Dr.-Ing. H.c. F. Porsche AG shortened to Porsche AG, is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. Porsche AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, is owned by Volkswagen AG, itself majority-owned by Porsche Automobil Holding SE. Porsche's current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman, 911, Panamera and Cayenne. Ferdinand Porsche founded the company called "Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH" in 1931, with main offices at Kronenstraße 24 in the centre of Stuttgart; the company offered motor vehicle development work and consulting, but did not build any cars under its own name. One of the first assignments the new company received was from the German government to design a car for the people, a "Volkswagen"; this resulted in one of the most successful car designs of all time. The Porsche 64 was developed in 1939 using many components from the Beetle. During World War II, Volkswagen production turned to the military version of the Volkswagen Beetle, the Kübelwagen, 52,000 produced, Schwimmwagen, 15,584 produced.
Porsche produced several designs for heavy tanks during the war, losing out to Henschel & Son in both contracts that led to the Tiger I and the Tiger II. However, not all this work was wasted, as the chassis Porsche designed for the Tiger I was used as the base for the Elefant tank destroyer. Porsche developed the Maus super-heavy tank in the closing stages of the war, producing two prototypes. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Volkswagen factory at KdF-Stadt fell to the British. Ferdinand lost his position as Chairman of the Board of Management of Volkswagen, Ivan Hirst, a British Army Major, was put in charge of the factory. On 15 December of that year, Ferdinand was arrested for war crimes, but not tried. During his 20-month imprisonment, Ferdinand Porsche's son, Ferry Porsche, decided to build his own car, because he could not find an existing one that he wanted to buy, he had to steer the company through some of its most difficult days until his father's release in August 1947. The first models of what was to become the 356 were built in a small sawmill in Austria.
The prototype car was shown to German auto dealers, when pre-orders reached a set threshold, production was begun by Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH founded by Ferry and Louise. Many regard the 356 as the first Porsche because it was the first model sold by the fledgling company. After the production of 356 was taken over by the father's Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH in Stuttgart in 1950, Porsche commissioned a Zuffenhausen-based company, Reutter Karosserie, which had collaborated with the firm on Volkswagen Beetle prototypes, to produce the 356's steel body. In 1952, Porsche constructed an assembly plant across the street from Reutter Karosserie; the 356 was road certified in 1948. Porsche's company logo was based on the coat of arms of the Free People's State of Württemberg of former Weimar Germany, which had Stuttgart as its capital; the arms of Stuttgart was placed in the middle as an inescutcheon, since the cars were made in Stuttgart. The heraldic symbols were combined with the texts "Porsche" and "Stuttgart", which shows that it is not a coat of arms since heraldic achievements never spell out the name of the armiger nor the armigers home town in the shield.
Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern became part of the present land of Baden-Württemberg in 1952 after the political consolidation of West Germany in 1949, the old design of the arms of Württemberg now only lives on in the Porsche logo. On 30 January 1951, not long before the creation of Baden-Württemberg, Ferdinand Porsche died from complications following a stroke. In post-war Germany, parts were in short supply, so the 356 automobile used components from the Volkswagen Beetle, including the engine case from its internal combustion engine and several parts used in the suspension; the 356, had several evolutionary stages, A, B, C, while in production, most Volkswagen-sourced parts were replaced by Porsche-made parts. Beginning in 1954 the 356s engines started utilizing engine cases designed for the 356; the sleek bodywork was designed by Erwin Komenda, who had designed the body of the Beetle. Porsche's signature designs have, from the beginning, featured air-cooled rear-engine configurations, rare for other car manufacturers, but producing automobiles that are well balanced.
In 1964, after a fair amount of success in motor-racing with various models including the 550 Spyder, with the 356 needing a major re-design, the company launched the Porsche 911: another air-cooled, rear-engined sports car, this time with a six-cylinder "boxer" engine. The team to lay out the body shell design was led by Ferry Porsche's eldest son, Ferdinand Alexander Porsche; the design phase for the 911 caused internal problems with Erwin Komenda, who led the body design department until then. F. A. Porsche complained. Company leader Ferry Porsche took his son's drawings to neighbouring chassis manufacturer Reuter. Reuter's workshop was acquired by Porsche. Afterward Reuter became today known as Keiper-Recaro; the design office gave sequential numbers to every project (See Porsche
Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C.. It became part of the Fiat Group in 1969; the company has a strong rally heritage and is noted for using letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names. Lancia vehicles are no longer sold outside Italy and comprise only the Ypsilon supermini range, as the late Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne foreshadowed in January 2014 until his death in 2018. Lancia & C. Fabbrica Automobili was founded on 29 November 1906 in Turin by Fiat racing drivers, Vincenzo Lancia and his friend, Claudio Fogolin; the first car manufactured by Lancia was the "Tipo 51" or "12 HP", which remained in production from 1907 to 1908. It had a small four-cylinder engine with a power output of 28 PS. In 1910, Lancia components were exported to the United States where they were assembled and sold as SGVs by the SGV Company. In 1915, Lancia manufactured its first truck, the Jota that continued as a dedicated series. In 1937, Vincenzo died of a heart attack and both his wife, Adele Miglietti Lancia, his son, Gianni Lancia, took over control of the company.
They persuaded Vittorio Jano to join as an engineer. Jano had made a name for himself by designing various Alfa Romeo models, including some of its most successful race cars such as the 6C, P2 and P3. Lancia is renowned in the automotive world for introducing cars with numerous innovations; these include the Theta of 1913, the first European production car to feature a complete electrical system as standard equipment. Lancia's first car adopting a monocoque chassis – the Lambda produced from 1922 to 1931 - featured'Sliding Pillar' independent front suspension that incorporated the spring and hydraulic damper into a single unit. 1948 saw the first 5 speed gearbox to be fitted to a production car. Lancia premiered the first full-production V6 engine, in the 1950 Aurelia, after earlier industry-leading experiments with V8 and V12 engine configurations, it was the first manufacturer to produce a V4 engine. Other innovations involved the use of independent suspension in production cars and rear transaxles, which were first fitted to the Aurelia and Flaminia range.
This drive for innovation, constant quest for excellence, fixation of quality, complex construction processes and antiqued production machinery meant that all cars had to be hand-made. With little commonality between the various models, the cost of production continued to increase extensively, while no increase in demand affecting Lancia's viability. Gianni Lancia, a graduate engineer, was president of Lancia from 1947 to 1955. In 1956 the Pesenti family took over control of Lancia with Carlo Pesenti in charge of the company. Fiat launched a take-over bid in October 1969, accepted by Lancia as the company was losing significant sums of money, with losses in 1969 being GB£20m; this was not the end of the distinctive Lancia marque, new models in the 1970s such as the Stratos and Beta served to prove that Fiat wished to preserve the image of the brand it had acquired. During the 1970s and 1980s, Lancia had great success in rallying, winning many World Rally Championships. During the 1980s, the company cooperated with Saab Automobile, with the Lancia Delta being sold as the Saab 600 in Sweden.
The 1985 Lancia Thema shared a platform with the Saab 9000, Fiat Croma and the Alfa Romeo 164. During the 1990s, all models were related to other Fiat models. Starting from 1 February 2007, Fiat's automotive operations were reorganised. Fiat Auto became Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. Fiat S.p. A.'s branch handling mainstream automotive production. The current company, Lancia Automobiles S.p. A. was created from the pre-existing brand, controlled 100% by FGA. In 2011, Lancia moved in a new direction and added new models manufactured by Chrysler and sold under the Lancia badge in many European markets. Conversely, Lancia built models began to be sold in right-hand drive markets under the Chrysler badge. In 2015 Lancia's parent company Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. became FCA Italy S.p. A. reflecting the earlier incorporation of Fiat S.p. A. into Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. 1907From 1907 to 1910 Lancia cars didn't bear a true badge, but rather a brass plaque identifying the manufacturer and chassis code.
1911The original Lancia logo was designed by Count Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia. In 1910 Vincenzo Lancia asked Biscaretti di Ruffia to design a badge for the company. Vincenzo Lancia chose a round one, composed by a blue lance and flag bearing a Lancia script in gold, over a four-spoke steering wheel, with a hand throttle detail on the right spoke; the first car to bear the Lancia logo was the Gamma 20 HP in 1911. 1929In 1929 the logo acquired its final layout: the previous round badge was superimposed on a blue shield in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. Though first applied on the 1929 Dikappa, this badge was only used consintently starting with the 1936 Aprilia. 1957Beginning with the 1957 Flaminia, Lancia cars switched from the traditional vertical split grille to an horizontal, full-width one. The logo was therefore moved inside the grille opening, changed to a more stylized chromed metal open-work design.
BMW AG is a German multinational company which produces automobiles and motorcycles, produced aircraft engines until 1945. The company is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria. BMW produces motor vehicles in Germany, China, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States. In 2015, BMW was the world's twelfth largest producer of motor vehicles, with 2,279,503 vehicles produced; the Quandt family are long-term shareholders of the company, with the remaining shares owned by public float. Automobiles are marketed under the brands Mini and Rolls-Royce. Motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad; the company has significant motorsport history in touring cars, Formula 1, sports cars and the Isle of Man TT. BMW's origins can be traced back to three separate German companies: Rapp Motorenwerke, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, Automobilwerk Eisenach; the history of the name itself begins with an aircraft engine manufacturer. In April 1917, following the departure of the founder Karl Friedrich Rapp, the company was renamed Bayerische Motoren Werke.
BMW's first product was the BMW IIIa aircraft engine. The IIIa engine was known for high-altitude performance; the resulting orders for IIIa engines from the German military caused rapid expansion for BMW. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. To remain in business, BMW produced farm household items and railway brakes. In 1922, former major shareholder Camillo Castiglioni purchased the rights to the name BMW, which led to the company descended from Rapp Motorenwerke being renamed Süddeutsche Bremse AG. Castiglioni was an investor in another aircraft company, called "Bayerische Flugzeugwerke", which he renamed BMW; the disused factory of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke was re-opened to produce engines for buses, farm equipment and pumps, under the brand name BMW. BMW's corporate history considers the founding date of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke to be the birth of the company; as the restrictions of the Armistice Treaty began to be lifted, BMW began production of motorcycles in 1923, with the R32 model.
BMW's production of automobiles began in 1928, when the company purchased the Automobilwerk Eisenach car company. Automobilwerk Eisenach's current model was the Dixi 3/15, a licensed copy of the Austin 7 which had begun production in 1927. Following the takeover, the Dixi 3/15 became BMW's first production car. In 1932, the BMW 3/20 became the first BMW automobile designed by BMW, it was powered by a four-cylinder engine. BMW's first automotive straight-six engine was released in 1933, in the BMW 303. Throughout the 1930s, BMW expanded its model range to include sedans, coupes and sports cars. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe; the factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour: foreign civilians, prisoners of war and inmates of the Dachau concentration camp. Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944–1945–era jet-powered “emergency fighter”, the Heinkel He 162 Spatz.
The BMW 003 jet engine was first tested as a prime power plant in the first prototype of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the Me 262 V1, but in 1942 tests the BMW prototype engines failed on takeoff with only the standby Junkers Jumo 210 nose-mounted piston engine powering it to a safe landing. The few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h; the first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber, which used BMW 003 jets for power. Through 1944 the 003's reliability improved, making it a suitable power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramm’s light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design; the BMW 003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT 101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built.
During World War II, many BMW production facilities had been bombed. BMW's facilities in East Germany were seized by the Soviet Union and the remaining facilities were banned by the Allies from producing motorcycles or automobiles. During this ban, BMW used basic secondhand and salvaged equipment to make pots and pans expanding to other kitchen supplies and bicycles. In 1947, BMW was granted permission to resume motorcycle production and its first post-war motorcycle - the R24 - was released in 1948. BMW was still barred from producing automobiles, the Bristol Aeroplane Company was producing cars in England based on BMW's pre-war models, using plans that BAC had taken from BMW's German offices. Production of automobiles resumed with the BMW 501 large sedan. Throughout the 1950s, BMW expanded their model range with sedans, coupes and sports cars. In 1954, the BMW 502 was BMW's first to use a V8 engine. To provide an affordable model, BMW began production of the Isetta
Magneti Marelli S.p. A. manufactures high-tech components for the automotive industry. Magneti Marelli is headquartered in Corbetta and includes 86 manufacturing plants, 12 R&D centres and 26 application centers in 19 countries—with 43,000 employees and a turnover of 7.9 billion euro in 2016.. It was a subsidiary of Fiat from 1967 to 2018. On October 22 2018 FCA announced Magneti Marelli was being bought by the Japanese automotive company Calsonic Kansei for $7.2 billion in a deal that would create one of the world's largest auto parts suppliers Subsidiaries and brands of the company include AL-Automotive Lighting, Cromodora, Ergom Automotive, Mako Elektrik, Securvia, Siem SpA, Veglia Borletti, Weber. Founded in 1919—as Fabbrica Italiana Magneti Marelli, a joint-venture between Fiat and Ercole Marelli, an Italian electrical manufacturing company—Magneti Marelli manufactured magnetos for the automotive and aviation industries, with its first plant in Sesto San Giovanni near Milan. Fiat Chrysler is expected to sell Magneti Marelli to CK Holdings in early 2019.
CK Holdings will be renamed Magneti Marelli CK Holdings. Magneti Marelli deals with intelligent systems for active and passive vehicle safety as well as powertrain systems. Business lines include automotive lighting systems, body control systems, powertrain control systems, electronic instrument clusters, telematics systems, computers, suspension systems and components, exhaust systems, motorsport, wherein Magneti Marelli develops specific electronic systems for Formula One, Motorcycle Grand Prix and the World Rally Championship. Magneti Marelli worked with Ford Motor Company and Microsoft Auto to develop an in-dash computer for Ford's work truck division introduced in 2008—with a built-in 6.5-inch, high-resolution touch screen and Bluetooth, USB connectivity, GPS Navigation, voice recognition, as well as general office applications, e.g. word processing and calendar. List of Italian companies Magneti Marelli Holding S.p. A
A carburetor or carburettor is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper air–fuel ratio for combustion. It is sometimes colloquially shortened to carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet means to mix the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose. Carburetors have been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection, they are still common on small engines for lawn mowers and other equipment. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning "carbide". Carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the more specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon; the first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826. The first person to patent a carburetor for use in a petroleum engine was Siegfried Marcus with his 6 July 1872 patent for a device which mixes fuel with air. A carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were of the surface type, in which air is combined with fuel by passing over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor based on the atomizer nozzle; the Daimler-Maybach carburetor was copied extensively. British courts rejected the Daimler company's claim of priority in favor of Edward Butler's 1884 spray carburetor used on his Petrol Cycle. Hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars. In 1896, Frederick and his brother built a gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the car's performance and power, they re-designed the engine the following year using two horizontally-opposed cylinders and a newly designed wick carburetor. Carburetors were the common method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline engines until the late 1980s, when fuel injection became the preferred method.
This change was dictated by the requirements of catalytic converters and not due to an inherent inefficiency of carburation. A catalytic converter requires that there be more precise control over the fuel / air mixture in order to control the amount of oxygen remaining in the exhaust gases. In the U. S. market, the last cars using carburetors were: 1990: Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser, Buick Estate Wagon, Cadillac Brougham, Honda Prelude, Subaru Justy 1991: Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with the 5.8 L V8 engine. 1991: Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC 360 cu in V8 engine. 1993: Mazda B2200 1994: IsuzuIn Australia, some cars continued to use carburetors well into the 1990s. Low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003. Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006. Many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicity's sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function.
Carburetors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles, such as those designed for stock car racing, though NASCAR's 2011 Sprint Cup season was the last one with carbureted engines. In Europe, carburetor-engined cars were being phased out by the end of the 1980s in favor of fuel injection, the established type of engine on more expensive vehicles including luxury and sports models. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in member countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992; this legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with many cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. However, some versions of the Peugeot 106 were sold with carburettor engines from its launch in 1991, as were versions of the Renault Clio and Nissan Primera and all versions of Ford Fiesta range except the XR2i when it was launched in 1989. Luxury car manufacturer Mercedes-Benz had been producing mechanically fuel-injected cars since the early 1950s, while the first mainstream family car to feature fuel injection was the Volkswagen Golf GTI in 1976.
Ford's first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS 2600 in 1970. General Motors launched its first fuel-injected car in 1957 as an option available for the first generation Corvette. Saab switched to fuel injection across its whole range from 1982; the carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, higher the dynamic pressure is. The throttle linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being carried into the engine; the speed of this flow, therefore its pressure, determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. When carburetors are used in aircraft with piston engines, special designs and features are needed to prevent fuel starvation during inverted flight. Engines used an early form of fuel injection known as a pressure carburetor. Most production carbureted engines, as opposed to fuel-injected, h
Land Rover series
The Land Rover series I, II, III are off-road vehicles produced by the British manufacturer Rover Company. The Land Rover was the first mass-produced civilian four-wheel drive car with doors on it. In 1992, Land Rover claimed. Most series models feature leaf-sprung suspension with selectable two or four-wheel drive, however series I's produced between 1948 and mid-1951 had constant 4WD via a freewheel mechanism, the Stage 1 V8 version of the series III featured permanent 4WD. All three models could be started with a front hand crank and had the option of front & rear power takeoffs for accessories; the Land Rover was conceived by the Rover Company in 1947 during the aftermath of World War II. Before the war Rover had produced luxury cars which were not in demand in the immediate post-war period and raw materials were rationed to those companies building construction or industrial equipment, or products that could be exported to earn crucial foreign exchange for the country. Rover's original factory in Coventry had been bombed during the war, forcing the company to move into a huge "shadow factory" built just before the war in Solihull near Birmingham used to construct Bristol Hercules aircraft engines.
This factory was now empty but starting car production there from scratch would not be financially viable. Plans for a small, economical car known as the M Type were drawn up, a few prototypes made, but would be too expensive to produce. Maurice Wilks, Rover's chief designer came up with a plan to produce a light agricultural and utility vehicle, of a similar concept to the Willys Jeep used in the war, but with an emphasis on agricultural use, he was inspired by the Standard Motor Company, who faced similar problems and were producing the successful Ferguson TE20 tractor in their shadow factory in Coventry. More he used his own experience of using an army-surplus Jeep on his farm in Anglesey, North Wales, his design added a power take-off feature since there was a gap in the market between jeeps and tractors. The original Land Rover concept is similar to the Unimog, developed in Germany during this period; the first prototype had a distinctive feature — the steering wheel was mounted in the middle of the vehicle.
It hence became known as the "centre steer". It was used the engine and gearbox out of a Rover P3 saloon car; the bodywork was handmade out of an aluminium/magnesium alloy called Birmabright, to save on steel, rationed. The choice of colour was dictated by military surplus supplies of aircraft cockpit paint, so early vehicles only came in various shades of light green; the first pre-production Land Rovers were being developed in late 1947 by a team led by engineer Arthur Goddard. Tests showed this prototype vehicle to be a versatile machine; the PTO drives from the front of the engine and from the gearbox to the centre and rear of the vehicle allowed it to drive farm machinery as a tractor would. It was tested ploughing and performing other agricultural tasks. However, as the vehicle was readied for production, this emphasis on tractor-like usage decreased and the centre steering proved impractical in use; the steering wheel was mounted off to the side as normal, the bodywork was simplified to reduce production time and costs and a larger engine was fitted, together with a specially designed transfer gearbox to replace the Jeep unit.
The result was a vehicle that didn't use a single Jeep component and was shorter than its American inspiration, but wider, heavier and still retained the PTO drives. The Land Rover was designed to only be in production for two or three years to gain some cash flow and export orders for the Rover Company so it could restart up-market car production. Once car production restarted, however, it was outsold by the off-road Land Rover, which developed into its own brand that remains successful today. Many of the defining and successful features of the Land Rover design were in fact the result of Rover's drive to simplify the tooling required for the vehicle and to use the minimum amount of rationed materials; as well as the aluminium alloy bodywork other examples include the distinctive flat body panels with only simple, constant-radius curves and the sturdy box-section ladder chassis, which on series vehicles was made up from four strips of steel welded at each side to form a box, thus cutting down on the complex welding operations required when making a more conventional U- or I-section frame.
Land Rover entered production in 1948 with what has been termed the series I. This was launched at the Amsterdam Motor Show, it was designed for farm and light industrial use, with a steel box-section chassis and an aluminium body. The Land Rover was a single model offering, which from 1948 until 1951 used an 80-inch wheelbase and a 1.6-litre petrol engine producing around 50 bhp. The four-speed gearbox from the Rover P3 was used, with a new two-speed transfer box; this incorporated an unusual four-wheel-drive system, with a freewheel unit. This disengaged the front axle from the manual transmission on the overrun, allowing a form of permanent 4WD. A ring-p
Saint-Quentin is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. It has been identified as the Augusta Veromanduorum of antiquity, it is named after Saint Quentin, said to have been martyred there in the 3rd century. Saint-Quentin is a sub-prefecture of Aisne. Although Saint-Quentin is by far the largest city in Aisne, the capital is the third-largest city, Laon; the mayor of Saint-Quentin is a member of the centre-right LR Party. The city was founded by the Romans, in the Augustean period, to replace the oppidum of Vermand as the capital of Viromandui, it received the name of Augusta Viromanduorum, Augusta of the Viromandui, in honor of the Emperor Augustus. The site is that of a ford across the River Somme. During the late Roman period, it is possible that the civitas capital was transferred back to Vermand. During the early Middle Ages, a major monastery, now the Basilica of Saint-Quentin, based on pilgrimage to the tomb of Quentin, a Roman Christian who came to evangelize the region and was martyred in Augusta, giving rise to a new town, named after him.
From the 9th century, Saint-Quentin was the capital of Vermandois County. From the 10th century, the counts of Vermandois were powerful; the city grew rapidly: the "bourgeois" organized themselves and obtained, in the second half of the 12th century, a municipal charter which guaranteed their commune a large degree of autonomy. At the beginning of the 13th century, Saint-Quentin entered the royal domain. At that time, it was a thriving city, based on its wool textile industry, it was a centre of commerce boosted by its position on the border of the kingdom of France, between the Champagne fairs and the cities of Flanders: it had an important annual fair. It benefited from its location in the heart of a rich agricultural region. From the 14th century, Saint-Quentin suffered from this strategic position: it endured the French-English wars. In the 15th century, the city was disputed between the dukes of Burgundy. Ravaged by the plague on several occasions, its population decreased, while its economy was in crisis: its fair was irrelevant, agricultural production diminished.
The declining textile industry turned to the production of flax canvas. Meanwhile, the city faced major expenses to maintain armed troops. Between the end of the 15th century and the mid-17th century, this strategic position was the cause of frequent misfortune. In 1557, a siege by the Spanish army ended with the looting of the city and its desertion for two years. Given back to France in 1559, it underwent intense fortification work: the medieval wall was protected by many new advanced fortifications, redesigned several times. Two districts were razed to make way for them. In the mid-17th century, the city escaped the sieges, but suffered the horrors of wars ravaging the Picardy region, accompanied by the plague and famine. In the second half of the 17th century, the conquests of Louis XIV took St Quentin away from the border, it lost much of its strategic role. At the end of the 16th century, its textile production specialized in fine flax canvas; this brought prosperity in the 18th century, when these textiles were exported across Europe and the Americas.
During the First French Empire, difficulties in the export market brought an economic decline. At the request of the municipality, Napoleon ordered the razing of the fortifications, to allow the city to grow beyond its old boundaries. In 1814-1815, Saint-Quentin without any damage. In the 19th century, St Quentin developed into a thriving industrial city, thanks to entrepreneurs on the lookout for new technologies. Textiles and mechanical products were foremost among a wide variety of products. In 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, the population repelled the Prussians on October 8, but the city fell during the second offensive; that hopeless but heroic action had national repercussions: Saint-Quentin was decorated with the Legion of Honour. In 1871, on January 19, the French army was defeated near the town; the First World War hit St Quentin hard. In September 1914, the city was overrun, it endured a harsh occupation. From 1916, it lay at the heart of the war zone, because the Germans had integrated it into the Hindenburg Line.
After the evacuation of the population in March, the town was systematically looted and industrial equipment removed or destroyed. The fighting destroyed it: 80% of buildings were damaged. Despite national support, the reconstruction process was long, the city struggled to regain its pre-1914 dynamism; the 1911 population of 55,000 was achieved again only in the mid-1950s, in the context of general economic expansion. This prosperity continued until the mid-1970s, when the French textile industry began to suffer through competition from developing countries. La basilique hôtel de ville XIX°: l'hôtel de ville of Saint-Quentin, was built in 1509, in a gothic style, 173 sculptures. L'hôtel de ville of Saint-Quentin is famous for its peal of 37 bells. Ce monument abrite une superbe salle des mariages (plafond polychrome et cheminée de type renais