Solid-state chemistry sometimes referred as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis and properties of solid phase materials but not exclusively of, non-molecular solids. It therefore has a strong overlap with solid-state physics, crystallography, metallurgy, materials science and electronics with a focus on the synthesis of novel materials and their characterisation. Solids can be classified as crystalline or amorphous on basis of the nature of order present in the arrangement of their constituent particles; because of its direct relevance to products of commerce, solid state inorganic chemistry has been driven by technology. Progress in the field has been fueled by the demands of industry, sometimes in collaboration with academia. Applications discovered in the 20th century include zeolite and platinum-based catalysts for petroleum processing in the 1950s, high-purity silicon as a core component of microelectronic devices in the 1960s, “high temperature” superconductivity in the 1980s.
The invention of X-ray crystallography in the early 1900s by William Lawrence Bragg was an enabling innovation. Our understanding of how reactions proceed at the atomic level in the solid state was advanced by Carl Wagner's work on oxidation rate theory, counter diffusion of ions, defect chemistry; because of his contributions, he has sometimes been referred to as the father of solid state chemistry. Given the diversity of solid state compounds, an diverse array of methods are used for their preparation. For organic materials, such as charge transfer salts, the methods operates near room temperature and are similar to the techniques of organic synthesis. Redox reactions are sometimes conducted by electrocrystallisation, as illustrated by the preparation of the Bechgaard salts from tetrathiafulvalene. For thermally robust materials, high temperature methods are employed. For example, bulk solids are prepared using tube furnaces, which allow reactions to be conducted up to ca. 1100 °C. Special equipment e.g. ovens consisting of a tantalum tube through which an electric current is passed can be used for higher temperatures up to 2000 °C.
Such high temperatures are at times required to induce diffusion of the reactants. One method employed is to melt the reactants together and later anneal the solidified melt. If volatile reactants are involved the reactants are put in an ampoule, evacuated -ofnt mixture cold e.g. by keeping the bottom of the ampoule in liquid nitrogen- and sealed. The sealed ampoule is put in an oven and given a certain heat treatment.. It is possible to use solvents to prepare solids by evaporation. At times the solvent is used hydrothermal, under pressure at temperatures higher than the normal boiling point. A variation on this theme is the use of flux methods, where a salt of low melting point is added to the mixture to act as a high temperature solvent in which the desired reaction can take place; this can be useful Many solids react vigorously with reactive gas species like chlorine, oxygen etc. Others form adducts with e.g. CO or ethylene; such reactions are conducted in a tube, open ended on both sides and through which the gas is passed.
A variation of this is to let the reaction take place inside a measuring device such as a TGA. In that case stoichiometric information can be obtained during the reaction, which helps identify the products. A special case of a gas reaction is a chemical transport reaction; these are carried out in a sealed ampoule to which a small amount of a transport agent, e.g. iodine is added. The ampoule is placed in a zone oven; this is two tube ovens attached to each other which allows a temperature gradient to be imposed. Such a method can be used to obtain the product in the form of single crystals suitable for structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Chemical vapour deposition is a high temperature method, employed for the preparation of coatings and semiconductors from molecular precursors. Synthetic methodology and characterization go hand in hand in the sense that not one but a series of reaction mixtures are prepared and subjected to heat treatment; the stoichiometry is varied in a systematic way to find which stoichiometries will lead to new solid compounds or to solid solutions between known ones.
A prime method to characterize the reaction products is powder diffraction, because many solid state reactions will produce polycristalline ingots or powders. Powder diffraction will facilitate the identification of known phases in the mixture. If a pattern is found, not known in the diffraction data libraries an attempt can be made to index the pattern, i.e. to identify the symmetry and the size of the unit cell. Once the unit cell of a new phase is known, the next step is to establish the stoichiometry of the phase; this can be done in a number of ways. Sometimes the composition of the original mixture will give a clue, if one finds only one product -a single powder pattern- or if one was trying to make a phase of a certain composition by analogy to known materials but this is rare. Considerable effort in refining the synthetic methodology is required to obtain a pure sample of the new material. If it is possible to separate the product from the rest of the reaction mixture elemental analysis can be used.
Another way involves the generation of characteristic X-rays in the electron beam. X-ray diffraction is used due to its imaging capabilities and speed of data generation; the latter requires revisiting and ref
Solid State (Jonathan Coulton album)
Solid State is the ninth studio album by singer-songwriter Jonathan Coulton. It was released on April 28, 2017. Coulton describes it as "a concept album about the internet, artificial intelligence, how love and empathy will save humanity!" Coulton says that the album "has a bit of a concept behind it," with a "character that you follow throughout his life." The album was recorded and produced by Christian Cassan at the Secret Garden recording studio in Brooklyn, New York. The album features additional vocals from Aimee Mann on several songs, including "All This Time," as well as guest guitar work from Dave Gregory on two tracks; the album was released on April 28, available as digital download, on double vinyl and CD. The album's first single, "All This Time", was released on February 28. On April 28, along with the album itself, Coulton released a graphic novel, written by Matt Fraction and illustrated by Albert Monteys; the graphic novel further fleshed out. The album premiered on the 2015 JoCo Cruise, when Coulton played early recordings of the songs "All This Time" and "Don't Feed the Trolls".
On the 2016 Cruise, Coulton played "Brave", "Square Things", "All This Time" and "Your Tattoo", all live, with fellow singer-songwriter and friend Aimee Mann. On the 2017 Cruise, Coulton performed two more songs for the first time, "Pictures of Cats" and "Ordinary Man"; this was the first time he played "Don't Feed the Trolls" live, as he only played a recording during 2015. In addition, he performed songs from Solid State as part of his opening act for Aimee Mann's 2017-‘18 tours for her album Mental Illness for which he had co-written three songs in addition to providing backing vocals and instrumentation. Advance copies of the album were available on both vinyl and CD during the main 2017 tour, along with the accompanying graphic novel and T-shirts
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter. In solids particles are packed, it is characterized by structural resistance to changes of shape or volume. Unlike liquid, a solid object does not flow to take on the shape of its container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it like a gas does; the atoms in a solid are bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice or irregularly. Solids cannot be compressed with little pressure whereas gases can be compressed with little pressure because in gases molecules are loosely packed; the branch of physics that deals with solids is called solid-state physics, is the main branch of condensed matter physics. Materials science is concerned with the physical and chemical properties of solids. Solid-state chemistry is concerned with the synthesis of novel materials, as well as the science of identification and chemical composition; the atoms, molecules or ions that make up solids may be arranged in an orderly repeating pattern, or irregularly.
Materials whose constituents are arranged in a regular pattern are known as crystals. In some cases, the regular ordering can continue unbroken over a large scale, for example diamonds, where each diamond is a single crystal. Solid objects that are large enough to see and handle are composed of a single crystal, but instead are made of a large number of single crystals, known as crystallites, whose size can vary from a few nanometers to several meters; such materials are called polycrystalline. All common metals, many ceramics, are polycrystalline. In other materials, there is no long-range order in the position of the atoms; these solids are known as amorphous solids. Whether a solid is crystalline or amorphous depends on the material involved, the conditions in which it was formed. Solids that are formed by slow cooling will tend to be crystalline, while solids that are frozen are more to be amorphous; the specific crystal structure adopted by a crystalline solid depends on the material involved and on how it was formed.
While many common objects, such as an ice cube or a coin, are chemically identical throughout, many other common materials comprise a number of different substances packed together. For example, a typical rock is an aggregate of several different minerals and mineraloids, with no specific chemical composition. Wood is a natural organic material consisting of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of organic lignin. In materials science, composites of more than one constituent material can be designed to have desired properties; the forces between the atoms in a solid can take a variety of forms. For example, a crystal of sodium chloride is made up of ionic sodium and chlorine, which are held together by ionic bonds. In diamond or silicon, the atoms share form covalent bonds. In metals, electrons are shared in metallic bonding; some solids most organic compounds, are held together with van der Waals forces resulting from the polarization of the electronic charge cloud on each molecule. The dissimilarities between the types of solid result from the differences between their bonding.
Metals are strong and good conductors of both electricity and heat. The bulk of the elements in the periodic table, those to the left of a diagonal line drawn from boron to polonium, are metals. Mixtures of two or more elements in which the major component is a metal are known as alloys. People have been using metals for a variety of purposes since prehistoric times; the strength and reliability of metals has led to their widespread use in construction of buildings and other structures, as well as in most vehicles, many appliances and tools, road signs and railroad tracks. Iron and aluminium are the two most used structural metals, they are the most abundant metals in the Earth's crust. Iron is most used in the form of an alloy, which contains up to 2.1% carbon, making it much harder than pure iron. Because metals are good conductors of electricity, they are valuable in electrical appliances and for carrying an electric current over long distances with little energy loss or dissipation. Thus, electrical power grids rely on metal cables to distribute electricity.
Home electrical systems, for example, are wired with copper for its good conducting properties and easy machinability. The high thermal conductivity of most metals makes them useful for stovetop cooking utensils; the study of metallic elements and their alloys makes up a significant portion of the fields of solid-state chemistry, materials science and engineering. Metallic solids are held together by a high density of shared, delocalized electrons, known as "metallic bonding". In a metal, atoms lose their outermost electrons, forming positive ions; the free electrons are spread over the entire solid, held together by electrostatic interactions between the ions and the electron cloud. The large number of free electrons gives metals their high values of electrical and thermal conductivity; the free electrons prevent transmission of visible light, making metals opaque and lustrous. More advanced models of metal properties consider the effect of the positive ions cores on the delocalised electrons.
As most metals have crystalline structure, those ions are arranged into a periodic lattice. Mathematically, the potential of the ion cores can be treated by various models, the simplest being the nearly free electron model. Minerals are
State of matter
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid and plasma. Many other states are known to exist, such as glass or liquid crystal, some only exist under extreme conditions, such as Bose–Einstein condensates, neutron-degenerate matter, quark-gluon plasma, which only occur in situations of extreme cold, extreme density, high-energy; some other states remain theoretical for now. For a complete list of all exotic states of matter, see the list of states of matter; the distinction is made based on qualitative differences in properties. Matter in the solid state maintains a fixed volume and shape, with component particles close together and fixed into place. Matter in the liquid state maintains a fixed volume, but has a variable shape that adapts to fit its container, its particles move freely. Matter in the gaseous state has both variable shape, adapting both to fit its container, its particles are neither close together nor fixed in place.
Matter in the plasma state has variable volume and shape, but as well as neutral atoms, it contains a significant number of ions and electrons, both of which can move around freely. The term phase is sometimes used as a synonym for state of matter, but a system can contain several immiscible phases of the same state of matter. In a solid, constituent particles are packed together; the forces between particles are so strong that the particles cannot move but can only vibrate. As a result, a solid has a stable, definite shape, a definite volume. Solids can only cut. In crystalline solids, the particles are packed in a ordered, repeating pattern. There are various different crystal structures, the same substance can have more than one structure. For example, iron has a body-centred cubic structure at temperatures below 912 °C, a face-centred cubic structure between 912 and 1,394 °C. Ice has fifteen known crystal structures, or fifteen solid phases, which exist at various temperatures and pressures.
Glasses and other non-crystalline, amorphous solids without long-range order are not thermal equilibrium ground states. Solids can be transformed into liquids by melting, liquids can be transformed into solids by freezing. Solids can change directly into gases through the process of sublimation, gases can change directly into solids through deposition. A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a constant volume independent of pressure; the volume is definite if the pressure are constant. When a solid is heated above its melting point, it becomes liquid, given that the pressure is higher than the triple point of the substance. Intermolecular forces are still important, but the molecules have enough energy to move relative to each other and the structure is mobile; this means that the shape of a liquid is determined by its container. The volume is greater than that of the corresponding solid, the best known exception being water, H2O; the highest temperature at which a given liquid can exist is its critical temperature.
A gas is a compressible fluid. Not only will a gas conform to the shape of its container but it will expand to fill the container. In a gas, the molecules have enough kinetic energy so that the effect of intermolecular forces is small, the typical distance between neighboring molecules is much greater than the molecular size. A gas occupies the entire container in which it is confined. A liquid may be converted to a gas by heating at constant pressure to the boiling point, or else by reducing the pressure at constant temperature. At temperatures below its critical temperature, a gas is called a vapor, can be liquefied by compression alone without cooling. A vapor can exist in equilibrium with a liquid, in which case the gas pressure equals the vapor pressure of the liquid. A supercritical fluid is a gas whose temperature and pressure are above the critical temperature and critical pressure respectively. In this state, the distinction between liquid and gas disappears. A supercritical fluid has the physical properties of a gas, but its high density confers solvent properties in some cases, which leads to useful applications.
For example, supercritical carbon dioxide is used to extract caffeine in the manufacture of decaffeinated coffee. Like a gas, plasma does not have definite volume. Unlike gases, plasmas are electrically conductive, produce magnetic fields and electric currents, respond to electromagnetic forces. Positively charged nuclei swim in a "sea" of freely-moving disassociated electrons, similar to the way such charges exist in conductive metal, where this electron "sea" allows matter in the plasma state to conduct electricity. A gas is converted to a plasma in one of two ways. E.g. Either from a huge voltage difference between two points, or by exposing it to high temperatures. Heating matter to high temperatures causes electrons to leave the atoms, resulting in the presence of free electrons; this creates a so-called ionised plasma. At high temperatures, such as those present in stars, it is assumed that all electrons are "free", that a high-energy plasma is bare nuclei swimming in a
Solid State Survivor
Solid State Survivor is the second album by Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, released in 1979. Solid State Survivor was never released in the United States, but many of the songs from this album were compiled for release in the States as the US pressing of ×∞Multiplies, including the tracks "Behind the Mask", "Rydeen", "Day Tripper", "Technopolis". Solid State Survivor is only one of a handful of YMO albums in which the track titles do not have a Japanese equivalent; the album was an early example of synthpop, a genre that the band helped pioneer alongside their earlier album Yellow Magic Orchestra, it contributed to the development of techno. Solid State Survivor won the Best Album Award at the 22nd Japan Record Awards, it sold two million records. Several songs from the album have continued to be covered and sampled. Solid State Survivor contains some of Yellow Magic Orchestra's best-known songs, including "Rydeen", which combines Eastern and Western musical styles, in addition to drawing from animal sounds the rhythms of a running horse.
"Rydeen" was sampled or covered in early chiptune and video game music, including Sega's Super Locomotive, Rabbit Software's Trooper Truck, ZUN's Touhou: Highly Responsive to Prayers, the Martin Galway soundtracks for Ocean Software's Daley Thompson's Decathlon and Superior Software's Stryker's Run. The album is known for "Behind the Mask", which YMO had first produced in 1978 for a Seiko quartz wristwatch commercial. YMO made use of synthesizers for digital gated reverb for the snare drums; the song has had numerous cover versions produced by other artists, most notably Michael Jackson. Alongside Quincy Jones, Jackson produced a more dance-funk version of the techno classic with additional lyrics intended for his best-selling album Thriller. Despite the approval of songwriter Sakamoto and lyricist Chris Mosdell, it was removed from the Thriller album due to legal issues with Yellow Magic Orchestra's management. Various cover versions were performed by Greg Phillinganes, Eric Clapton and The Human League, among others, before Jackson's cover version appeared on his posthumous Michael album in 2010.
Brian Eno produced a remix of YMO's original version in 1992."Technopolis" is considered an "interesting contribution" to the development of techno Detroit techno, as it used the term "techno" in its title, was a tribute to Tokyo as an electronic mecca, foreshadowed concepts that Juan Atkins and Rick Davis would have with Cybotron. "Technopolis" was sampled in Robert Hood's "Rhythm" from his debut minimal techno album Minimal Nation, in Electric Youth's "Replay" as well as Justice's "Horsepower" for the album "Audio, Disco". Techno-pop artist Aira Mitsuki pays homage to this track with her single Sayonara Technopolis, her music video for "GALAXY BOY" is inspired by that of Technopolis; the album's title song "Solid State Survivor" is a new wave synth rock song. The popular anime series Dragon Ball Z paid homage to the song and the album with the song "Solid State Scouter" as the theme song of the 1990 television special Dragon Ball Z: Bardock – The Father of Goku; this was YMO's most successful album in Japan.
It was the best selling album in the Oricon LP Chart for 1980, beating Chiharu Matsuyama's Kishōtenketsu – Godiego's Magic Monkey was best seller for 1979. In 1980 the album won a Best Album Award in the 22nd Japan Record Awards; the album went on to sell two million records worldwide. Yellow Magic Orchestra – arrangements, remix, cover conception Haruomi Hosono – bass guitar, synth bass, vocoder, production Ryuichi Sakamoto – keyboards, vocoder Yukihiro Takahashi – vocals, electronic drums, costume designGuest musicians Hideki Matsutake – Microcomposer programming Chris Mosdell – lyrics Sandii – vocals on "Absolute Ego Dance" Makoto Ayukawa – electric guitar on "Day Tripper" and "Solid State Survivor"Staff Kunihiko Murai and Shōrō Kawazoe – executive producers Norio Yoshizawa – recording engineer, remixing Mitsuo Koike – recording engineer Masako Hikasa and Akira Ikuta – recording coordinators Lou Beach – logo type Masayoshi Sukita – photography Heikichi Harata – art director Bricks – costumes Takehime, Fumiko Iura and Mayo Tsutsumi – stylists Mikio Honda – hair
Solid state ionics
Solid-state ionics is the study of ionic-electronic mixed conductor and ionic conductors and their uses. Some materials that fall into this category include inorganic crystalline and polycrystalline solids, glasses and composites. Solid-state ionic devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells, can be much more reliable and long-lasting under harsh conditions, than comparable devices with fluid electrolytes; the field of solid-state ionics was first developed in Europe, starting with the work of Michael Faraday on solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 in 1834. Fundamental contributions were made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he applied in his Nernst lamp. Another major step forward was the characterization of silver iodide in 1914. Around 1930, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner.
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, solid-state ionics focused on the synthesis and characterization of novel solid electrolytes and their applications in solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. The term solid state ionics was coined in 1967 by Takehiko Takahashi, but did not become used until the 1980s, with the emergence of the journal Solid State Ionics; the first international conference on this topic was held in 1972 in Belgirate, under the name "Fast Ion Transport in Solids, Solid State Batteries and Devices". In the early 1830s, Michael Faraday laid the foundations of electrochemistry and solid-state ionics by discovering the motion of ions in liquid and solid electrolytes. Earlier, around 1800, Alessandro Volta used a liquid electrolyte in his voltaic pile, the first electrochemical battery, but failed to realize that ions are involved in the process. Meanwhile, in his work on decomposition of solutions by electric current, Faraday used not only the ideas of ion, anion, anode, cathode and electrolysis, but the present-day terms for them.
Faraday associated electric current in an electrolyte with the motion of ions, discovered that ions can exchange their charges with an electrode while they were transformed into elements by electrolysis. He quantified; the first law stated that the mass of a product at the electrode, Δm, increases linearly with the amount of charge passed through the electrolyte, Δq. The second law established the proportionality between Δm and the “electrochemical equivalent” and defined the Faraday constant F as F =, where M is the molar mass and z is the charge of the ion. In 1834, Faraday discovered ionic conductivity in heated solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2. In PbF2, the conductivity increase upon heating was not sudden, but spread over a hundred degrees Celsius; such behavior, called Faraday transition, is observed in the cation conductors Na2S and Li4SiO4 and anion conductors PbF2, CaF2, SrF2, SrCl2 and LaF3. In 1891, Johann Wilhelm Hittorf reported on the ion transport numbers in electrochemical cells, in the early 20th century those numbers were determined for solid electrolytes.
The voltaic pile stimulated a series of improved batteries, such as the Daniell cell, fuel cell and lead acid battery. Their operation was understood in the late 1800s from the theories by Wilhelm Ostwald and Walther Nernst. In 1894 Ostwald explained the energy conversion in a fuel cell and stressed that its efficiency was not limited by thermodynamics. Ostwald, together with Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Svante Arrhenius, was a founding father of electrochemistry and chemical ionic theory, received a Nobel prize in chemistry in 1909, his work was continued by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and described ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he used in his Nernst lamp. Nernst was inspired by the dissociation theory of Arrhenius published in 1887, which relied on ions in solution. In 1889 he realized the similarity between electrochemical and chemical equilibria, formulated his famous equation that predicted the output voltage of various electrochemical cells based on liquid electrolytes from the thermodynamic properties of their components.
Besides his theoretical work, in 1897 Nernst patented the first lamp. Contrary to the existing carbon-filament lamps, Nernst lamp could operate in air and was twice more efficient as its emission spectrum was closer to that of daylight. AEG, a lighting company in Berlin, bought the Nernst’s patent for one million German gold marks, a fortune at the time, used 800 of Nernst lamps to illuminate their booth at the world’s fair Exposition Universelle. Among several solid electrolytes described in the 19th and early 20th century, α-AgI, the high-temperature crystalline form of silver iodide, is regarded as the most important one, its electrical conduction was characterized by Carl Tubandt and E. Lorenz in 1914, their comparative study of AgI, AgCl and AgBr demonstrated that α-AgI, is thermally stable and conductive between 147 and 555 °C. This behavior was reversible and excluded non-equilibrium effects. Tubandt and Lorenz described other materials with a similar behavior, such as α-CuI, α-CuBr, β-CuBr, high-temperature phases of Ag2S, Ag2Se and Ag2Te.
They associated the conductivity with cations in silver and cuprous halides and with ions and electrons in silver chalcogen
Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics. The term is used for devices in which semiconductor electronics which have no moving parts replace devices with moving parts, such as the solid-state relay in which transistor switches are used in place of a moving-arm electromechanical relay, or the solid-state drive a type of semiconductor memory used in computers to replace hard disk drives, which store data on a rotating disk; the term "solid state" became popular in the beginning of the semiconductor era in the 1960s to distinguish this new technology based on the transistor, in which the electronic action of devices occurred in a solid state, from previous electronic equipment that used vacuum tubes, in which the electronic action occurred in a gaseous state. A semiconductor device works by controlling an electric current consisting of electrons or holes moving within a solid crystalline piece of semiconducting material such as silicon, while the thermionic vacuum tubes it replaced worked by controlling current conducted by a gas of particles, electrons or ions, moving in a vacuum within a sealed tube.
Although the first solid state electronic device was the cat's whisker detector, a crude semiconductor diode invented around 1904, solid state electronics started with the invention of the transistor in 1947. Before that, all electronic equipment used vacuum tubes, because vacuum tubes were the only electronic components that could amplify, an essential capability in all electronics; the replacement of bulky, energy-wasting vacuum tubes by transistors in the 1960s and 1970s created a revolution not just in technology but in people's habits, making possible the first portable consumer electronics such as the transistor radio, cassette tape player, walkie-talkie and quartz watch, as well as the first practical computers and mobile phones. Today all electronics are solid-state except in some applications such as radio transmitters, in which vacuum tubes are still used, some power industrial control circuits which use electromechanical devices such as relays. Additional examples of solid state electronic devices are the microprocessor chip, LED lamp, solar cell, charge coupled device image sensor used in cameras, semiconductor laser.
Condensed matter physics Laser diode Materials science Semiconductor device Solar cell Solid-state physics