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Solar calendar

A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or equivalently the apparent position of the Sun relative to the stars. The Gregorian calendar accepted as standard in the world, is an example of a solar calendar; the main other type of calendar is a lunar calendar, whose months correspond to cycles of Moon phases. The months of the Gregorian calendar do not correspond to cycles of Moon phase; the oldest solar calendars include the Coptic calendar. They both have a year of 365 days, extended to 366 once every four years, without exception, so have a mean year of 365.25 days. As solar calendars became more accurate, they evolved into two types. If the position of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun is reckoned with respect to the equinox, the point at which the orbit crosses the celestial equator its dates indicate the seasons, that is, they are synchronized with the declination of the Sun; such a calendar is called a tropical solar calendar. The duration of the mean calendar year of such a calendar approximates some form of the tropical year either the mean tropical year or the vernal equinox year.

The following are tropical solar calendars: Ancient Armenian calendar Gregorian calendar Bengali calendar Iranian calendar Indian national calendar Every one of these calendars has a year of 365 days, extended by adding an extra day to form a leap year, a method called "intercalation", the inserted day being "intercalary". The Iranian calendar always begins the year on the vernal equinox and sets its intercalary days so that the following year begins on the vernal equinox; the moment of the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere is determined as at Tehran "by means of astronomical computations from reliable sources". ° If the position of the Earth is reckoned with respect to the fixed stars the dates indicate the zodiacal constellation near which the Sun can be found. A calendar of this type is called a sidereal solar calendar; the mean calendar year of such a calendar approximates the sidereal year. Indian calendars like the Hindu calendar, Tamil calendar, Bengali calendar and Malayalam calendar are sidereal solar calendars.

The Thai solar calendar, when based on the Hindu solar calendar was a sidereal calendar. They are calculated on the basis of the apparent motion of the Sun through the twelve zodiacal signs rather than the tropical movement of the Earth; the Islamic calendar, a purely lunar calendar and has a year, whose start drifts through the seasons and so is not a solar calendar. The Maya Tzolkin calendar, which follows a 260-day cycle, has no year. Any calendar synchronized only to the synodic period of Venus would not be solar. Lunisolar calendars are lunar calendars which additional intercalation rules to keep a rough synchronisation with the solar year and thus with the seasons; because a typical lunisolar calendar has a year made up of a whole number of lunar months, it can't indicate the position of Earth on its revolution around the Sun as well as a pure solar calendar can. The following is a list of current and proposed solar calendars: List of calendars Analemma calendar Astronomical clock Daytime Correspondence between Hebrew and Islamic calendars and holidays

Maurice van Essche

Maurice van Essche was a Belgian-born South African artist and art teacher who achieved national and international recognition in his lifetime. Maurice van Essche was born 1906, in Antwerp, the seventh of eleven children, of whom only eight survived infancy; the family was French-speaking despite its Flemish roots. He studied art at the Brussels Academy in 1924 under James Ensor, but halted his studies in 1925 for lack of funding, first working in a stained glass studio designing wallpaper – both of which experiences are reflected in many of his works, he worked as a freelance cartoonist, but painted all the while. In 1933 he studied under Henri Matisse in France, having met him by chance in an artist's supply shop in Cagnes, France. Thereafter he continued to paint and study full-time thanks to the sponsorship of his elder brother, Joseph Charles, a group of friends, his break came in July 1939 when he won a scholarship in a competition organised by the Belgian Government, who commissioned him to undertake a painting expedition to the Belgian Congo.

His travels and experiences there influenced him profoundly, the visions and emotions of that period echoed through his work for the rest of his life. In 1940 his wife Lucette and son Ludovic fled German occupation of Belgium and joined him in the Congo. Lucette could not cope with tropical conditions and they moved to the milder climate of the South African Cape rather than return to war-torn Europe. Early days in South Africa were difficult, on occasion van Essche traded paintings and drawings for food and other essentials, but he soon became a prominent member of the South African art community, exhibiting locally and in Europe as well. As an active member of The New Group he contributed to contemporary art in South Africa, he had a solid knowledge of both modern art trends and the history of European painting which he imparted in his role as teacher, a profession he regarded as important as creating. He taught at the Technical Art School from 1943 to 1945. In 1948 he founded the Continental School of Art in Cape Town, leaving in 1951 to become a lecturer at the Michaelis School of Fine Art at the University of Cape Town.

He was appointed Professor of Fine Art in 1962 and his success as a teacher is attested to by the number of his former pupils who have become prominent artists themselves. Van Essche retired from academia in 1971, but continued to paint prolifically, despite poor health, including several heart attacks, he travelled in Europe and settled near Thonon, France, at his wife's behest. His health continued to deteriorate, he could not travel to attend his own retrospective exhibition in Cape Town in 1974, he missed Africa painting African scenes while searching in vain for local inspiration. His new themes included hippies and musicians, his European landscapes from this period are dark and depressed, in stark contrast to the vibrant African scenes that flowed nonetheless. His oils continued to sell well in South Africa, his reputation grew, he succumbed to a heart attack in June 1977 following a fall, poor medical care. 1906 Born in Antwerp, Belgium 1911 Family moved to Brussels. 1971 Departed for Europe.

1972 Awarded the title Officer of Order of Leopold II by King Baudouin of Belgium. 1974 Unable to attend Prestige Retrospective Exhibition of his work, South African National Art Gallery and Pretoria Art Museum 1977 Deceased 12 June, France. Van Essche's work exhibits contrasting influences, both environmental. From delicate renditions of the diffused tones of Flanders, to powerful depictions of Africa's landscapes and light, van Essche conveys unmistakable moods and a realism, both beautifully poetic and strikingly honest. "There must be blood in my painting... I must remain human at all costs," he wrote to his friend Baron Robert d'Huart in 1961. 1924 Brussels Academy under James Ensor. 1933 Lessons with Henri Matisse, France. 1930 Silver medal, International Exhibition, Antwerp 1951 Chevalier de Leopold II, King Baudouin of Belgium 1966 Medal of Honour, South African Academy for Science and Art 1972 Officer of Order of Leopold II, King Baudouin of Belgium Relationship with Henri Matisse: Maurice van Essche met Henri Matisse when buying paint in an artists' supply

People's Progress Party

The People's Progress Party is a political party in Papua New Guinea. It was founded on 11 November 1969 by Julius Chan and Warren Dutton, forming a caucus of eleven members of the House of Assembly of Papua and New Guinea. Following independence in 1975, Chan served, while party leader, as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1982 and 1994 to 1997. Chan’s second Government was brought down by the Sandline Affair and the party suffered in the elections that year. Chan and acting Prime Minister John Giheno lost their seats, Michael Nali became the party’s leader in Parliament; when Chan was not serving as Prime Minister, the party was a junior partner in a coalition with the Pangu Party. At the 2002 General Elections, the party won 8 seats. At the 2007 General Election the party lost half of its seats. However, the party’s original leader, Julius Chan, returned to Parliament, took over the party’s leadership. Chan ran as the opposition candidate for Prime Minister, but received the support of only 21 of the 109 members of Parliament.

The party had 5 members in the 111-seat National Parliament of Papua New Guinea as of September 2019 and was part of the governing coalition of Prime Minister Peter O'Neill. Sir Julius Chan - Member for New Ireland Provincial Theodore Zurenuoc - Member for Finschhafen Open Ben Micah - Party leader and Member for Kavieng Open Michael Nali: Led the party while Chan was out of Parliament, he held various ministerial positions, including Deputy Prime Minister. He switched from his Mendi Open seat to contest the Southern Highlands Provincial electorate in the 2007 Elections but did not win. Dr Allan Marat: 2003–2004 - Minister of Trade. Left the party and joined the Melanesian Liberal Party. Andrew Baing: 2004–2006 - Minister of Fisheries. Dismissed from Parliament for wrong conduct. Facebook Page

Guilherme de Paula Lucrécio

Guilherme de Paula Lucrécio known as Guilherme de Paula or Guilherme, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays for Perak in the Malaysia Super League as a forward. Born in Brodósqui, he was considered as the best replacement in Selangor for Paulo Rangel who left the club for Terengganu, he was considered unworthy during the early part of the league before proving himself as the perfect choice by scoring many important goals for Selangor. He played once for Malaysia League XI selection against Tottenham Hotspur, failing to score in that match. In December 2019 De Paula has agreed to join Perak FA for Malaysia Super League 2020 season; as of 14 March 2020 Selangor FAMalaysia Cup Winner: 2015Kuala Lumpur FAPremier League Winner: 2017 Guilherme de Paula Lucrécio at Soccerway Guilherme de Paula Lucrécio at FootballDatabase.eu Guilherme de Paula Lucrécio at WorldFootball.net Guilherme at FC Milsami website Guilherme de Paula Lucrécio at Sambafoot Guilherme at divizianationala.com Guilherme at soccerpunter.com Guilherme at soccerstats247 Guilherme at etminanbrazil

Irene Monat Stern

Irene Monat Stern was a Polish-American artist who spent her working life in the United States. Known for her abstract paintings, her works have been displayed and collected across the United States. C.'s permanent collection. Stern was born in Poland in 1932, 7 years before the outbreak of World War II. After surviving the Holocaust, a 16-year-old Stern moved to Paris and to New York, where she met sculptor and future husband, Jan Peter Stern. While living in New York, Stern took art classes at the New York School for Social Research, the Museum of Modern Art, the Whitney Museum of American Art. In 1965 the Sterns moved across the United States and settled in Santa Monica, California, a relocation that would lead to their breakthroughs as artists; the couple exhibited together throughout their careers. Stern enjoyed early success in her watercolors, the techniques of which would influence her more prolific acrylic works. During the 1970s she exhibited extensively on the east and west coasts, her work drawing comparisons to that of contemporary Color Field artists Morris Louis and Helen Frankenthaler.

On the relationship between Stern and Morris, one critic wrote: "… technique is all they share. Louis' stains and pours follow the force of gravity, so that paint appears to be drawn by its own pull towards the periphery of the canvas. Stern, on the other hand, makes, it floats on white pristine canvas. It masses into rich areas with a spatial depth, it is forced onto the surface in many directions by an energy source beyond the paintings' edges." Stern is identified with pure abstract forms of semi-translucent color on unprimed canvases. Commentators have recurrently suggested her subject matter is floral, despite no affirmation of such from the artist. In 1974 Stern partook in the "Childe Hassam Purchase Award Exhibition" at the American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York, her first solo exhibition, Irene Monat Stern: Paintings, took place at The Downtown Gallery in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 1975. In 1981 the Hirschhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden acquired three of her large-scale paintings. Stern's painting activity declined in the 1980s as she became her husband's primary caregiver following his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.

In 2011 Stern contributed a chapter to the volume How We Survived– 52 Personal Stories by Child Survivors of the Holocaust. Stern is represented by New York City. Metropolitan Museum of Art Lecture Series, "Into the 60s – Modern Painting and Sculpture." Annual Invitational Group Exhibition, Esther-Robles Gallery, Los Angeles, August–September, 1973. Color'73, Brandt Library and Art Museum, California, January 7–26, 1973. Childe Hassam Purchase Award Exhibition, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York, 1974. Irene Monat Stern: Paintings, The Downtown Gallery, Hawaii, December 17, 1974 – January 3, 1975. Irene Monat Stern: Acrylic Paintings, Source Gallery, San Francisco, May 9-June 18, 1975. Jan Peter Stern and Irene Monat Stern, The 26th Street Gallery, Santa Monica, CA, February 1979. Additional Space Exposé IV, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, July 18- August 30, 1981. Irene Monat Stern and Jan Peter Stern, Park Avenue Atrium, New York, November-Spring, 1984. Irene Monat Stern, Hollis Taggart Galleries, New York, September 8-October 6, 2016.

Life Magazine, March 24, 1972, pg. 61–62. Wilson, William, "Seven Local Artists at Library Center," The Los Angeles Times, January 15, 1973, pg. 53. Raymond, Barry, "Joseph H. Lancor, AIA: Santa Fe Federal Savings & Loan, Del Mar Branch," Interiors, vol. 137, 1977, pg. 72. Dunham, Judith L. "Irene Monat Stern Paintings," Artweek, May 31, 1975. How This Artist Does Flowers is Worthy Of Your Attention, FineArtConnoisseur.com, September 15, 2016

Charles B. Thomsen

Charles Burton "Chuck" Thomsen FAIA FCMAA is an American architect, construction manager, corporate executive and educator. He is the son of Sunbeam Burton Thomsen. Thomsen grew up in Arkansas, he served in the Marine Corps, attended the University of Oklahoma, the University of Minnesota and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After graduation from MIT, Thomsen taught design and the history of modern art and architecture at Rice University School of Architecture. During his career, he was continually active in academic activities, he lectured annually at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. After retirement, he returned to teach a graduate seminar at Rice University, he served on the advisory boards of several architecture schools and speaks at colleges and universities. While teaching at Rice, Thomsen began applying computer technology to architecture. In 1964, as part of a research program for community planning funded by the Ford Foundation, Thomsen used a vacuum tube computer in the Rice electrical engineering department to analyze the need for community facilities in Chile.

Around this same time, he worked part-time for CRS. At CRS, Thomsen worked with John Harris to develop a computer program to optimize the income from high-rise office building construction; as one of the early practitioners in professional construction management and Fast-Track Construction, Thomsen developed many of the first computer applications for design and construction. When he joined CRS full-time in 1965, Thomsen’s first job was to investigate the use of computer technology in design and construction; as part of that investigation he developed a management information system, one of the first in the industry, for the company. Thomsen wrote what is thought to be the first computer-based construction-cost estimating system, he wrote subsequent programs for specification retrieval, elevator design and parametric estimating and led efforts to develop software to help master planning for college and university campuses. Throughout his career, Thomsen initiated the development of many computer-based management support and control systems for design and construction programs.

He guided development. As an executive with CRS and 3D/International, Thomsen worked on hundreds of projects in 20 countries in all three basic roles: designer, manager and at-risk constructor. After working two years in the CRS home office in Houston, he moved to New York to lead the CRS New York office. While there he led a study for the New York State University Construction Fund, named Fast Track; the study was credited with coining the term. During the mid-1960s, Thomsen was part of a small group of other professionals, including Louis N. Vic Maloof FAIA RIBA FCMAA and George Heery FAIA ROBA FCMAA, who met to develop Construction Management concepts. In 1971, CRS became the first architectural firm to be publicly held; the holding company created a subsidiary, one of the first companies formed to provide construction management services. Thomsen was appointed Chairman. In 1980, Thomsen was appointed Executive Vice President of the holding company and was made President and CEO in 1981. In 1982, after objecting to an acquisition, he was asked to resign.

He joined 3D/International as President and led that company as President or Chairman for 24 years. 3D/I provided architecture and construction management services and opened offices throughout the U. S. Mid East and Europe. Notable projects were the Pentagon Renovation, the renovation of the Utah State Capitol and the development plan for the Thurgood Marshall office building on Capitol Hill, he created and led 3D/I’s R&D group that did extensive research into the innovative practices of serial builders and public. The research provided a foundation for a book, Program Management and its major revision with Sid Sanders, Program Management 2.0. Fellow in the American Institute of Architects. Citation: “For innovation in Fast Track and sharing his methodology with others.” Fellow in the Construction Management Association of America. Citation: “Pioneer and Leader.” Chancellor, Construction Management Association of America College of Fellows Elected to the National Academy of Construction. Citation: “Pioneering leadership in program and construction management and development of information technology for the construction industry."

In 2019, Thomsen was selected for the Academy’s highest annual award, the Ted C. Kennedy Award for lifetime achievement. Thomsen, Chuck. AIA.