any other way, outside directors bring outside experience and perspectives to the board. One of the arguments for having outside directors is that they can keep a eye on the inside directors. Outside directors are unlikely to tolerate insider dealing between insider directors, as outside directors do not benefit from the company or organization, outside directors are often useful in handling disputes between inside directors, or between shareholders and the board. They are thought to be advantageous because they can be objective, director - a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. This practice results in an interlocking directorate, where a small number of individuals have significant influence over a large number of important entities
Alfred I. du Pont
Alfred Irénée du Pont was an American industrialist, philanthropist and a member of the influential Du Pont family. Following an acrimonious departure and a dip in personal fortunes, he embarked on business of his own, investing in land. He died a multimillionaire, with the bulk of his fortune sustaining the Alfred I. duPont Testamentary Trust, Du Pont was born in the Brandywine Valley region of Delaware to which his great-great-grandfather Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours had immigrated with his sons after the French Revolution. The son of Éleuthère Irénée du Pont II, a partner in the DuPont family gunpowder business, when du Pont was 13, his mother, who had a history of mental illness, was committed to an asylum following an episode of hysteria. The du Pont children were orphaned a month when Éleuthère followed, Du Ponts family intended to separate the children and sell their family home, Swamp Hall, but were persuaded otherwise by the fierce resistance of the children. The girls remained in the home, but du Pont was sent to boarding school, first, to the religious Shinn Academy in New Jersey and then, after graduation, he enrolled in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, rooming with his cousin T.
Coleman du Pont. In 1884, after two years at MIT, he left to work at the familys gunpowder manufacturing plant in the Brandywine mills. Though he started in a low position, he became known, according to the Alfred I. du Pont Foundation. Most of the over 200 patents he registered were related to this work, Du Pont married his cousin Bessie Gardner in 1887, and she was the mother of his first four children. In 1889, the plant passed to the management of Eugène du Pont, at which time it was reorganized and renamed E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Beyond that, Eugène du Pont and other members largely ignored du Pont. In 1902, upon the death of Eugène du Pont, the three senior partners considered selling the company to competitor Laflin & Rand Powder Company. They had no money, but the cousins were able to convince other family members to exchange their shares for a promissory note instead of cash. The actual amount of money which the partners were required to pay was $2,100, Alfred was directly engaged with the company and instituted major changes to its operation that resulted in greater efficiency and safety, leading to a boom in business.
During this period, du Pont was involved in an accident that would eventually cost him an eye. The same year,1906, he divorced his first wife, with a weeks eviction notice, he removed them from the family home at Swamp Hall and had it destroyed. This, coupled with du Ponts remarriage to a second cousin in 1907. Du Pont gave Bradford a new home built on 300 acres in Wilmington, construction of the Nemours Mansion and Gardens occurred between 1909 and 1910
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. As of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is funded by the pharmaceutical companies due to the Prescription drug user fee act and these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice, the Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Dr. Robert M. Califf, MD is the current commissioner, who took over in February 2016 for Dr. Stephen Ostroff, the FDA has its headquarters in unincorporated White Oak, Maryland. The agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, in 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom.
The site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak, the first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the facility was kept. All other buildings are new construction, the project is slated to be completed by 2017, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the eyes and ears of the agency, the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based roughly on the divisions of the federal court system. Each district comprises a main office and a number of Resident Posts. ORA includes the Agencys network of laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are usually food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs, the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases.
Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, and dont focus on aspects of the regulated industries. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, OCI Special Agents often come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, and work closely with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, and even Interpol. OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, OCI is a smaller branch, comprising about 200 agents nationwide. The FDA frequently works with federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection. Often local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections, the FDA regulates more than US$1 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States
Bunge Limited is a global agribusiness and food company, incorporated in Bermuda, and headquartered in White Plains, United States. As well as being an international soybean exporter, it is involved in food processing, grain trading. It competes with Cargill and Archer Daniels Midland, the company has over 35,000 employees at 400 facilities in 40 countries. Bunge y Born was founded in 1818 by Johann Peter Gotlieb Bunge in Amsterdam, edouards brother, Ernest Bunge, took the Bunge name to Argentina in 1884, and in 1905 the business extended to Brazil and on to the United States. The company was converted into the Bermuda-registered Bunge International in 1994, Bunge ultimately went public on the New York Stock Exchange in 2001, becoming Bunge Limited. In 1994, the Bermuda-registered Bunge International was created as the company in which the families had shares. There were around 180 shareholders—the main families were Hirsch, Born and this replaced the older structure in which individual shareholders had stakes in all the different Bunge companies.
Now only in Argentina does the Bunge y Born name still exist, in 2001, Bunge was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Through their three businesses—agribusiness and food products—they have established a global presence in the farm-to-consumer food chain. Bunge is the worlds largest oilseed processor, the number one seller of bottled vegetable oil to consumers. In 2004, Bunge acquired Cereol, parent of oilseed companies Central Soya, in 2008, Bunge acquired Walter Rau, a margarine company, from Germany. In 2009, Bunge acquired the business from Raisio Group. In 2012, Bunge came under criticism from NGO Survival International for sourcing its sugarcane from the land of the Guaraní people in Brazil. In January 2003, opposition from the tribe led to the killing of their chief Marcus Vernon by ranchers, in 2012, survivors are requesting Bunge follows the example of the company Raízen, which agreed to stop the sourcing of sugarcane from the area. In 2006, the United States Environmental Protection Agency filed charges against Bunge company regarding pollution emissions and this involved twelve soybean processing plants and corn mills in eight states throughout the US.
The lawsuit claimed Bunge violated the Clean Air Act by constructing major modifications that increased emissions, Bunge was required to implement engineering changes and pollution control projects, estimated to cost $12 million, to reduce emissions at the facilities by 2,200 tons a year. The state of Kansas will receive $22,000 of the $625,000 civil penalty, this being issued by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment