Wootton, Isle of Wight
Wootton is a large village, civil parish and electoral ward with about 3,000 residents on the Isle of Wight, first recorded around the year 1086. Wootton is found midway between the towns of Ryde and Newport, which are 7 miles apart, centred on the old parish church of St Edmund; the hamlet of Wootton Common to the south, centres on the crossroads. The newer village of Wootton Bridge is found in the area west of Wootton Creek, the parish council that bears its name is now responsible for the whole of the Wootton area. Wootton's name is said to mean "Woodtown", which means a clearing in a forest, although other interpretations do exist; the first known mention of the town as "Odetone" or "Wootten" was in 1086, the name has evolved and changed much over the past millennium. More following the construction of the bridge across Wootton Creek, the name "Wootton Bridge" has been used to describe the settlement closest to it, however this name is now used by some to refer to the whole of Wootton; this is due in part to Royal Mail, who used the name "Wootton Bridge" to differentiate Wootton from the 19 other Woottons found across England.
"Wootton Bridge" is described by some as the "modern name" for the area. However, "Wootton" remains established on wayfinding signs and maps of the island, including those of Ordnance Survey and remains the most popular name for the area; the 1969 Isle of Wight Festival took place on 31 August at Woodside Bay in Wootton. The event was one of the largest music festivals to that date, had an estimated audience of some 150,000; the line-up included Bob Dylan, The Band, The Nice, The Pretty Things, Marsha Hunt, The Who, Third Ear Band, Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, Fat Mattress and Joe Cocker. There is a millpond on Wootton Creek formed by a sluice gate in Wootton Bridge. At one time there was a second sluice gate in the bridge that would use the tidal water from the millpond to power a mill grinding flour; the mill was demolished in 1962 and houses built on the site. The pond is important for wildfowl and for bats; the heron has been adopted as the symbol of the village. Firestone Copse is a Forestry Commission woodland open to the public, situated on the edge of the pond.
St. Edmund's Parish Church dates from the 11th century. St. Mark's Church, Wootton is in the south end of the village; the Sloop is another prominent building with its prime position next to Wootton Bridge. The pub is about 150 years old, is managed by Mitchells & Butlers as part of its Crown Carveries pub chain. In an area of woodland adjacent to agricultural land and public footpaths just outside the village of Wooton, an ice house can be found in excellent condition, having been maintained by the council since the 1980s; this structure is one of a few remnants of a grand estate called Fernhill, destroyed by fire in 1938. Southern Vectis bus routes 4, 9 and 34 link Wootton with the towns of Newport and East Cowes, including intermediate villages. Wootton Station is the western terminus of the Isle of Wight Steam Railway; the current station, opened in 1987, is in a different location from the original, closed in 1953. However the authentic station signage from the original is in place in the newer station.
Victorian admiral Sir John Baird died in Wootton in 1908, he is buried in the churchyard. List of current places of worship on the Isle of Wight Official history website for Wootton Bridge Tourist Information, Accommodation Guide for Wootton
The River Hamble is a river in Hampshire, England. It rises near Bishop's Waltham and flows for some 7.5 miles through Botley and Swanwick before entering Southampton Water near Hamble-le-Rice and Warsash. The Hamble is tidal for half its length and is navigable in its lower reaches, which have facilitated shipbuilding activities since medieval times. Leisure craft are still built there today. One of these builders was Luke & co Luke Bros, a reputed yard at Hamble from around 1890 to 1945; the river, its shipbuilding yards have been used for military purposes during World War II. Its lower reaches are now popular for boating, being known throughout the sailing world as The Heart of British Yachting From its source near Bishop's Waltham, the river flows in a southerly direction picking up several small tributary streams before reaching Botley, the site of an ancient watermill. Below Botley, the river becomes navigable, it gains strength from adjoining streams, draining the surrounding areas of Hedge End, Curdridge and Burridge.
This section has been extensively used for medieval shipbuilding, using timber grown locally in the neighbouring woods. Nearby Kings Copse Kings Forest, indicates the former importance of this area; the river's west bank can be accessed from Manor Farm Country Park, where it is possible to walk through Dock Copse and Fosters Copse. At extreme low tide, it is just possible to see the remains of the wreck of Henry V's 15th century warship Grace Dieu; this section of the river was home to HMS Cricket during World War II. Some 2 miles south of Botley, the river passes between the villages of Bursledon and Lower Swanwick and is crossed by the M27 motorway, the Portsmouth to Southampton railway line, the A27 road on three substantial bridges. A further 2 miles south of Bursledon, the river flows between the villages of Hamble-le-Rice and Warsash before entering Southampton Water. A passenger ferry crosses the river between Hamble-le-Rice and Warsash, forming an important link in the Solent Way and E9 European Coastal Path.
The river is the location for several large marinas, the largest being the Port Hamble Marina and boat yards, situated on both banks as far upstream as Bursledon. Rivers of the United Kingdom Walks in the Hamble Valley Map sources for River Hamble for the source of the River Hamble. Map sources for River Hamble for the mouth of the River Hamble; the River Hamble Harbour Authority Port Hamble Marina
Hurst Castle is an artillery fort established by Henry VIII on the Hurst Spit in Hampshire, between 1541 and 1544. It formed part of the king's Device Forts coastal protection programme against invasion from France and the Holy Roman Empire, defended the western entrance to the Solent waterway; the early castle had a central keep and three bastions, in 1547 was equipped with 26 guns. It was expensive to operate due to its size, but it formed one of the most powerful forts along the coast. During the English Civil War of the 1640s, Hurst was held by Parliament and was used to detain King Charles I before his execution in 1649, it continued in use during the 18th century but fell into disrepair, the spit being frequented by smugglers. Repairs were made during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars with France, the castle was modernised to enable it to hold 24-pounder guns. Fresh fears of invasion followed in the 1850s, leading to heavier, 32-pounder armament being installed and new gun batteries being laid out on both sides of the castle.
Technological developments made these defences obsolete, a fresh phase of work between 1861 and 1874 created sixty-one gun positions in two long, granite-faced batteries alongside the older castle. These held heavy weapons, including massive 12.5 inch, 38 ton rifled muzzle-loading guns. As the century progressed, these too became outdated and lighter, quick-firing guns were installed at the castle to replace them; the castle formed part of a network of defences around the entrance to the Solent during the First World War, was re-armed again during the Second World War. The military decommissioned the fort in 1956 and it passed into the control of the Ministry of Works. In the 21st century, it is run jointly by English Heritage and the Friends of Hurst Castle as a tourist attraction, receiving around 40,000 visitors during 2015. Coastal erosion has become a growing problem despite government intervention to protecting the spit. Four lighthouses have been built at Hurst from the 18th century onwards, one of which, a high lighthouse first opened in 1867, remains in active service.
Hurst Castle was built as a consequence of international tensions between England and the Holy Roman Empire in the final years of the reign of King Henry VIII. Traditionally the Crown had left coastal defences to local lords and communities, only taking a modest role in building and maintaining fortifications, while France and the Empire remained in conflict, maritime raids were common but an actual invasion of England seemed unlikely. Modest defences based around simple blockhouses and towers existed in the south-west and along the Sussex coast, with a few more impressive works in the north of England, but in general the fortifications were limited in scale. Worsley's Tower, for example, built opposite the future site of Hurst Castle in the 1520s, was too small to hold powerful artillery and considered by surveyors in 1539 to be "one of the worst devised things" they had seen. In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III over the annulment of his long-standing marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was the aunt of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, who took the annulment as a personal insult.
This resulted in France and the Empire declaring an alliance against Henry in 1538, the Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England appeared certain. In response, Henry issued an order, called a "device", in 1539, giving instructions for the "defence of the realm in time of invasion" and the construction of forts along the English coastline. Hurst Castle was designed to protect the western entrance to the Solent, a body of water that led from the English Channel to the naval base at Portsmouth and, through Southampton Water, to the important port of Southampton; the castle was one of four fortifications that William Fitzwilliam, the Lord Admiral, William Paulet recommended building to strengthen the defences along the Solent. It was positioned on the Hurst Spit, a strip of shingle sheltering saltmarsh and mud flats, only 0.75 miles across the water from the Isle of Wight. Temporary earthwork fortifications were erected on the site and, after the other three castles had been completed, work began on Hurst in 1541 under the direction of John Mille, the financial controller, Thomas Bertie, a master mason.
Bertie was appointed as the castle's captain in 1542 and the work was completed by January 1544, at a cost of over £3,200. The result was a stone artillery fort with a central keep and three bastions, surrounded by a moat, capable of holding up to 71 guns. In 1547, Hurst was equipped with 26 artillery pieces–four made of brass and the remainder iron–comprising a two sakers, a culverin, a demi-cannon, a curtall cannon, two demi-culverins, six portpieces, four slings, two quarter-slings, seven bases, three of them inoperable. A 1559 survey commented that Hurst Castle was essential for sending reinforcements from the mainland to the island, noted that it was equipped with eleven brass and iron guns, with nine further broken guns, along with handguns and arrows, pikes and bills; the survey observed that the castle was vulnerable to attack because it lacked flanking protection and had rounded walls, that it was expensive to garrison because of its size, requiring a captain, his deputy, twelve gunners, nine soldiers and a porter.
The historian John Kenyon notes, that its considerable armament made it one of the most powerful forts in the south if it was equipped with lighter guns than would have been ideal for its "ship-killing" role. Meanwhile, the invasion threat from France had passed and a lasting peace was made in 1558.
Wightlink is a ferry company operating routes between Hampshire and the Isle of Wight in southern England. The core routes are car ferries between Lymington and Yarmouth and between Portsmouth and Fishbourne. A fast passenger-only catamaran operates between Portsmouth Harbour and Ryde Pier Head, taking 22 minutes, directly links with the Island Line rail line. In recent years the firm has been owned by the Macquarie European Infrastructure Fund sold to Balfour Beatty Infrastructure Partners in 2015, but as of 2019 is owned by Basalt Infrastructure Partners. Wightlink's main competitors are Red Funnel, who run passenger catamarans between Southampton – Cowes and vehicle ferries between Southampton – East Cowes, Hovertravel who operate passenger hovercraft between Southsea and Ryde. Wightlink and its forerunners have provided ferry services to and from the Isle of Wight for more than 160 years. In the early 19th century, ferries ran to the island from Portsmouth. Steam ferries operated a circular route around Lymington, Cowes and Portsmouth.
When the rail companies became involved they concentrated on two direct routes, Lymington – Yarmouth and Portsmouth – Ryde. Ownership of the ferries passed from the British Railways Board to Sealink UK Limited. In 1984 Sealink UK Limited was denationalised and the operating name became Sealink British Ferries, subsequently bought by the Bermuda based Sea Containers Ltd; when Stena Line bought Sealink in 1990, the Isle of Wight ferries remained with Sea Containers, as Wightlink. In June 1995 Wightlink was the subject of a management buy-in. In 2005 it was bought by the Macquarie European Infrastructure Fund for an estimated £240,000,000. In 2004, Wightlink renewed its sponsorship of the Wightlink Raiders ice hockey team. In 2005, a Wightlink car ferry featured in the film Fragile, starring Calista Flockhart; the ferry is shown briefly in a wide-angle shot. Closer shots used Red Funnel's Red Osprey. In October 2006 Wightlink announced its intention to build two new ferries for the Yarmouth to Lymington route.
These ships are bigger than their predecessors, with extra vehicle space, but only accommodate 360 passengers compared to 500 on the older vessels. Wightlink announced that a third new ferry would enter service in spring 2009. A dispute with some Lymington residents threatened the viability of the route. In November 2008, the service was reduced so only two ships were required, allowing for the delay in the introduction of the new vessels. Sea trials were not complete by November 2008 and introduction became pressing with the expiry of safety certificates on the previous fleet. Wightlink proposed interim arrangements enabling them restricted use of the new ferries until the trials could be completed in full. In March 2008 Wightlink revealed that an order had been placed with FBMA Marine to construct two new passenger catamarans for the Portsmouth to Ryde service, to replace the three craft employed, they entered service in 2009. From May 2008 Wightlink introduced a fuel surcharge on all crossings, linked to the price of Brent Crude oil.
However, in November 2008 the surcharge dropped to zero following the sharp reduction in crude prices during the credit crunch and as of November 2009 was still at zero. Wightlink planned to spend £17.5 million on improving its Portsmouth to Fishbourne route. This involved remodelling the terminal facilities at both Portsmouth; the flagship St Clare was to have its upper car deck adjusted so vehicles access it directly from on-shore ramps. Two of the older ferries were to be stretched in length by 12 metres, with upper car decks similar to St Clare's being added, replacing movable mezzanine decks. Of the remaining two ferries, St Catherine has been sold and St Helen was used for freight until she too was sold; as part of this investment project the reservations and ticketing system was replaced by CarRes from Carus. On 16 February 2015, Wightlink was sold by the Macquarie European Infrastructure Fund to Balfour Beatty Infrastructure Partners for an undisclosed sum. On 15 May 2015, Wightlink announced a revised investment of £45 million to include the purchase a new ferry, upgrading St Clare and modifications to the terminals at both ends to facilitate double-deck loading.
In July 2016, Balfour Beatty exited BBIP, which became Basalt Infrastructure Partners, who as of April 2019 remain owners of the company. In August 2017, Wightlink announced that its new vehicle ferry Victoria of Wight for the Portsmouth to Fishbourne service would enter service in late July or early August 2018; the new ship entered service on 26 August. The introduction of the Wight class ferries was a much discussed affair, with some Lymington residents claiming that the increased size of the ferries posed a risk, both in environmental terms and to users of pleasure craft on the Lymington river; the following ferries have operated on routes run by Wightlink or previous companies that have been absorbed by Wightlink. Every year, Wightlink carries: 4.8 million passengers over 1.2 million cars 200,000 coaches and freight vehicles annual revenue of £51 million Official website Wightlink companies grouped at OpenCorporates
A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse. It is produced by a stream or river swinging from side to side as it flows across its floodplain or shifts its channel within a valley. A meander is produced by a stream or river as it erodes the sediments comprising an outer, concave bank and deposits this and other sediment downstream on an inner, convex bank, a point bar; the result of sediments being eroded from the outside concave bank and their deposition on an inside convex bank is the formation of a sinuous course as a channel migrates back and forth across the down-valley axis of a floodplain. The zone within which a meandering stream shifts its channel across either its floodplain or valley floor from time to time is known as a meander belt, it ranges from 15 to 18 times the width of the channel. Over time, meanders migrate downstream, sometimes in such a short time as to create civil engineering problems for local municipalities attempting to maintain stable roads and bridges.
The degree of meandering of the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse is measured by its sinuosity. The sinuosity of a watercourse is the ratio of the length of the channel to the straight line down-valley distance. Streams or rivers with a single channel and sinuosities of 1.5 or more are defined as meandering streams or rivers. The term derives from the Meander River located in present-day Turkey and known to the Ancient Greeks as Μαίανδρος Maiandros, characterised by a convoluted path along the lower reach; as a result in Classical Greece the name of the river had become a common noun meaning anything convoluted and winding, such as decorative patterns or speech and ideas, as well as the geomorphological feature. Strabo said: ‘…its course is so exceedingly winding that everything winding is called meandering.’The Meander River is south of Izmir, east of the ancient Greek town of Miletus, now Milet, Turkey. It flows through a graben in the Menderes Massif, but has a flood plain much wider than the meander zone in its lower reach.
Its modern Turkish name is the Büyük Menderes River. When a fluid is introduced to an straight channel which bends, the sidewalls induce a pressure gradient that causes the fluid to alter course and follow the bend. From here, two opposing processes occur: secondary flow. For a river to meander, secondary flow must dominate. Irrotational flow: From Bernoulli's equations, high pressure results in low velocity. Therefore, in the absence of secondary flow we would expect low fluid velocity at the outside bend and high fluid velocity at the inside bend; this classic fluid mechanics result is irrotational vortex flow. In the context of meandering rivers, its effects are dominated by those of secondary flow. Secondary flow: A force balance exists between pressure forces pointing to the inside bend of the river and centrifugal forces pointing to the outside bend of the river. In the context of meandering rivers, a boundary layer exists within the thin layer of fluid that interacts with the river bed. Inside that layer and following standard boundary-layer theory, the velocity of the fluid is zero.
Centrifugal force, which depends on velocity, is therefore zero. Pressure force, remains unaffected by the boundary layer. Therefore, within the boundary layer, pressure force dominates and fluid moves along the bottom of the river from the outside bend to the inside bend; this initiates helicoidal flow: Along the river bed, fluid follows the curve of the channel but is forced toward the inside bend. The downstream velocity of the fluid is convectively transported to the outside bend, resulting in higher velocities at the outside bend; this secondary flow effect dominates over that of irrotational flow: In real meandering rivers, we observe higher downstream fluid velocities at the outside bends. The higher velocities at the outside bend result in higher shear stresses and therefore results in erosion, thus meander bends erode at the outside bend, causing the river to becoming sinuous. Deposition at the inside bend occur such that for most natural meandering rivers, the river width remains nearly constant as the river evolves.
Where the is not forced to bend by a natural obstacle, Coriolis force of the earth can cause a small imbalance in velocity distribution such that velocity on one bank is higher than on the other. This can trigger deposition of sediment on the other; the technical description of a meandering watercourse is termed meander geometry or meander planform geometry. It is characterized as an irregular waveform. Ideal waveforms, such as a sine wave, are one line thick, but in the case of a stream the width must be taken into consideration; the bankfull width is the distance across the bed at an average cross-section at the full-stream level estimated by the line of lowest vegetation. As a waveform the meandering stream follows the down-valley axis, a straight line fitted to the curve such that the sum of all the amplitudes measured from it is zero; this axis represents the overall direction of the stream. At any cross-section the flow is following the centerline of the bed. Two consecutive crossing points of sinuous and down-valley axes define a meander loop.
The meander is two consecutive loops pointing in opposite transverse directions. The distance of one meander alo
An estuary is a enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments, they are subject both to marine influences—such as tides and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago. Estuaries are classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns, they can have many different names, such as bays, lagoons, inlets, or sounds, although some of these water bodies do not meet the above definition of an estuary and may be saline.
The banks of many estuaries are amongst the most populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast. As a result, many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation and other poor farming practices; the word "estuary" is derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea, which in itself is derived from the term aestus, meaning tide. There have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary; the most accepted definition is: "a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which has a free connection with the open sea, within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage". However, this definition excludes a number of coastal water bodies such as coastal lagoons and brackish seas. A more comprehensive definition of an estuary is "a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the sea as far as the tidal limit or the salt intrusion limit and receiving freshwater runoff.
This broad definition includes fjords, river mouths, tidal creeks. An estuary is a dynamic ecosystem having a connection to the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides; the sea water entering the estuary streams. The pattern of dilution varies between different estuaries and depends on the volume of fresh water, the tidal range, the extent of evaporation of the water in the estuary. Drowned river valleys are known as coastal plain estuaries. In places where the sea level is rising relative to the land, sea water progressively penetrates into river valleys and the topography of the estuary remains similar to that of a river valley; this is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border; the width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward. Water depths exceed 30 m.
Examples of this type of estuary in the U. S. are the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay along the Mid-Atlantic coast, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay along the Gulf Coast. Bar-built estuaries are found in place where the deposition of sediment has kept pace with rising sea level so that the estuaries are shallow and separated from the sea by sand spits or barrier islands, they are common in tropical and subtropical locations. These estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches. Formation of barrier beaches encloses the estuary, with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters. Bar-built estuaries develop on sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts, they are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments and where tidal ranges are less than 4 m. The barrier beaches that enclose bar-built estuaries have been developed in several ways: building up of offshore bars by wave action, in which sand from the sea floor is deposited in elongated bars parallel to the shoreline, reworking of sediment discharge from rivers by wave and wind action into beaches, overwash flats, dunes, engulfment of mainland beach ridges due to sea level rise and resulting in the breaching of the ridges and flooding of the coastal lowlands, forming shallow lagoons, elongation of barrier spits from the erosion of headlands due to the action of longshore currents, with the spits growing in the direction of the littoral drift.
Barrier beaches form in shallow water and are parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries. The average water depth is less than 5 m, exceeds 10 m. Examples of bar-built estuaries are Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Fjords were formed where pleistocene glaciers deepened and widened existing river valleys so that they become U-shaped in cross s