click links in text for more info


In the Bible, a scapegoat is an animal, ritually burdened with the sins of others, driven away. The concept first appears in Leviticus, in which a goat is designated to be cast into the desert to carry away the sins of the community. Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the live goat, confess over it all the iniquities of the people of Israel, all their transgressions, all their sins, putting them on the head of the goat, sending it away into the wilderness by means of someone designated for the task; the goat shall bear on itself all their iniquities to a barren region. Practices with some similarities to the scapegoat ritual appear in Ancient Greece and Ebla; the word "scapegoat" is an English translation of the Hebrew ‘ăzāzêl, which occurs in Leviticus 16:8: ונתן אהרן על שני השעירם גרלות גורל אחד ליהוה וגורל אחד לעזאזל And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats: one lot for the Lord, the other lot for Azazel. The Brown–Driver–Briggs Hebrew Lexicon gives la-azazel as a reduplicative intensive of the stem ‘-Z-L "remove", hence la-‘ăzāzêl, "for entire removal".

This reading is supported by the Greek Old Testament translation as "the sender away". The lexicographer Gesenius takes azazel to mean "averter", which he theorized was the name of a deity, to be appeased with the sacrifice of the goat. Alternatively, broadly contemporary with the Septuagint, the pseudepigraphical Book of Enoch may preserve Azazel as the name of a fallen angel, and Azazel taught men to make swords, knives, shields, breastplates, made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, bracelets, ornaments, the use of antimony, the beautifying of the eyelids, all kinds of costly stones, all colouring tinctures. Early English Christian Bible versions follow the translation of the Septuagint and Latin Vulgate, which interpret azazel as "the goat that departs". William Tyndale rendered the Latin as "scape goat" in his 1530 Bible; this translation was followed by subsequent versions up through the King James Version of the Bible in 1611: "And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats.

Several modern versions however either leave it as the proper noun Azazel, or footnote "for Azazel" as an alternative reading. Jewish sources in the Talmud give the etymology of azazel as a compound of az, strong or rough, el, that the goat was sent from the most rugged or strongest of mountains. From the Targums onwards the term azazel was seen by some rabbinical commentators as the name of a Hebrew demon, angelic force, or pagan deity; the two readings are still disputed today. The scapegoat was a goat, designated la-'aza'zeyl. Once a year, on Yom Kippur, the Cohen Gadol sacrificed a bull as a sin offering to atone for sins he may have committed unintentionally throughout the year. Subsequently he presented them at the door of the tabernacle. Two goats were chosen by lot: one to be "for YHWH", offered as a blood sacrifice, the other to be the scapegoat to be sent away into the wilderness; the blood of the slain goat was taken into the Holy of Holies behind the sacred veil and sprinkled on the mercy seat, the lid of the ark of the covenant.

In the ceremonies of the day, the High Priest confessed the intentional sins of the Israelites to God placing them figuratively on the head of the other goat, the Azazel scapegoat, who would symbolically "take them away". In Christianity, this process prefigures the sacrifice of Christ on the cross through which God has been propitiated and sins can be expiated. Jesus Christ is seen to have fulfilled all of the biblical "types"—the High Priest who officiates at the ceremony, the Lord's goat that deals with the pollution of sin and the scapegoat that removes the "burden of sin". Christians believe that sinners who own their guilt and confess their sins, exercising faith and trust in the person and sacrifice of Jesus, are forgiven of their sins. Since the second goat was sent away to perish, the word "scapegoat" has developed to indicate a person, blamed and punished for the sins of others. A concept superficially similar to the biblical scapegoat is attested in two ritual texts in archives at Ebla of the 24th century BC.

They were connected with ritual purification on the occasion of the king's wedding. In them, a she-goat with a silver bracelet hung from her neck was driven forth into the wasteland of "Alini"; such "elimination rites", in which an animal, without confession of sins, is the vehicle of evils that are chased from the community are attested in the Ancient Near East. Ancient Greeks practiced scapegoating rituals in exceptional times based on the belief that the repudiation of one or two individuals would save the whole community. Scapegoating was practiced with different rituals across ancient Greece for different reasons but was used during extraordinary circumstances such as famine, drought, or plague; the scapegoat would be an individual of lower society such as a criminal, slave, or poor person and was referred to as the pharmakos, katharma or peripsima. There is a dichotomy, however, in the individuals used as scapegoats in mythical tales

A Princess of Kensington

A Princess of Kensington is an English comic opera in two acts by Edward German to a libretto by Basil Hood, produced by William Greet. The first performance was at the Savoy Theatre, London, on 22 January 1903 and ran for 115 performances; the opera was the last new work produced by the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company at the Savoy Theatre, is therefore considered by some to be the last Savoy opera. The original cast included a number of the famous Savoyards, including Louie Pounds, Robert Evett, Walter Passmore, Henry Lytton, Rosina Brandram. After the original run at the Savoy, the show toured. After that tour, the cast joined the new musical, The Earl and the Girl; the piece was given a Broadway production from August to October 1903. Following the successes of their earlier comic operas, The Emerald Isle and Merrie England, Basil Hood and Edward German collaborated once more. Despite a good reception from critics and Savoy opera devotees, the opera achieved a run of only 115 performances, owing to its dense plot and unwieldy libretto, to the continued decline of comic operas in favour of George Edwardes-style musical comedies as the London theatregoing public's choice entertainment.

Despite its relative failure compared to the other Savoy operas, A Princess of Kensington became popular enough to be one of the first operas to have original cast recordings of selections made during the original run. The recordings themselves were popular enough that a 1907 silent film of one of the songs, "Four Jolly Sailor Boys", was produced to be played synchronized to the recording; the fairy backstory of the plot is derived from a poem by Thomas Tickell entitled Kensington Garden, featuring the history of the characters Albion, Azuriel and Oberon. Sir James Jellicoe, a Rich Banker – Arthur Boielle Brook Green, his Junior Clerk – Robert Evett Puck, the Imp of Mischief – Walter Passmore William Jelf, a Sailor from H. M. S. "Albion" – Henry Lytton Bill Blake, Will Weatherly, Jem Johnson, Sailors from H. M. S. "Albion" – Powis Pinder, R. Lewis and C. Childerstone Yapp, a Policeman – M. R. Morand Mr. Reddish, Proprietor of "The Jolly Tar," Winklemouth – R. Crompton Old Ben and James Doubleday, Fishermen – George Mudie, Jr. and E. Bryan Recruiting Sergeant, Royal Marines – Percival Stevens Oberon, King of FairiesAlec Fraser Azuriel, a Mountain Spirit – Ernest Torrence Zepherus, a fairy – Joy, Sir James Jellicoe’s Daughter – Louie Pounds Nell Reddish, Mr. Reddish’s Niece – Rosina Brandram Titania, Queen of Fairies – Olive Rae ButterflyWinifred Hart-Dyke Dragonfly – Lily Bircham Peaseblossom – Constance Drever Jem Johnson, a jolly fisherman - Rudolph Lewis CobwebMoth – Mustardseed – Lady Jellicoe, Wife of Sir James – Cora Lingard Kenna, Oberon’s Daughter – Agnes Fraser Chorus of Fairies and Fishergirls, Red Marines, etc.

Act I – Kensington Gardens – Morning Act II – Winklemouth-on-Sea – AfternoonThe fairy prince, has been suffering from jealousy for a thousand years over the love shared by the lovely fairy Kenna and the mortal Prince Albion. Although Albion is dead, the mischievous Puck has encouraged Azuriel's jealousy through the centuries. Puck, claims that he taught Kenna a spell to awaken Albion after a thousand years. Azuriel's jealousy is inflamed at the thought that his rival might soon reawaken, he demands that Albion be promptly married off to a mortal maiden. To calm the angry fairy prince and Kenna have to produce a false Albion and a false wedding. For their false Albion they choose a sailor, William Jelf, from the H. M. S. Albion. Jelf's cap conveniently bears the name "Albion". To provide a bride, Puck sees an opportunity in the appearance of two young lovers, Lieutenant Brook Green and Joy Jellicoe. Puck disguises himself as Joy's father, he revokes Sir James's acceptance of Lt. Green as a husband for his daughter and encourages Jelf to woo the astonished Joy.

An alehouse owner, Mr. Reddish, arrives with his daughter Nell, to whom Jelf is engaged. Reddish is anxious to get Nell off his hands as she is a prohibitionist reformer and has turned his pub into a coffee house, to the disgust of Mr. Reddish's cronies, one of whom happens to be Jelf's uncle. Reddish hopes to marry Nell to Jelf. Reddish and Nell are unhappy with the state of affairs. After additional complications, Azuriel is convinced that Albion is dead, the fairies can return to fairyland, where peace is restored. Joy can marry her lieutenant, Nell decides to marry Jelf's uncle, her father's friend, who she believes needs the benefits of her reforms. William Jelf goes back to sea, a relieved bachelor. Act ISolo – Peaseblossom. "Come, Fairies!" and Female Chorus "'Tis Midsummer Day" Chorus – "From where the Scotch mountains" Duet – Oberon and Titania. "Mortal King may ride Chorus -- Puck. "If we pass beyond the portals" Duet – Brook and Joy. "Seven o'clock in the morning" Sextet – Joy, Lady Jellicoe, Brook and Azuriel.

"Who that knows how I love you, love" Quartette – Jelf, Weatherly and Blake. "We're four jolly sailormen" Song – Nell. "Oh, what is woman's duty?" Chorus – "We're butchers and bakers and candlestick makers" Tarantelle – Butterfly. Song – Kenna. "Twin butterflies" Song – Brook and Chorus. "Now, here's to the'Prentices" Song – Jelf. "A sailor man's the sort of man" Trio – Joy and Puck. "If love in a cottage be all that they tell" Act I Finale (including Song – Jelf. "A bache

List of megaprojects in India

− This is a list of megaprojects in India. "Megaprojects are temporary endeavours characterized by: large investment commitment, vast complexity, long-lasting impact on the economy, the environment, society". A list of projects under various stages of planning and implementation can be found at India Investment Grid, a government of India platform that showcases a plethora of investment opportunities across India. Amaravati Agra Lucknow Expressway Banihal Qazigund Road Tunnel Bharatmala Costal Road Project Char Dham Highway Char Dham Railways Chenab Bridge Chennai Bangalore Industrial Corridor Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project Dholera Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor East West Gas Pipeline Ganga Expressway Gujarat International Finance Tec-City Inland waterways of India International North–South Transport Corridor Jewar Airport Kacchi Dargah–Bidupur Bridge Kalpasar Project Mumbai Trans Harbour Link Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor Navi Mumbai International Airport Sagar Mala project Setu Bharatam SmartCity, Kochi Viraat Ramayan Mandir Vizhinjam International Seaport Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir List of megaprojects List of megaprojects in Russia

Rubina Ali

Rubina Ali known as Rubina Qureshi, is an Indian child actress who played the child version of Latika in the Oscar-winning film Slumdog Millionaire, for which she won a Screen Actors Guild Award. Following the film's success, she was cast in the Bollywood film Kal Kisne Dekha. Like her on-screen character, Rubina came from one of the slums of Mumbai, living in the Garib Nagar slum near Bandra station, she lives with her sister Sana, her brother Abbas and her stepmother Munni. Rubina's biological mother, after divorcing Rafiq, married Monish, a Hindu, her father married Rubina was raised by her father and stepmother. Munni has four children from her past marriage – Suraiya, Sanjida and Irfan. Following the success of Slumdog Millionaire at the 2009 Academy Awards, the Maharashtra Housing Area Development Authority recommended the children be rehoused, with an official saying the children had "brought laurels to the country" and deserved to be rewarded. On 25 February 2009, the Maharashtra Housing and Development Authority announced that Azharuddin as well as Rubina would be given "free houses" so that they would no longer have to live in the Mumbai slum of Garib Nagar.

However Ali remained in a shanty in Garib Nagar until it burned down in March 2011. After taking temporary refuge in rental and her family were rehoused in her own flat in the Bandra West suburb of Mumbai, bought for her by the Jai Ho Trust set up by British director Danny Boyle. Critics have claimed Rubina and her co-star Azharuddin Mohammed Ismail had been underpaid for their part in the film; this has been disputed by the film's producer, who says the actors had been paid the equivalent of a monthly salary payment for the production company's senior staff in Britain. A trust fund has been set up for the children which will be released to them when they turn eighteen, provided they continue in education until this time. Both Azharuddin and Rubina attended the 81st Academy Awards on 22 February 2009, along with all of the other actors who played Salim and Latika. Azharuddin was accompanied by his mother Shameem Ismail; this was her first journey outside of Mumbai. In March 2009, Rubina was cast in the Bollywood film Kal Kisne Dekha, alongside her Slumdog Millionaire co-star Azharuddin Mohammed Ismail.

The film is being directed by Vivek Sharma and will feature the Bollywood stars Shah Rukh Khan, Rishi Kapoor and Juhi Chawla in cameo roles. In July 2009, 9-year-old Rubina wrote an autobiography called Slumgirl Dreaming detailing her life so far and her experience filming Slumdog Millionaire, making her the youngest person to pen a memoir. In 2009 Ali announced that she would be starring in the romantic comedy Lord Owen's Lady alongside Anthony Hopkins, but as of 2013 the film has not commenced filming. According to the United Kingdom newspaper, The Daily Telegraph, Rubina Ali was paid £500 during filming for a month’s work on the film. A Fox Searchlight spokesman responded that for their one-month work on the film, she was paid three times the amount of an average annual salary for an adult living in their neighborhood. On 26 January 2009, Danny Boyle and Christian Colson released a written statement saying that they had “paid painstaking and considered attention to how Azhar and Rubina’s involvement in the film could be of lasting benefit to them over and above the payment they received for their work”.

Boyle and Colson have stated that they have "set up trust funds for Rubina and Azharuddin and paid for their education," although the exact amount of the trust funds is not known. This has been met with criticism as there is question as to how children growing up in the slums have any expectation of being able to attend higher education, making the trust fund useless. Boyle has explained that, "We don't want to reveal exact figures about what's in the trust fund, what's in the bank account for them for when they leave school because it will make them vulnerable and a target but it is substantial, they will gain benefit from the film long after the film has disappeared and long after the media who are chasing them at the moment sadly have lost interest in the film and that's been our approach throughout and I think it's the right approach." Won 2009: Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture for Slumdog MillionaireNominated 2008: Black Reel Awards of 2008Best Ensemble for Slumdog Millionaire

Paralucia aurifer

The bright copper is a butterfly belonging to the family Lycaenidae. The bright copper was first described by Émile Blanchard in 1848; the adult bright copper has a wingspan of 25 millimetres. The flight season is from December to January; the wings are dull brown on top with gold-orange triangles in the middle of each wing. It is found in eastern Australia including New South Wales, eastern Queensland, Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory; the bright copper and the ant species Anonychomyrma nitidiceps form a complex symbiotic relationship on Bursaria spinosa. Butterflies lay their eggs on the underside of the leaves, the caterpillars feed on the leaves before pupating in the soil at the foot of the plant; the ants excavate chambers in the soil where the caterpillars sleep and pupate, accompany the caterpillars when the latter are feeding. They are thought to feed on the caterpillars' secretions. List of butterflies of Tasmania