Tamron Co. Ltd. is a Japanese company manufacturing photographic lenses, optical components and commercial/industrial-use optics. Tamron Headquarters is located in Saitama City in the Saitama Prefecture of Japan; the name of the company came from the surname of Uhyoue Tamura, instrumental in developing Tamron's optical technologies. It was only on the company's 20th anniversary. Sony Corporation maintains a 12.06% share hold in Tamron, making it the second-largest shareholder below New Well Co. Ltd. with 18.78%. In the fiscal year ending 31 December 2017, net sales totalled 60.496 billion yen and operating income was 4.24 billion yen, up 79.8% from 2016. At that time, the consolidated company had 4,640 employees and five production plants: in Hirosaki and Owani in Japan, one in China and Viet Nam, respectively. Subsidiary companies were located in the U. S. Germany, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Haryana, India. 1950 November – Taisei Optical Manufacturing Company founded, to manufacture lenses for cameras and binoculars.
1952 October – Taisei Optical Industries established with a capital of 2.5 million yen. 1958 – ‘Tamron’ trademark registered. 1970 April – Trade name changed to Tamron Co. Ltd. 1979 April – Tamron Industries, Inc. established in New York City. 1982 September – Tamron Vertriebs GmbH established in Germany. 1984 February – Optech Tamron Co. Ltd. is established in Namioka, Aomori Prefecture. 1984 August – Shares listed with Japan Securities Dealers Association in Tokyo for over-the-counter transactions. 1985 December – Tamron Fine Giken Co. Ltd. a plant for making precision metal molds is established. 1986 January – Injection molding plant is established in Owani, Aomori. 1991 June – Optech Tamron Co. Ltd. is absorbed by Tamron Co. Ltd. 1995 February – Tamron acquires 75% capital of Bronica Co. Ltd. entering into the medium-format camera business 1995 April – Tamron Ltd. is established in the U. K. 1997 May – Tamron Industries is established in Hong Kong. 1997 July – Tamron Optical Co. Ltd. is established in Foshan, People’s Republic of China.
1998 July – Bronica Co. Ltd. is merged into Tamron Co. Ltd. 2000 June – Tamron Fine Giken is merged into Tamron Co. Ltd. 2000 June – Tamron France EURL is established in France. 2005 October – Tamron Optical Co. Ltd. is established in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. 2006 November – Tamron listed on the 1st Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. 2008 May – Tamron Co. Ltd. Taiwan manufacturing factory opened in Taiwan. 2009 July – Tamron Co. Ltd. India Liaison Office opened in India. 2009 November – Tamron Europe GmbH. Moscow Representative Office opened in Russia. 2013 June – Tamron India Pvt Ltd.opened in Haryana, India. 2016 – Sale of compact camera lens modules began. 2017 – Sale of drone camera lens modules began and Tamron acquired Toumeigiken Co. Tamron has sold more than 5 million lenses as of September 2014. In the 2017 fiscal year, such lenses accounted for 74.9% of all sales. Interchangeable lenses for digital and conventional SLR cameras, including compact high-ratio zoom lenses of which Tamron was the pioneer in 1992 when it released the 28–200 mm.
The most-current lens of this type is the AF 16–300 mm F/3.5-6.3 Di II VC PZD MACRO. Tamron was the maker of the manual-focus Adaptall series which have interchangeable mounts for multiple camera brands; these replaced an older series of interchangeable mount lens, the Adaptamatic lenses, which offered less functionality. Tamron was responsible for the development of the t2 or T-mount adapter system. Fixed-focal wideangle and macro lenses. Camcorder lenses Digital still camera lenses Cellular phone camera lenses CCTV camera lenses for Surveillance Industrial vision Image-processing Projection lenses, test plates, high precision molds, injection-molded parts & components, optical device units, etc. Most current Tamron lenses are available for Nikon F-, Canon EF-, Minolta/Sony A-mount-, Pentax K-mounts. Designations Di — ‘Digitally Integrated’, featuring coating optimized for digital SLRs, but still usable on 24×36 mm sensors Di II — Lenses for APS-C sized sensors only Di III — Lenses for compact system cameras SP — ‘Super Performance’, professional lenses — ‘Internal Focusing’ VC — ‘Vibration Compensation’ – in-lens image stabilization USD — ‘Ultrasonic Silent Drive’ PZD — ‘Piezo Drive’ ZL — ‘Zoom Lock’Optical design LD — ‘Low Dispersion’ elements XLD — ‘Extra Low Dispersion’ elements XR — ‘Extra Refractive Index’ glass AD — ‘Anomalous Dispersion’ LAH — ‘LD + ASL’ hybrid lens element ADH — ‘AD + ASL’ hybrid lens element HID — ‘High Index, High Dispersion’ glass Tamron SP AF 14 mm f/2.8 Aspherical Tamron SP AF 90 mm f/2.5 Macro Tamron SP AF 90 mm f/2.5 Macro Tamron SP AF 90 mm f/2.8 Macro 1:1 Tamron SP AF 90 mm f/2.8 Macro 1:1 Tamron SP AF 300 mm f/2.8 LD-IF Tamron SP AF 300 mm f/2.8 LD Tamron SP AF 300 mm f/2.8 LD Tamron AF 19–35 mm f/3.5-4.5 Tamron SP AF 20–40 mm f/2.7-3.5 Aspherical-IF (mo
Closed-circuit television known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not transmitted, though it may employ point to point, point to multipoint, or mesh wired or wireless links. Though all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks and other areas where security is needed. Though Videotelephony is called'CCTV' one exception is the use of video in distance education, where it is an important tool. Surveillance of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world. In recent years, the use of body worn video cameras has been introduced as a new form of surveillance used in law enforcement, with cameras located on a police officer's chest or head. Video surveillance has generated significant debate about balancing its use with individuals' right to privacy when in public.
In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders, provides recording for many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features. More decentralized IP cameras equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for stand-alone operation. There are about 350 million surveillance cameras worldwide as of 2016. About 65% of these cameras are installed in Asia; the growth of CCTV has been slowing in recent years. The first CCTV system was installed by Siemens AG at Test Stand VII in Peenemünde, Nazi Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets; the noted German engineer Walter Bruch was responsible for the technological design and installation of the system.
In the U. S. the first commercial closed-circuit television system became available in 1949, called Vericon. Little is known about Vericon except it was advertised as not requiring a government permit; the earliest video surveillance systems involved constant monitoring because there was no way to record and store information. The development of reel-to-reel media enabled the recording of surveillance footage; these systems required magnetic tapes to be changed manually, a time consuming and unreliable process, with the operator having to manually thread the tape from the tape reel through the recorder onto an empty take-up reel. Due to these shortcomings, video surveillance was not widespread. VCR technology became available in the 1970s, making it easier to record and erase information, the use of video surveillance became more common. During the 1990s, digital multiplexing was developed, allowing several cameras to record at once, as well as time lapse and motion-only recording; this increased savings of time and money which led to an increase in the use of CCTV.
CCTV technology has been enhanced with a shift toward Internet-based products and systems, other technological developments. Closed-circuit television was used as a form of pay-per-view theatre television for sports such as professional boxing and professional wrestling. Boxing telecasts were broadcast live to a select number of venues theaters, where viewers paid for tickets to watch the fight live; the first fight with a closed-circuit telecast was Joe Louis vs. Joe Walcott in 1948. Closed-circuit telecasts peaked in popularity with Muhammad Ali in the 1960s and 1970s, with "The Rumble in the Jungle" fight drawing 50 million CCTV viewers worldwide in 1974, the "Thrilla in Manila" drawing 100 million CCTV viewers worldwide in 1975. In 1985, the WrestleMania I professional wrestling show was seen by over one million viewers with this scheme; as late as 1996, the Julio César Chávez vs. Oscar De La Hoya boxing fight had 750,000 viewers. Closed-circuit television was replaced by pay-per-view home cable television in the 1980s and 1990s.
In September 1968, New York was the first city in the United States to install video cameras along its main business street in an effort to fight crime. Another early appearance was in 1973 in Times Square in New York City; the NYPD installed it in order to deter crime, occurring in the area. During the 1980s video surveillance began to spread across the country targeting public areas, it was seen as a cheaper way to deter crime compared to increasing the size of the police departments. Some businesses as well those that were prone to theft, began to use video surveillance. From the mid-1990s on, police departments across the country installed an increasing number of cameras in various public spaces including housing projects and public parks departments. CCTV became common in banks and stores to discourage theft, by recording evidence of criminal activity. In 1998, 3,000 CCTV systems were in use in New York City. A study by Nieto in 2008 found many businesses in the United States had invested in video surveillance technology to protect products and promote safe workplace and consumer environments.
A nationwide survey of a wide variety of companies found. In private sector CCTV surveillance technology is operated in a wide variety of establishments such as in industry/manufacturing, financial/insurance/banking and distribution, util
Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics describes the behaviour of visible and infrared light; because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is done using simplified models; the most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces. Physical optics is a more comprehensive model of light, which includes wave effects such as diffraction and interference that cannot be accounted for in geometric optics; the ray-based model of light was developed first, followed by the wave model of light.
Progress in electromagnetic theory in the 19th century led to the discovery that light waves were in fact electromagnetic radiation. Some phenomena depend on the fact that light has both particle-like properties. Explanation of these effects requires quantum mechanics; when considering light's particle-like properties, the light is modelled as a collection of particles called "photons". Quantum optics deals with the application of quantum mechanics to optical systems. Optical science is relevant to and studied in many related disciplines including astronomy, various engineering fields and medicine. Practical applications of optics are found in a variety of technologies and everyday objects, including mirrors, telescopes, microscopes and fibre optics. Optics began with the development of lenses by Mesopotamians; the earliest known lenses, made from polished crystal quartz, date from as early as 700 BC for Assyrian lenses such as the Layard/Nimrud lens. The ancient Romans and Greeks filled glass spheres with water to make lenses.
These practical developments were followed by the development of theories of light and vision by ancient Greek and Indian philosophers, the development of geometrical optics in the Greco-Roman world. The word optics comes from the ancient Greek word ὀπτική, meaning "appearance, look". Greek philosophy on optics broke down into two opposing theories on how vision worked, the "intromission theory" and the "emission theory"; the intro-mission approach saw vision as coming from objects casting off copies of themselves that were captured by the eye. With many propagators including Democritus, Epicurus and their followers, this theory seems to have some contact with modern theories of what vision is, but it remained only speculation lacking any experimental foundation. Plato first articulated the emission theory, the idea that visual perception is accomplished by rays emitted by the eyes, he commented on the parity reversal of mirrors in Timaeus. Some hundred years Euclid wrote a treatise entitled Optics where he linked vision to geometry, creating geometrical optics.
He based his work on Plato's emission theory wherein he described the mathematical rules of perspective and described the effects of refraction qualitatively, although he questioned that a beam of light from the eye could instantaneously light up the stars every time someone blinked. Ptolemy, in his treatise Optics, held an extramission-intromission theory of vision: the rays from the eye formed a cone, the vertex being within the eye, the base defining the visual field; the rays were sensitive, conveyed information back to the observer's intellect about the distance and orientation of surfaces. He summarised much of Euclid and went on to describe a way to measure the angle of refraction, though he failed to notice the empirical relationship between it and the angle of incidence. During the Middle Ages, Greek ideas about optics were resurrected and extended by writers in the Muslim world. One of the earliest of these was Al-Kindi who wrote on the merits of Aristotelian and Euclidean ideas of optics, favouring the emission theory since it could better quantify optical phenomena.
In 984, the Persian mathematician Ibn Sahl wrote the treatise "On burning mirrors and lenses" describing a law of refraction equivalent to Snell's law. He used this law to compute optimum shapes for curved mirrors. In the early 11th century, Alhazen wrote the Book of Optics in which he explored reflection and refraction and proposed a new system for explaining vision and light based on observation and experiment, he rejected the "emission theory" of Ptolemaic optics with its rays being emitted by the eye, instead put forward the idea that light reflected in all directions in straight lines from all points of the objects being viewed and entered the eye, although he was unable to explain how the eye captured the rays. Alhazen's work was ignored in the Arabic world but it was anonymously translated into Latin around 1200 A. D. and further summarised and expanded on by the Polish monk Witelo making it a standard text on optics in Europe for the next 400 years. In the 13th century in medieval Europe, English bishop Robert Grosseteste wrote on a wide range of scientific topics, discussed light from four different perspectives: an epistemology of light, a metaphysics or cosmogony of light, an etiology or physics of light, a theology of light, basing it on the works Aristotle and Platonism.
Grosseteste's most famous disciple, Roger Bacon, wrote w
Tokina Co. Ltd. is a Japanese manufacturer of photographic lenses and CCTV security equipment. FX - Full frame DX - cropped digital AF - Auto-Focus AT-X Pro - professional line AT-X - consumer line IF - Internal Focus System FE - Floating Element System NH - No Hood Optical design AS - Aspherical Optics F&R - Advanced Aspherical Optics SD - Super Low Dispersion HLD - High-Refraction and Low Dispersion MC - Multi-Coating AT-X 107 DX AF fisheye 10-17mm f/3.5~4.5 AT-X 116 PRO DX AF 11–16mm f/2.8 AT-X PRO SD 11–20mm f/2.8 DX AT-X 124 PRO DX AF 12–24mm f/4 AT-X 124 PRO DX II SD IF AF 12–24mm f/4 AT-X PRO DX AF 12-28mm f/4AT-X PRO FX AF 16-28mm f/2.8 AT-X 165 PRO DX AF 16–50mm f/2.8 AT-X DX AF 16.5-135mm f/3.5-5.6 AT-X PRO FX AF 17-35mm f/4AF 193 19-35mm f/3.5~4.5 AT-X 235 PRO AF 20-35mm f/2.8 AF 235 20-35mm f/3.5-4.5 AF 235 II 20-35mm f/3.5-4.5 AT-X 240 AF 24-40mm f/2.8 AT-X 24-70mm PRO FX f/2.8 AT-X 242 AF 24-200mm f/3.5~5.6 RMC 25-50mm f/4AT-X 270 PRO AF 28-70mm f/2.6-2.8 SZ-X 287 28-70mm f/2.8-4.3 AT-X 287 PRO SV AF 28–70mm f/2.8 AT-X AF 28-70mm f/2.8 AT-X 280 PRO AF 28-80mm f/2.8 SZ-X 270 SD 28-70mm f/3.5-4.5 AT-X 285 28-85mm f/3.5-4.5 AF 28-80 f/3.5-5.6 SMZ 287 28-70mm f/4 RMC 28-85mm f/4 AT-X 235 28-135mm f/4-4.6AT-X 357 35-70mm f/2.8 RMC 35-70mm f/3.5 RMC 35-105mm f/3.5 SMZ 35-105mm f/3.5-4.3 RMC 35-135mm f/4-4.5 AT-X 352 35-200mm f/3.5-4.5 AT-X SD 35-200mm f/3.5-4.5 AF 353 SD 35-300mm f/4.5-6.7 AT-X 535 PRO DX AF 50–135mm f/2.8 EMZ 520 50-200mm f/3.5-4.5 AT-X 525 50-250mm f/4-5.6AT-X 120 60-120mm f/2.8AT-X PRO FX AF 70-200mm f/4 VCM-S RMC 70-210mm f/3.5 RMC 70-210mm f/4 RMC 70-220mm f/3.5 RMC 75-150mm f/3.8 SMZ 75 75-260mm f/4.5 AT-X SD 80-200mm f/2.8 AT-X 828 AF 80-200mm f/2.8 AT-X 828 PRO AF 80-200mm f/2.8 SMZ 835 80-200mm f/3.5-4.5 SZ 820 80-200mm f/4.0 RMC 80-200mm f/4.0 RMC 80-200mmf/4.0 SMZ 845 80-200mm f/4.5 RMC 80-250mm f/4.5 AT-X 840 AF 80-400mm f/4.5-5.6 AT-X 840 PRO D AF 80-400mm f/4.5~5.6 90-230mm f/4.5 AT-X 100-300mm SD f/4 AT-X 340 AF 100-300mm f/4 AT-X 340 AF II 100-300mm f/4 RMC 100-300mm f/5 SZ 10 100-300mm f/5.6 AT-X 150-500mm f/5.6SZ-X 205 28-105mm f/4-5.3 SZ-X SD 35-200mm f/4-5.6 SZ-X 210 SD 70-210mm f/4-5.6 SZ-X 820 80-200mm f/4.5 SZ-X 80-200mm f/ 4.5-5.6 SL 17 17mm f/3.5 AT-X 17 AF 17mm f/3.5 AT-X 17 PRO AF 17mm f/3.5 RMC 17 17mm f/3.5FiRIN 20mm f/2.0 FE MFRMC 24mm f/2.8 SL 24 24mm f/2.8RMC 28mm f/2 RMC 28mm f/2.8 SL 28 28mm f/2.8AT-X M35 PRO DX AF 35mm f/2.8 MACRO SL 35 35mm f/2.8Opera 50mm f/1.4AT-X M90 90mm f/2.5 MACRO AT-X M100 AF 100mm f/2.8 MACRO AT-X M100 PRO D AF 100mm f/2.8 MACRO SL 135 135mm f/2.8 SL 200 200mm f/3.5AT-X 300 SD 300mm f/2.8 AT-X 300 AF II 300mm f/2.8 AT-X 300 PRO AF 300mm f/2.8 AT-X 304 AF 300mm f/4 300mm f/5.5 SL 300 300mm f/5.6AT-X SD AF 400mm f/5.6 SL 400 400mm f/5.6 SL 400 SD 400mm f/5.6 400mm f/6.3 TM 500 500mm f/8 MirrorT600 600mm f/8 T800 800mm f/8 List of photographic equipment makers List of Tokina lenses with Nikon F-mount and integrated autofocus motor Kenko - produces lenses under the Tokina name Official homepage Canon EOS Technoclopedia: Tokina AF Lenses for Canon EF - a lens chart with technical data and test references, including discontinued models
Nikon Corporation known just as Nikon, is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Tokyo, specializing in optics and imaging products. Nikon's products include cameras, camera lenses, microscopes, ophthalmic lenses, measurement instruments, rifle scopes, spotting scopes, the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication, of which it is the world's second largest manufacturer; the company is the eighth-largest chip equipment maker as reported in 2017. The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. Among its products are Nikkor imaging lenses, the Nikon F-series of 35 mm film SLR cameras, the Nikon D-series of digital SLR cameras, the Coolpix series of compact digital cameras, the Nikonos series of underwater film cameras. Nikon's main competitors in camera and lens manufacturing include Canon, Fujifilm, Panasonic and Olympus. Founded on July 25, 1917 as Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushikigaisha, the company was renamed to Nikon Corporation, after its cameras, in 1988.
Nikon is a member of the Mitsubishi group of companies. Nikon Corporation was established on 25 July 1917 when three leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive integrated optical company known as Nippon Kōgaku Tōkyō K. K. Over the next sixty years, this growing company became a manufacturer of optical lenses and equipment used in cameras, binoculars and inspection equipment. During World War II the company operated thirty factories with 2,000 employees, manufacturing binoculars, bomb sights, periscopes for the Japanese military. After the war Nippon Kōgaku reverted to producing its civilian product range in a single factory. In 1948, the first Nikon-branded camera was released, the Nikon I. Nikon lenses were popularised by the American photojournalist David Douglas Duncan. Duncan was working in Tokyo. Duncan had met Jun Miki, who introduced Duncan to Nikon lenses. From July 1950 to January 1951, Duncan covered the Korean War. Fitting Nikon optics to his Leica rangefinder cameras produced high contrast negatives with sharp resolution at the centre field.
Founded in 1917 as Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushikigaisha, the company was renamed Nikon Corporation, after its cameras, in 1988. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, sounds like a merging of Nippon Kōgaku and Zeiss's brand Ikon; this would cause some early problems in Germany as Zeiss complained that Nikon violated its trademarked camera. From 1963 to 1968 the Nikon F in particular was therefore labeled'Nikkor'; the Nikkor brand was introduced in 1932, a westernised rendering of an earlier version Nikkō, an abbreviation of the company's original full name. Nikkor is the Nikon brand name for its lenses. Another early brand used on microscopes was Joico, an abbreviation of "Japan Optical Industries Co". Expeed is the brand Nikon uses for its image processors since 2007; the Nikon SP and other 1950s and 1960s rangefinder cameras competed directly with models from Leica and Zeiss. However, the company ceased developing its rangefinder line to focus its efforts on the Nikon F single-lens reflex line of cameras, successful upon its introduction in 1959.
For nearly 30 years, Nikon's F-series SLRs were the most used small-format cameras among professional photographers, as well as by the U. S. space program. Nikon popularized many features in professional SLR photography, such as the modular camera system with interchangeable lenses, motor drives, data backs. However, as auto focus SLRs became available from Minolta and others in the mid-1980s, Nikon's line of manual-focus cameras began to seem out of date. Despite introducing one of the first autofocus models, the slow and bulky F3AF, the company's determination to maintain lens compatibility with its F-mount prevented rapid advances in autofocus technology. Canon introduced a new type of lens-camera interface with its electronic Canon EOS cameras and Canon EF lens mount in 1987; the much faster lens performance permitted by Canon's electronic focusing and aperture control prompted many professional photographers to switch to the Canon system through the 1990s. Nikon created some of the first digital SLRs for NASA, used in the Space Shuttle since 1991.
After a 1990s partnership with Kodak to produce digital SLR cameras based on existing Nikon film bodies, Nikon released the Nikon D1 SLR under its own name in 1999. Although it used an APS-C-size light sensor only 2/3 the size of a 35 mm film frame, the D1 was among the first digital cameras to have sufficient image quality and a low enough price for some professionals to use it as a replacement for a film SLR; the company has a Coolpix line which grew as consumer digital photography became prevalent through the early 2000s. Through the mid-2000s, Nikon's line of professional and enthusiast DSLRs and lenses including their back compatible AF-S lens line remained in second place behind Canon in SLR camera sales, Canon
Canon FD lens mount
The Canon FD lens mount is a physical standard for connecting a photographic lens to a 35mm single-lens reflex camera body. The standard was developed by Canon of Japan and was introduced in March 1971 with the Canon F-1 camera, it served as the Canon SLR interchangeable lens mounting system until the 1987 introduction of the Canon EOS series cameras, which use the newer EF lens mount. The FD mount lingered through the release of the 1990 Canon T60, the last camera introduced in the FD system, the end of the Canon New F-1 product cycle in 1992; the FD mount replaced Canon's earlier FL mount. Though never explained by Canon, others have attempted to assign a meaning to the "FD" designation. One such attempt states that the "FD" notation stands for "Focal-plane shutter with Dual linkage for diaphragm control"; this is twice the previous lens series, which used the "FL" designation, said to mean "Focal-plane shutter, Linked mount."Over the 21-plus years of production, Canon introduced 134 different FD lenses ranging from 7.5mm through 1,200mm in seventeen different fixed focal lengths and nineteen different zoom ranges, one of the most, if not the most, extensive manual focus lens lines produced.
The Canon FD system enjoyed huge popularity in the 1970s and 1980s, when it established and grew a market share with professional photographers as well as having equipped over a million consumer users. Indeed, sales of the Canon AE-1 camera alone exceeded one million. Canon obsoleted. Thus, the FD mount system, with no provision for auto-focus, is now commercially obsolete, Canon FD cameras and lenses are available for low prices on the second-hand market; this makes the system attractive to 35mm film photographers who demand the highest optical quality, while not needing auto focus capability. FD lenses can be used on many mirrorless interchangeable-lens cameras with a suitable adapter, they are a popular alternative to modern lenses among some users. The FD lens mount is a breech-lock mount, a variation of the common triple-flanged bayonet attachment; the advantage of the breech-lock over the bayonet is that neither the contact surfaces between the body and lens, nor the signalling mechanisms, rotate against each other when the lens is mounted.
This prevents any mechanical wear, which could conceivably reduce the precise lens-to-film distance or introduce communication errors between lens and body. Canon's first iteration of the FD breech-lock, extended forward from the earlier R- and FL-series lenses, utilized a rotating mounting ring at the rear of the lens, its minor disadvantage was a somewhat slower lens change than a bayonet. There are three different versions of breech ring FD lenses: The first version had a chrome plated front barrel and a green "o" for auto exposure; the second version had a black front barrel and still had a green "o" for auto exposure. The third version had a black front barrel, a green "A" for auto exposure; these different versions are detailed below under variants. Second-generation FD lenses, first marketed in 1981 as New FD, are mounted like bayonet-mount lenses in that the photographer twists the entire lens body to mount and dismount, though the actual mating surfaces still remain fixed; this retained.
The letters SC or SSC to indicate the lens coating were no longer put on the lenses. Canon documents stated. Canon chose a bayonet-style mount for its EOS system's EF lenses, where there is no precision mechanical coupling. Like its FL predecessor, the FD mount system allowed automatic diaphragm function, but in addition, a new signal pin supported full-aperture metering. A second signal pin for the "auto" setting of the aperture dial, plus a linkage to allow the camera to set the degree of diaphragm opening, enabled integral auto-exposure; the first camera to utilize this was the 1971 Canon F-1. The Canon EF of 1973 had automatic exposure built-in, as did the popular Canon A-series cameras beginning in 1976. Thus, starting with the first FD lenses produced in late 1970, all FD lenses had the capability of supporting full-aperture metering and multiple Automatic Exposure modes using both shutter-preferred and aperture-preferred modes. Programmed AE was possible with no modifications to the lens mount, though at the time of its introduction Canon did not have an AE camera body in the FD line.
This was a design triumph for Canon that no other camera or lens maker was able to equal in 1970. Every other camera manufacturer had to make one or more alterations to its lens mount to enable full aperture metering, AE and or Programmed AE operation; the FD mount has no support for either electrical or mechanical lens-body communication required for autofocus, a primary reason for its retirement.. While Canon could have adapted its mount to support auto-focus, as did other manufacturers, the company instead chose to make a clean break with the past and design a new interface with support for electrical signaling and control; the earliest breech-lock Canon FD lenses are recognizable by a c
Miranda Camera Company
The Miranda Camera Company named the Orion Camera Company, manufactured cameras in Japan between 1955 and 1978. Their first camera was the Miranda T. Many of their products were single-lens reflex cameras for 135 film. Unlike many Japanese made cameras, Miranda did not make their own lenses and had to rely on other manufacturers to supply them. All their SLR cameras, except the dx-3, had interchangeable pentaprisms, a unique dual lens mount. Unable to keep up with the increasing manufacturing automation of the larger manufacturers, the sophisticated electronics of competing cameras, Miranda ceased producing cameras. Miranda cameras were a line of quality 35mm single lens reflexes, a range of over 30 models between first prototypes in 1953 through to the last production model in 1978. Many had sophisticated features for their day. All Miranda SLR's shared the same basic lens mount, but the mount complexity increased over the years to accommodate more aperture and metering controls. In the early 1980s, the British electrical and photographic retailer Dixons acquired the rights to the Miranda brand and used it on a range of photographic equipment.
This included badge-engineered versions of Cosina cameras which were distributed in several European countries. As of May 2011, Dixons Retail still had the rights to the brand in several countries but no longer used it and planned to sell the brand off. Miranda Camera Historical Society Camerapedia article