Intelligence is a Patience game which uses two decks of playing cards mixed together. It is a two-deck version of another solitaire game La Belle Lucie and its game play is somewhat closer to the parent game than its cousins House in the Wood and House on the Hill. First, 18 piles of three cards are dealt. During this deal any ace encountered regardless of where it would end up in the pile will be moved to a foundation and be replaced with another card; as they become available, the other aces are placed on the foundations, which are all built up by suit. The top cards of the piles are available to be built on the foundations or on each other's piles on the tableau; when building on the tableau, the cards are built either down by suit. Aces cannot be placed over kings and vice versa; when a gap occurs, it is filled by three new cards from the stock. This is the only way cards from the stock are introduced from the game and the only way spaces are refilled; as in the original deal, any ace that comes up is placed on the foundations.
When all moves have been made and become stuck if there are still cards in the stock, the stock and all the cards in the tableau are gathered, 18 piles of three cards each are redealt, or as many piles of three cards as the remaining ones can allow. This can be done twice and during both redeals as in the original deal, any aces the player encounters are placed onto the foundations; the game is won. Sloane Lee and Gabriel Packard's version of the game increased the number of tableau piles to 19 because they think this improves the game
Mahjong solitaire is a single-player matching game that uses a set of mahjong tiles rather than cards. It is known as Shanghai solitaire, electronic or computerized mahjong, solitaire mahjong and as mahjong; the tiles come from the four-player game mahjong. The 144 tiles are arranged in a special four-layer pattern with their faces upwards. A tile is said to be open or exposed if it can be moved either left or right without disturbing other tiles; the goal is to match open pairs of identical tiles and remove them from the board, exposing the tiles under them for play. The game is finished when all pairs of tiles have been removed from the board or when there are no exposed pairs remaining. Tiles that are below other tiles cannot be seen, but by repeated undos and/or restarts which some programs offer, one gets more and more information. Sometimes, tiles are only covered by other tiles, the extent to which such tiles can be distinguished depends on the actual tile set. Playing Mahjong solitaire optimally in the sense to maximize the probability of removing all tiles is PSPACE-complete, the game gets NP-complete when peeking below tiles is allowed.
Condon, Feigenbaum and Shor proved that it is PSPACE-hard to approximate the maximum probability of removing all tiles within a factor of n ϵ, assuming that there are arbitrarily many quadruples of matching tiles and that the hidden tiles are uniformly distributed. The perfect-information version of this puzzle is where the player knows, before the game starts, the position of every tile. Eppstein proved. A sample of 10 7 games with the default layout, "the turtle", revealed that between 2.95 and 2.96 percent of the turtles cannot be solved if peeking is allowed. Mahjong solitaire can be played using a special wooden frame for set-up. Though, it is played in an electronic form as a computer game; this removes the temptation to cheat. Some electronic Mahjong solitaire games offer extra options, such as: Shuffling the tiles Changing the tile set and patterns from the traditional tiles to flowers, jewels or other items that may be easier to match up at a glance Playing a series of different layouts with varying levels of difficulty Adding "wildcard tiles" and other tiles that have special functions.
These games have a time limit, sometimes optional. Most offer hints and/or undo options which provides the ability to have a match found for the player or to backtrack and undo made moves. Additionally, most implementations of the game arrange the tiles in such a way that the game is solvable in at least one way. Mahjong solitaire can be played either solo or with a partner, in which case the aim is to accumulate the most pairs, to be the last one to match a pair, or to score the most points. Points are gained for each pair removed, with bonus points for removing matched pairs in sequence or removing pairs in sequence that are parts of sets. Using traditional mahjong tiles, the sets include the dragons, the flowers, the seasons, the winds; the winds are worth the most bonus points when paired individually, but the most bonus points are achieved by matching all of the seasons followed by all of the flowers. With the advent of online gaming, some computer mahjong games offer "clash" style player vs player challenges where each opponent solves the same board and shuffle, the best score wins.
Some implementations offer to shuffle the tiles when there are no exposed pairs remaining, making it always possible for the player to complete the game. The computer game was created by Brodie Lockard in 1981 on the PLATO system and named Mah-Jongg after the game that uses the same tiles for play. Lockard claims that it was based on a centuries-old Chinese game called "the Turtle". There is a children's game in China named 拆牌龜 of unknown age; the computer game was played using a CDC-721 touch screen terminal. Control Data Corporation released a new version as a paid online game in 1983; the first version remained available for free. However, it was Activision's release of Shanghai in 1986 for the Amiga Computer, Atari ST and Apple IIgs that popularised the game; the Macintosh version was created by Brodie Lockard and the Apple IIGS version was ported from the Macintosh by Ivan Manley with Brad Fregger as the producer. The game became successful, around 10 million copies were sold, it has been ported to many different platforms.
The name "Shanghai" was trademarked by Activision. A similar game, known as Gunshy, was released in 1987 for the Macintosh; as the game is based on mahjong tiles, some confusion arose with the 4-player mahjong game. Although the name mahjong solitaire is accepted, other names include The Turtle as well as brand names Shanghai Solitaire, Taipei and Moraff's. A version of this game was included in the Microsoft Entertainment Pack for Windows 3.x in 1990 and went by the name Taipei. It was subsequently included in the Best of Windows Entertainment Pack. Premium editions of the Windows Vista operating system and Windows 7 include a version of the game known as Mahjong Titans; some variations are played online using a web browser. Mahjong Shisen-Sho, another solitaire game with Mahjong tiles Other Solitaire games Patience, or solitaire with cards Tile-m
Miss Milligan is a patience game, played using two decks of playing cards. According to Peter Arnold, author of Card Games for One, this classic game's popularity in England is due to the player's ability to recover from hopeless positions. First, eight cards are dealt in a row. Any ace that becomes available is put onto the foundations. Other cards are built down by alternating color. One card can be moved at a time, although a sequence can be moved in part or in whole as one unit; when an empty column occurs, only a King or a sequence starting with a King can be placed on it. When no more moves can be made, a new set of eight cards is dealt, each for every column, whether full or empty; the game resumes until all possible moves are exhausted, after which a new set of eight cards is placed. This cycle of dealing new cards and making moves continues. After the stock has run out, there is no redeal. However, there is special move called either "waiving" or "weaving"; the player can set it aside. The card or sequence can be placed back on to the tableau at any time as long as it can be built legally.
Only one card or sequence of cards can be set aside at a time. Computerized solitaire applications that feature this game include a reserve for this purpose; the game ends. The game is won. List of solitaires Glossary of solitaire
Diplomat is a solitaire card game, played using two decks of playing cards shuffled together. Its layout is similar to that of Beleaguered Castle. First, thirty-two cards each are dealt and arranged so that they form two columns of four rows of four cards each just like in Beleaguered Castle, making a point to leave a space in between the two columns for the eight aces that form the bases of the foundations; the top cards of each row of cards for play to the foundations on the center of the columns or around the tableau. The foundations are built up by suit up to kings, while the cards in the tableau are built down regardless of suit; when a gap occurs in the tableau, it can be filled by any available card. Only one card can be moved at a time; when there are no available moves—or if the players has done all plays one can make—the stock is dealt one at a time. Any card that cannot be played to the foundations or the tableau can be placed on the wastepile, the top card of, available for play; the stock can only be dealt once.
The game ends. The game is won. List of solitaires Glossary of solitaire
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Concentration known as Match Match, Match Up, Pelmanism, Shinkei-suijaku, Pexeso or Pairs, is a card game in which all of the cards are laid face down on a surface and two cards are flipped face up over each turn. The object of the game is to turn over pairs of matching cards. Concentration can be played as solitaire, it is a good game for young children, though adults may find it challenging and stimulating as well. The scheme is used in quiz shows and can be employed as an educational game. Any deck of playing cards may be used, although there are commercial sets of cards with images; the rules given here are for a standard deck of 52 cards, which are laid face down in four rows of 13 cards each. The two jokers may be included for a total of six rows of nine cards each. Additional packs can be used for added interest. Standard rules need not be followed: the cards can be spread out anywhere, such as all around a room. In turn, each player turns them face up. If they are of the same rank and color that player wins the pair and plays again.
If they are not of the same rank and color, they are turned face down again and play passes to the player on the left. Rules can be changed here too: it can be agreed before the game starts that matching pairs be any two cards of the same rank, a color-match being unnecessary, or that the match must be both rank and card suit; the game ends. The winner is the person with the most pairs. There may be a tie for first place. Concentration may be played solo either as a leisurely exercise, or with the following scoring method: play as normal, but keep track of the number of non-matching pairs turned over; the object is to get the lowest possible score. With perfect memorization and using an optimal strategy, the expected number of moves needed for a game with n cards converges to ≈ 0.8 ∗ n, with n → ∞. For a standard deck of 52 cards, the expected value is ≈ 41.4 moves. Over the course of the game, it becomes known where certain cards are located, so upon turning up one card, players with good memory will be able to remember where they have seen its pair.
It is common for many players to think they know where pairs are and to turn over the one they are sure of first be stumped finding its mate. A better strategy is to turn over a less certain card first, so that if wrong, one knows not to bother turning a more certain card over. An ideal strategy can be developed. For the One Flip variation below, this strategy is simple. Before any turn in the game, there are t cards still in play, n cards still in play but of known value; the current player should flip over an unknown card. If this card matches one of the known cards, the match is next chosen. Less if the card does not match any known card, one of the n known cards should still be chosen to minimize the information provided to other players; the mathematics follow: If a remaining unknown card is chosen randomly, there is a 1/ chance of getting a match, but a n/ chance of providing opponents with the information needed to make a match. There are some exceptions to this rule that apply on the fringe cases, where n = 0 or 1 or towards the end of the game.
Many of these may be played in combination with one another: Any Color: A version good for young children where matching pairs need only be of the same rank, not the same color. When playing with jokers, these count double. One Flip: Players who make a successful pair win these cards but do not go again until their next turn. Zebra: Pairs may only be formed by cards of the same rank, but opposite in color Two Decks: For a much longer game, shuffle together two 52-card decks and lay them out in 8 rows of 13 cards. Pairs must be identical. Two Decks Duel: Duel is a two-player game where the playing field is divided into two separate parts; each player lay it out in 4 rows of 13 cards. The players cannot access each other's cards. Player one starts, flipping one card face-up player two selects one card from his/her own side. If the pair is a match, cards are removed, if not, they are flipped back. Pairs must be identical. After every turn roles are exchanged, in this case: player two flips a card and player one answers.
Double Decker Checkerboard: For a easier version of the two-pack game, use decks with different backs and shuffle them separately. Deal them out in a checkerboard pattern The different backs help identify the position in the grid and reduce the possibility of which cards will match. Fancy: The cards need not be laid out in a strict rectangular grid and many players have their own special layouts that include circular, triangular, or diamond-shaped formations. Dealers may select any layout. Spaghetti: Same rules as standard concentration, only the cards are not laid out in neat rows, they are strewn rand
Baroness is a solitaire card game, played with a deck of 52 playing cards. Known as Five Piles and Thirteens, it is a game that has an arrangement, like that of Aces Up but with the game play of Pyramid. Five cards are dealt in a row. In order to win, one has to remove Kings and pairs of cards that total 13. In this game, spot cards are taken at face value, Jacks value at 11, Queens 12, Kings 13. So the following combinations of cards are discarded: Queen and Ace Jack and 2 10 and 3 9 and 4 8 and 5 7 and 6 Kings on their own; when gaps occur, they are filled by the top cards of the other piles. When gaps are filled and no kings and/or pairs of cards totalling 13 are present, five new cards are dealt from the stock, one onto each pile. Game play continues, with the top cards of each pile, as mentioned above, are available; this cycle of discarding and dealing of new cards goes on. The game is won when all cards have been discarded