Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan. The word anime is the Japanese term for animation. Outside Japan, anime refers to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes; the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners view anime as a Japanese animation product; some scholars suggest defining anime as or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily; the characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, over the Internet.
It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies, it consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining graphic art, characterization and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes; the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation.
Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming; this rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans. Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated cartoon television shows, as of 2016. Anime is an art form animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre. In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan"; the etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English, which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé, with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest; some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé, but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation. In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.
The word anime has been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought; the first format of anime was theatrical viewing which began with commercial productions in 1917. The animated flips were crude and required played musical components before adding sound and vocal components to the production. On July 14, 1958, Nippon Television aired Mogura no Abanchūru, both the first televised and first color anime to debut, it wasn't until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "original video animation" or "original animation video".
The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called "original net anime". The home distribution of anime releases were
Cité Soleil is an impoverished and densely populated commune located in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area in Haiti. Cité Soleil developed as a shanty town and grew to an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 residents, the majority of whom live in extreme poverty; the area is regarded as one of the poorest and most dangerous areas of the Western Hemisphere and it is one of the biggest slums in the Northern Hemisphere. The area has no sewers and has a poorly maintained open canal system that serves as its sewage system, few formal businesses but many local commercial activities and enterprises, sporadic but free electricity, a few hospitals, two government schools, Lycee Nationale de Cite Soleil, Ecole Nationale de Cite Soleil. For several years until 2007, the area was ruled by a number of gangs, each controlling their own sectors, but government control was reestablished after a series of operations in early 2007 by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti with the participation of the local population.
The neighborhood is located at the western end of the runway of Toussaint Louverture International Airport and adjoins the grounds of the former Hasco Haitian American sugar complex. It began with the construction in 1958 of homes for 52 families. In the summer of 1966, a mysterious fire in the slum of La Saline displaced many of its residents. 1,197 homes were built there and it was named Cité Simone, after Haiti's First Lady Simone Ovide Duvalier. In 1972, a major fire near the central market of Port-au-Prince displaced yet more people who ended up in the Boston section of Cité Simone. In 1983, the census recorded 82,191 people in Cité Simone. Designed to house sugar workers, Cité Simone housed manual laborers for a local Export Processing Zone. Neoliberal reforms beginning in the early 1970s made this place a magnet for squatters from around the countryside looking for work in the newly constructed factories; this movement accelerated in the early 1980s with the destruction of the Creole pigs by American order in response to an African swine flu outbreak, followed by the rise of Finance Minister Leslie Delatour who took this post following the ouster of Jean-Claude Duvalier in 1986.
Delatour advocated the depopulation of much of the Haitian countryside and that these people work instead in cities, living in places such as the newly named Cité Soleil, though not for Hasco that Delatour shut down in 1987. This industrial sector was however damaged following the 1991 coup d'état that deposed President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, causing a boycott of Haitian products that closed the EPZ. Cité Soleil continued to be plagued by extreme poverty and persistent unemployment, with high rates of illiteracy. Half of the houses of Cité Soleil are made of cement with a metal roof, half are made of scavenged material. An estimated 60 to 70% of houses have no access to a latrine in the marshy Brooklyn area which includes Cité Carton. Armed gangs terrorized the neighborhood; every few blocks was controlled by one of more than 30 armed factions. Though the gangs no longer rule, rape, kidnapping and shootings are still common; the area has been called a "microcosm of all the ills in Haitian society: endemic unemployment, non-existent public services, unsanitary conditions, widespread crime and armed violence".
After the devastating 2010 earthquake, it took nearly two weeks for relief aid to arrive in Cité-Soleil. Most of the residents of Cité-Soleil are young adults; the mortality rate is high from violence. At times Cité Soleil has been filled with armed gangs. Politically affiliated gangs or militias with quasi-official powers, have been a regular element of Haitian politics throughout the country's history; the fighting led to wide scale charges by neighborhood residents that the United Nations stabilizing force has permitted conditions that led to the death of unarmed bystanders. In 2004 they were accused of ignoring violence by the Haitian police, the criminal roots of the kidnapping and undermining of president Jean Bertrand Aristide's security police force. During the mid-1990s, the city's population was terrorized by armed gangs which drove the local police out. In 1999, Cité Soleil was set on fire by a gang and at least 50 shacks were burned. By 2002, the violence escalated as the gangs began warring with each other in addition to preying on ordinary people.
Many inhabitants had temporarily left to escape the turmoil. In a series of operations from 2004 to 2007, UN peacekeepers tried to seize control from the gangs in Cité Soleil and end the chaos. Although the United Nations Stabilization Mission has been deployed since 2004, it continues to struggle for control over the armed gangs and the violent confrontations continue. MINUSTAH maintains an armed checkpoint at the entrance to Cité Soleil and the road is blocked with armed vehicles. In December 2004, a group of armed ex-soldiers occupied Aristide's home against the wishes of the Haitian government. In January 2006, two Jordanian peacekeepers were killed in Cité Soleil; the UN has described the human rights situation in Haiti as "catastrophic". The United Nations Stabilization Mission has been in Haiti since 2004, it now continues to struggle for control over the armed gangs. In October 2006, a group of armed Haitian police were able to enter Cité Soleil for the first time in three years and were able to remain one hour as armored UN troops patrolled the area.
Since this is where the armed gangs take their kidnap victims, the Haitian police's a
Crusader of Centy
Crusader of Centy is an action-adventure game, released on the Genesis/Mega Drive. The story centers on Corona, a boy who has just turned 14 years of age and must inherit his late father's sword to fight the monsters that threaten the human race's existence. Gameplay uses an overhead perspective and focuses on exploring, battling enemies with a sword, solving puzzles; as the story progresses, numerous animals aid him. They are used in gameplay like weapons or tools, which grant passage to inaccessible areas. In Soleil Town, a law requires that all 14-year-old boys go to prepare for battle; the game's hero, has just turned fourteen at the beginning of the game. As such, Corona receives the sword and shield of his father, who died in battle and had a great reputation for his bravery in defending the city; the story is divided into two parts. Corona must first take time to discover his unlock the various levels that make it up, he can access them at his leisure. During this half of the game, Corona will not have the ability to speak to humans, but only to animals and plants.
Only after beating the dragon beast, will the second half of the game begin: Corona has recovered the ability to talk to humans and he will travel through time to build a better world and understand why the monsters are at war with humanity. Is it the monsters who are the barbarians of the world? Early in the game, Corona finds himself losing his ability to speak to fellow humans, instead gaining the ability to speak to animals; some of them will join him, lending Corona their abilities while they're "equipped". Each animal has its own special technique; the first animal the player gets is Corona's pet dog, Mac, or Johnny. He can hold enemies down for Corona to attack; the player gets a penguin, named Chilly, or Penguy, which will power up Corona's sword with an ice-attack. A total of 16 animals can be obtained. Scary Larry of GamePro viewed the game as the Genesis's answer to The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past, remarked that "While Zelda had tons of hidden surprises and fearsome bosses, Crusader of Centy has a too-familiar story line, minor enemies, a serious shortage of puzzles."
He nonetheless concluded that though Crusader of Centy would bore the average RPG gamer, it appeals to its young target audience. The four reviewers of Electronic Gaming Monthly contended that the game is a worthy Zelda clone, with Ed Semrad and Sushi-X going so far as to say it is good as the Zelda series, they identified the story and Zelda-like play mechanics as the game's strongest points, gave the game a 7.75 out of 10. Next Generation reviewed the Genesis version of the game, rating it three stars out of five, stated that "Centy is a mirror image of the immensely popular Zelda, is a load of fun that Genesis owners have yet to experience." Crusader of Centy at MobyGames RPGClassics Shrine
Mont Soleil is a mountain of the Jura Mountains, located north of Saint-Imier in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. The summit reaches to 1,291 metres and the area can be accessed by a funicular from Saint-Imier, reaching a height of 1,180 m. An observatory is located on the summit as well as several wind turbines and a solar park: the former with their presence, the highest is 150 m high, noise introduced a heavy element of disturbance in the landscape. List of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Mont Soleil on Hikr Funiculaire Saint-Imier-Mont-Soleil
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process, it is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, or 109 times that of Earth, its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth. It accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. Three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen; the Sun is a G-type main-sequence star based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally and not accurately referred to as a yellow dwarf, it formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System; the central mass became so hot and dense that it initiated nuclear fusion in its core. It is thought that all stars form by this process.
The Sun is middle-aged. It fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result; this energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape from its core, is the source of the Sun's light and heat. In about 5 billion years, when hydrogen fusion in its core has diminished to the point at which the Sun is no longer in hydrostatic equilibrium, its core will undergo a marked increase in density and temperature while its outer layers expand to become a red giant, it is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, render Earth uninhabitable. After this, it will shed its outer layers and become a dense type of cooling star known as a white dwarf, no longer produce energy by fusion, but still glow and give off heat from its previous fusion; the enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, the Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity.
The synodic rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of solar calendars, one of, the predominant calendar in use today. The English proper name Sun may be related to south. Cognates to English sun appear in other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian sunne, Old Saxon sunna, Middle Dutch sonne, modern Dutch zon, Old High German sunna, modern German Sonne, Old Norse sunna, Gothic sunnō. All Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic *sunnōn; the Latin name for the Sun, Sol, is not used in everyday English. Sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet, such as Mars; the related word solar is the usual adjectival term used for the Sun, in terms such as solar day, solar eclipse, Solar System. A mean Earth solar day is 24 hours, whereas a mean Martian'sol' is 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35.244 seconds. The English weekday name Sunday stems from Old English and is a result of a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, itself a translation of the Greek ἡμέρα ἡλίου.
The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star. The Sun has an absolute magnitude of +4.83, estimated to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way, most of which are red dwarfs. The Sun is heavy-element-rich, star; the formation of the Sun may have been triggered by shockwaves from more nearby supernovae. This is suggested by a high abundance of heavy elements in the Solar System, such as gold and uranium, relative to the abundances of these elements in so-called Population II, heavy-element-poor, stars; the heavy elements could most plausibly have been produced by endothermic nuclear reactions during a supernova, or by transmutation through neutron absorption within a massive second-generation star. The Sun is by far the brightest object in the Earth's sky, with an apparent magnitude of −26.74. This is about 13 billion times brighter than the next brightest star, which has an apparent magnitude of −1.46. The mean distance of the Sun's center to Earth's center is 1 astronomical unit, though the distance varies as Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July.
At this average distance, light travels from the Sun's horizon to Earth's horizon in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds, while light from the closest points of the Sun and Earth takes about two seconds less. The energy of this sunlight supports all life on Earth by photosynthesis, drives Earth's climate and weather; the Sun does not have a definite boundary, but its density decreases exponentially with increasing height above the photosphere. For the purpose of measurement, the Sun's radius is considered to be the distance from its center to the edge of the photosphere, the apparent visible surface of the Sun. By this measure, the Sun is a near-perfect sphere with an oblateness estimated at about 9 millionths, which means that its polar diameter differs from its equatorial diameter by only 10 kilometres; the tidal effect of the planets is weak and does not affect the shape of the Sun. The Sun rotates faster at its equator than at its poles; this differential rotation is caused by convective motion
SOLEIL is a synchrotron facility near Paris, France. It performed its first acceleration of electrons on May 14, 2006; the name SOLEIL is a backronym for Source optimisée de lumière d’énergie intermédiaire du LURE, LURE meaning Laboratoire pour l'utilisation du rayonnement électromagnétique. The facility is run by a civil corporation held by the French National Centre for Scientific Research and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, two French national research agencies, it is located in Saint-Aubin in the Essonne département, a south-western suburb of Paris, near Gif-sur-Yvette and Saclay, which host other facilities for nuclear and particle physics. The facility is an associate member of the University of Paris-Saclay. SOLEIL hosts IPANEMA, the European research platform on ancient materials, a joint CNRS / French Ministry of Culture and Communication research unit. SOLEIL covers fundamental research needs in physics, material sciences, life sciences, earth sciences, atmospheric sciences.
It offers the use of a wide range of spectroscopic methods from infrared to X-rays, structural methods such as X-ray diffraction and diffusion. SOLEIL contains electrons travelling with an energy of 2.75 GeV around a 354 m circumference. It takes the electrons 1.2 μs to travel around this ring at the speed of light. Media related to Synchrotron Soleil at Wikimedia Commons Official website Official website LURE website Lightsources.org Official website of IPANEMA Official website of IPANEMA
Cirque du Soleil
Cirque du Soleil is a Quebecer entertainment company and the largest theatrical producer in the world. Based in Montreal, Quebec and located in the inner-city area of Saint-Michel, it was founded in Baie-Saint-Paul on 7 July 1984, by two former street performers, Guy Laliberté and Gilles Ste-Croix. Named Les Échassiers, they toured Quebec in 1980 as a performing troupe, their initial financial hardship was relieved in 1983 by a government grant from the Canada Council for the Arts, as part of the 450th anniversary celebrations of Jacques Cartier's voyage to Canada. Le Grand Tour du Cirque du Soleil was a success in 1984, after securing a second year of funding, Laliberté hired Guy Caron from the National Circus School to recreate it as a "proper circus", its theatrical, character-driven approach and the absence of performing animals helped define Cirque du Soleil as the contemporary circus that it remains today. Each show is a synthesis of circus styles from around the world, with its own central theme and storyline.
Shows employ continuous live music, with performers rather than stagehands changing the props. After financial successes and failures in the late 1980s, Nouvelle Expérience was created – with the direction of Franco Dragone – which not only made Cirque du Soleil profitable by 1990, but allowed it to create new shows. Cirque du Soleil expanded through the 1990s and 2000s, going from one show to 19 shows in over 271 cities on every continent except Antarctica; the shows employ 4,000 people from over 40 countries and generate an estimated annual revenue exceeding US$810 million. The multiple permanent Las Vegas shows alone play to more than 9,000 people a night, 5% of the city's visitors, adding to the 90 million people who have experienced Cirque du Soleil worldwide. In 2000, Laliberté bought out Gauthier, with 95% ownership, has continued to expand the brand. In 2008, Laliberté split 20% of his share between two investment groups Istithmar World and Nakheel of Dubai, in order to further finance the company's goals.
In partnership with these two groups, Cirque du Soleil had planned to build a residency show in the United Arab Emirates in 2012 directed by Guy Caron and Michael Curry. However, following Dubai's financial problems in 2010 caused by the 2008 recession, Laliberté stated that the project had been "put on ice". Several more shows are in development around the world, as well as a television deal, a women's clothing line, possible ventures into other mediums such as spas and nightclubs. Cirque du Soleil produces a small number of private and corporate events each year; the company's creations have received numerous prizes and distinctions, including a Bambi Award in 1997. In 2000, Cirque du Soleil was awarded the National Arts Centre Award, a companion award of the Governor General's Performing Arts Awards.. In 2015, TPG Capital, Fosun Industrial Holdings and Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec purchased 90% of Cirque du Soleil; the sale received regulatory approval from the Government of Canada on 30 June 2015.
At age 18, interested in pursuing some kind of performing career, Guy Laliberté quit college and left home. He toured Europe as busker. By the time he returned home to Canada in 1979, he had learned the art of fire breathing. Although he became "employed" at a hydroelectric power plant in James Bay, his job ended after only three days due to a labour strike, he decided not to look instead supporting himself on his unemployment insurance. He helped organize a summer fair in Baie-Saint-Paul with the help of a pair of friends named Daniel Gauthier and Gilles Ste-Croix. Gauthier and Ste-Croix were managing a youth hostel for performing artists named Le Balcon Vert at that time. By the summer of 1979, Ste-Croix had been developing the idea of turning the Balcon Vert and the talented performers who lived there into an organized performing troupe; as part of a publicity stunt to convince the Quebec government to help fund his production, Ste-Croix walked the 56 miles from Baie-Saint-Paul to Quebec City on stilts.
The ploy worked. Employing many of the people who would make up Cirque du Soleil, Les Échassiers toured Quebec during the summer of 1980. Although well received by audiences and critics alike, Les Échassiers was a financial failure. Laliberté spent that winter in Hawaii plying his trade while Ste-Croix stayed in Quebec to set up a nonprofit holding company named "The High-Heeled Club" to mitigate the losses of the previous summer. In 1981, they met with better results. By that fall, Les Échassiers de Baie-Saint-Paul had broken even; the success inspired Laliberté and Ste-Croix to organize a summer fair in their hometown of Baie-Saint-Paul. This touring festival, called "La Fête Foraine", first took place in July 1982. La Fête Foraine featured workshops to teach the circus arts to the public, after which those who participated could take part in a performance; the festival was barred from its own hosting town after complaints from local citizens. Laliberté managed