American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. The AIA works with members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry. The AIA is currently headed by Robert Ivy, FAIA as EVP/Chief Executive Officer and Thomas V. Vonier, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president. They met on February 23,1857 and decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect and they drafted a constitution and bylaws by March 10,1857, under the name New York Society of Architects. Walter, of Philadelphia, suggested the name be changed to American Institute of Architects, the members signed the new constitution on April 15,1857, having filed a certificate of incorporation two days earlier. As of 2008, AIA has more than 300 chapters, the AIA is headquartered at 1735 New York Avenue, NW in Washington, D. C.
A design competition was held in the mid-1960s to select an architect for a new AIA headquarters in Washington, mitchell/Giurgola won the design competition but failed to get approval of the design concept from the United States Commission of Fine Arts. The firm resigned the commission and helped select The Architects Collaborative to redesign the building, the design, led by TAC principals Norman Fletcher and Howard Elkus, was ultimately approved in 1970 and completed in 1973. More than 90,000 licensed architects and associated professionals are members, AIA members adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct intended to assure clients, the public, and colleagues of an architects dedication to the highest standards in professional practice. There are five levels of membership in the AIA, Architect members are licensed to practice architecture in the United States, international associate members hold an architecture license or the equivalent from a licensing authority outside the United States.
Emeritus members have been AIA members for 15 successive years and are at least 65 years of age or are incapacitated, allied membership is a partnership with the AIA and the American Architectural Foundation. The AIA’s most prestigious honor is the designation of a member as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects and this membership is awarded to members who have made contributions of national significance to the profession. Slightly more than 2,600, or 2% of all members, have elevated to the AIA College of Fellows. Foreign architects of prominence may be elected to the College as Honorary Fellows of the AIA, the AIA is governed by a Board of Directors and has a staff of over 200 full-time employees. Although the AIA functions as an organization, at its heart are some 300 local. The components are spread throughout the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, by speaking with a united voice, AIA architects influence government practices that affect the practice of the profession and the quality of American life.
The AIA monitors legislative and regulatory actions and uses the power of its membership to participate in decisionmaking by federal, state
William Tecumseh Sherman
William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman and author. Sherman began his Civil War career serving in the First Battle of Bull Run and he served under General Ulysses S. In 1864, Sherman succeeded Grant as the Union commander in the Western Theater of the war and he proceeded to lead his troops to the capture of the city of Atlanta, a military success that contributed to the re-election of Abraham Lincoln. Shermans subsequent march through Georgia and the Carolinas further undermined the Confederacys ability to continue fighting and he accepted the surrender of all the Confederate armies in the Carolinas and Florida in April 1865, after having been present at most major military engagements in the Western Theater. When Grant assumed the U. S. presidency in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as Commanding General of the Army, as such, he was responsible for the U. S. Armys engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years. Sherman advocated total war against hostile Indians to force them back onto their reservations and he steadfastly refused to be drawn into politics and in 1875 published his Memoirs, one of the best-known first-hand accounts of the Civil War.
British military historian B. H. Liddell Hart famously declared that Sherman was the first modern general, Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, near the banks of the Hocking River. His father Charles Robert Sherman, a lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Court. He left his widow, Mary Hoyt Sherman, with eleven children, Sherman was distantly related to American founding father Roger Sherman and grew to admire him. Shermans older brother Charles Taylor Sherman became a federal judge, one of his younger brothers, John Sherman, served as a U. S. senator and Cabinet secretary. Another younger brother, Hoyt Sherman, was a successful banker, Sherman would marry his foster sister, Ellen Boyle Ewing, at age 30 and have eight children with her. Shermans unusual given name has attracted considerable attention. Sherman reported that his name came from his father having caught a fancy for the great chief of the Shawnees. Since an account in a 1932 biography about Sherman, it has often reported that, as an infant.
According to these accounts, Sherman only acquired the name William at age nine or ten and his foster mother, Maria Willis Boyle, was of Irish ancestry and a devout Roman Catholic. Sherman was raised in a Roman Catholic household, though he left the church. Sherman wrote in his Memoirs that his father named him William Tecumseh, Sherman was baptized by a Presbyterian minister as an infant, as an adult, Sherman signed all his correspondence – including to his wife – W. T. Sherman. His friends and family called him Cump
Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Arch
The Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Arch is a notable memorial to the American Civil War located in Hartford, Connecticut. It was the first permanent triumphal arch in America, and honors the 4,000 Hartford citizens who served in the war, the archs first conception dates from October 21,1879, when a committee was formed, with a competition sponsored in 1881. Commission was eventually given to architect George Keller and it was dedicated on September 17,1886. The tower statues were carved by Swiss-born sculptor Albert Entress, when the arch was rehabilitated in 1986–1988, its original terra cotta finial angels were replaced by the current bronze angels. The arch is made of brownstone from Portland, Connecticut, in Gothic Revival style, the south frieze, by Caspar Buberl, tells the story of peace, with a central female allegorical figure representing the City of Hartford, surrounded by her citizens welcoming soldiers home. Both were fabricated by the Boston Terra Cotta Company, spandrel symbols identify the four military services, the anchor for the Navy, the crossed cannon for the Artillery, crossed sabers for the Cavalry, and crossed rifles for the Infantry.
Six sculptural figures, each 8 feet tall, adorn the towers - a farmer, mason, carpenter, each tower is topped by a bronze angel, one playing a trumpet, the other cymbals. The ashes of architect Keller and his wife Mary are interred in the tower, Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museum
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. He was the first and to date only President in American history to serve two terms in office. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation and his crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance, and he fought political corruption and bossism. As a reformer Cleveland had such prestige that the wing of the Republican Party, called Mugwumps, largely bolted the GOP presidential ticket. As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a national depression. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian, the result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era.
Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, and he drew corresponding criticism, critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nations economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. Even so, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term, biographer Allan Nevins wrote, n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities. He had no endowments that thousands of men do not have and he possessed honesty, firmness and common sense. But he possessed them to a degree other men do not, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader, generally ranked among the second tier of American presidents. Stephen Grover Cleveland was born on March 18,1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey to Richard Falley Cleveland, Clevelands father was a Presbyterian minister who was originally from Connecticut. His mother was from Baltimore and was the daughter of a bookseller, on his fathers side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first of the family having emigrated to Massachusetts from Cleveland, England in 1635.
On his mothers side, he was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and he was distantly related to General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city of Cleveland, was named. Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell and he became known as Grover in his adult life. In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, neighbors described him as full of fun and inclined to play pranks, and fond of outdoor sports. In 1850, Clevelands father took a pastorate in Clinton, Oneida County, New York, despite his fathers dedication to his missionary work, the income was insufficient for the large family. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a mercantile apprenticeship in Fayetteville
A quadriga is a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast. It was raced in the Ancient Olympic Games and other contests and it is represented in profile as the chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and in bas-relief. The quadriga was adopted in ancient Roman chariot racing, quadrigas were emblems of triumph and Fame often are depicted as the triumphant woman driving it. In classical mythology, the quadriga is the chariot of the gods, Apollo was depicted driving his quadriga across the heavens, delivering daylight, the word quadriga may refer to the chariot alone, the four horses without it, or the combination. Originally erected in the Hippodrome of Constantinople, possibly on a triumphal arch, venetian Crusaders looted these sculptures in the Fourth Crusade and placed them on the terrace of St Marks Basilica. In 1797, Napoleon carried the quadriga off to Paris, due to the effects of atmospheric pollution, the original quadriga was retired to a museum and replaced with a replica in the 1980s.
Located atop the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany, it was seized by Napoleon during his occupation of Berlin in 1806 and it was returned to Berlin by Field Marshal Gebhard von Blücher in 1814. Her olive wreath was subsequently supplemented with an Iron Cross, the iron cross was restored after German reunification in 1990. C.1815 - The Carrousel quadriga is situated atop the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel in Paris, the arch itself was built to commemorate the victories of Napoleon, but the quadriga was sculpted by Baron François Joseph Bosio to commemorate the Restoration of the Bourbons. The Restoration is represented by an allegorical goddess driving a quadriga, two winged Victory figures, each leading a horse, trumpet Columbias arrival. The sculptor was Frederick William MacMonnies and it was sculpted by Daniel Chester French and Edward Clark Potter. 1911-35 - The Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II in Rome, Italy features two statues of goddess Victoria riding on quadrigas,1912 - The Wellington Arch Quadriga is situated atop the Wellington Arch in London, England.
It was designed by Adrian Jones, the sculpture shows a small boy leading the quadriga, with Peace descending upon it from heaven. 1919-23 - The former Banco di Bilbao headquarters at no.16 Calle de Alcalá in Madrid, now part of Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, the building was designed by Ricardo Bastida, with the sculptor of the chariot Higinio Basterras, and other sculptures by Quentin de la Torre. The charioteers are helmeted men standing on the handrails of the chariots, height to plinth, about 87 feet. 2002 - The Grand Theatre, Warsaw features a quadriga reflecting the original Antonio Corazzis 1833 plans for the building, horses of Saint Mark in Venice, remnants of a quadriga of Constantinople taken by Enrico Dandolo. Trigarium Troika Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Quadriga, university of Chicago Quadriga Berlin. de, Brandenburger Tor, Pariser Platz, Quadriga
Prospect Park (Brooklyn)
Prospect Park is a 585-acre public park in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, and the largest public park in Brooklyn. The park is situated between the neighborhoods of Park Slope, Prospect Lefferts Gardens, Ditmas Park and Windsor Terrace, as well as Flatbush Avenue, Grand Army Plaza, Prospect Park is run and operated by the Prospect Park Alliance and New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. It is part of the Brooklyn-Queens Greenway, Prospect Park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux after their completion of Manhattans Central Park. There is a private Society of Friends cemetery on Quaker Hill near the ball fields, the area was originally forested, but became open pasture after two centuries of European colonization. Significant stands of trees remained only in the peat bogs centered south of Ninth Street and Flatbush Avenues, and in a large bog north of Ninth Avenue and contained chestnut, white poplar, and oak. Some of these stands were preserved in the Parks Ravine and have been popularized as The Last Forest of Brooklyn, during the American Revolution the Park was a site of the Battle of Long Island.
American forces attempted to hold Battle Pass, an opening in the terminal moraine where the old Flatbush Road passed from Brooklyn to Flatbush and it fell after some of the heaviest fighting in the engagement, and its loss contributed to George Washingtons decision to retreat. Even though the Continental Army lost the battle, they were able to hold the British back long enough for Washingtons army to escape to Manhattan, there are plaques north of the zoo that honor this event. The City of Brooklyn built a reservoir on Prospect Hill in 1856, preserving the Battle Pass area and keeping the lots around the reservoir free of buildings were two reasons for establishing a large park in the area. This was due to Brooklyn becoming the worlds first commuter suburb, during this time, concepts concerning public parks gained popularity. In 1858 Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux created Central Park in Manhattan and it became the first landscaped park in the United States. He believed that a park would attract wealthy residents.
Of the seven sites mentioned in their February,1860 proposal, by the end of 1860, land had been purchased for Vieles plan, but the Civil War stopped further activity. Vaux included a plaza at the northern end of the park. It would be incorporated as Mount Prospect Park in 1940, the change in plans was not without consequences. The lots, constitute just over five percent of the parks acreage, much of this very expensive acreage houses the maintenance yards and is rarely seen by the public. Despite the repercussions of Vauxs revisions, Stranahan championed the plan, Vaux recruited Olmsted and formally presented their proposal in January 1866 and it was accepted in May, with work commencing in June. The park commissioners opened the park to the public on October 19,1867, work continued for another six years until it was substantially complete in 1873, though certain facets of the original design were never undertaken
William Robert Ware
William Robert Ware, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts into a family of the Unitarian clergy, was an American architect and founder of two important American architectural schools. He received his own professional education at Milton Academy, Harvard College, in 1859, he began working for Richard Morris Hunt, the founder of the first American architectural school and the AIA. Soon afterward Ware formed a partnership with the civil engineer Edward S. Philbrick and Ware, in 1864, Ware partnered with fellow Harvard graduate Henry Van Brunt to form Ware & Van Brunt. In 1865, Ware became the first professor of architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and he retired in 1903 in poor health
Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted was an American landscape architect, social critic, and public administrator. He is popularly considered to be the father of American landscape architecture, in Washington, D. C. he worked on the landscape surrounding the United States Capitol building. The quality of Olmsteds landscape architecture was recognized by his contemporaries and his work, especially in Central Park in New York City, set a standard of excellence that continues to influence landscape architecture in the United States. Olmsted was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on April 26,1822 and his father, John Olmsted, was a prosperous merchant who took a lively interest in nature and places, Frederick Law and his younger brother, John Hull, showed this interest. His mother, Charlotte Law Olmsted, died before his fourth birthday and his father remarried in 1827 to Mary Ann Bull, who shared her husbands strong love of nature and had perhaps a more cultivated taste. When the young Olmsted was almost ready to enter Yale College, after working as an apprentice seaman and journalist, Olmsted settled on a 125-acre farm in January 1848 on the south shore of Staten Island NY, which his father helped him acquire.
This farm, originally named the Akerly Homestead, was renamed Tosomock Farm by Olmsted and it was renamed The Woods of Arden by owner Erastus Wiman. On June 13,1859, Olmsted married Mary Cleveland Olmsted, Daniel Fawcett Tiemann, the mayor of New York, officiated the wedding. He adopted her three children, John Charles Olmsted, Charlotte Olmsted and Owen Olmsted and Mary had two children together who survived infancy, a daughter, Marion and a son Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. Their first child, John Theodore Olmsted, was born on June 13,1860, Olmsted had a significant career in journalism. In 1850 he traveled to England to visit gardens, where he was greatly impressed by Joseph Paxtons Birkenhead Park. He subsequently wrote and published Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England in 1852 and this supported his getting additional work. Interested in the economy, he was commissioned by the New York Daily Times to embark on an extensive research journey through the American South. His dispatches to the Times were collected into three volumes which remain vivid first-person social documents of the pre-war South.
A one-volume abridgment and Explorations in the Cotton Kingdom, was published during the first six months of the American Civil War at the suggestion of Olmsteds English publisher. To this he wrote a new introduction in which he stated explicitly his views on the effect of slavery on the economy and my own observation of the real condition of the people of our Slave States, gave me. He argued that slavery had made the slave states inefficient and backward both economically and socially, the citizens of the cotton States, as a whole, are poor. They work little, and that little, they earn little, they sell little, they buy little and their destitution is not material only, it is intellectual and it is moral
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War,1861 to 1865. It included the permanent regular army of the United States, which was augmented by numbers of temporary units consisting of volunteers as well as conscripts. The Union Army fought and eventually defeated the Confederate Army during the war, at least two and a half million men served in the Union Army, almost all were volunteers. About 360,000 Union soldiers died from all causes,280,000 were wounded and 200,000 deserted. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U. S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, Lincolns call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. The war proved to be longer and more extensive than anyone North or South had expected, the call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners and even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals.
Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincolns call, as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Nevertheless, between April 1861 and April 1865, at least two and a million men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers. It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army. At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S, Military Academy on the active list, of these,296 resigned or were dismissed, and 184 of those became Confederate officers. Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were civilians,400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283, the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers.
The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically, Military Division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the modern term Theater, and were modeled close to, though not synonymous with. Department An organization that covered a region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein. Those named for states usually referred to Southern states that had been occupied and it was more common to name departments for rivers or regions. District A subdivision of a Department, there were Subdistricts for smaller regions