The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. The main ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds, others include Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Circassians, around 95% of the countrys 36 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish, two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws, the area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Assyrian and it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. Iraqs modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres, Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932, in 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Baath Party from 1968 until 2003, after an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Husseins Baath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The American presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country, the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name, one dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus ultimately of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for city, UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is rooted, well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿajamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran.
The term historically included the south of the Hamrin Mountains. The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. In English, it is either /ɪˈrɑːk/ or /ɪˈræk/, the American Heritage Dictionary, the pronunciation /aɪˈræk/ is frequently heard in U. S. media. Since approximately 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture where agriculture, the following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, arms control and disarmament. Established in 1966, SIPRI provides data and recommendations, based on sources, to policymakers, media. In 1964, Prime Minister of Sweden Tage Erlander put forward the idea of establishing a research institute to commemorate Swedens 150 years of unbroken peace. A Swedish Royal Commission chaired by Ambassador Alva Myrdal proposed in its 1966 report to establish an institute, named the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, the Swedish Riksdag decided that the Institute be established on 1 July 1966 with the legal status of an independent foundation. All SIPRI research is based exclusively on open sources, SIPRIs organisation consists of a Governing Board, Deputy Director, Research Staff Collegium and support staff. An Advisory Committee serves as a body to the Institute. The Governing Board takes decisions on important matters concerning the research agenda, organisation, other matters are decided by the Director.
The Research Staff Collegium advises the Director on research matters, the staff of about 50 persons is international. The researchers are recruited for a specific period and represent various academic disciplines. Located in Sweden, the Institute offers a platform for researchers from different countries to work in close cooperation. The Institute hosts guest researchers who work on issues related to the SIPRI research programme, although SIPRI is not a teaching institute, it receives interns whose programmes of study can contribute to and benefit from SIPRIs research. Contacts are maintained with other centres and individual researchers throughout the world. Frequent contacts are maintained with diplomatic missions in Stockholm and with Swedish research centres, Dr Bates Gill served as SIPRI Director from 2007–2012. In September 2012, the Swedish Government appointed the German economist Tilman Brück as his successor, Brück held the position of SIPRI Director from January 2013 to June 2014.
In June 2014 the SIPRI Governing Board appointed Dr Ian Anthony as Director for an interim period, the current Director, Dan Smith, was appointed in September 2015. SIPRIs current Deputy Director is Jakob Hallgren, among these the biggest are the Stockholm Forum on Peace and Security and the Stockholm Security Conference. SIPRIs publications and information material are distributed to a range of policy makers, journalists, organisations. The results of the research are disseminated through the publication of books and reports by SIPRI and commissioned authors as well as through symposia, the Institute has forged its profile by concentrating on present-day realities, providing unbiased facts to states and individuals
A suburb is a residential area or a mixed use area, either existing as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In some areas, such as Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and a few U. S. states, new suburbs are routinely annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land, the English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, which is in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs. The first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, in Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities, the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density suburbs in proximity to the city center, and the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area.
The term middle suburbs is used, Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London, suburbs include formerly separate towns and villages that have been gradually absorbed during a growth and expansion. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city. The earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements, large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town. The word suburbani was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas, as populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the city expanded.
The peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were generally inhabited by the very poorest, by the mid-19th century, the first major suburban areas were springing up around London as the city became more overcrowded and unsanitary. A major catalyst in suburban growth came from the opening of the Metropolitan Railway in the 1860s, the line joined the capitals financial heart in the City to what were to become the suburbs of Middlesex. Harrow was reached in 1880, and the line extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street. Unlike other railway companies, which were required to dispose of surplus land, in 1912, it was suggested that a specially formed company should take over from the Surplus Lands Committee and develop suburban estates near the railway. However, World War I delayed these plans and it was only in 1919, with expectation of a housing boom. The term Metro-land was coined by the Mets marketing department in 1915 when the Guide to the Extension Line became the Metro-land guide and this promoted the land served by the Met for the walker and the house-hunter
South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is the used in nations that speak Romance languages. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, North America and it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, and a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers. Its population as of 2005 has been estimated at more than 371,090,000, South America ranks fourth in area and fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the population, followed by Colombia, Venezuela. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the regions GDP and has become a first regional power, most of the population lives near the continents western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated.
Most of the continent lies in the tropics, the continents cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish. South America occupies the portion of the Americas. The continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border. Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate, South Americas major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum. These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies and this is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.
South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth, South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a proportion of the Earths species. Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the land area
Stockholm commuter rail
Stockholm commuter rail is the commuter rail system in Stockholm County, Sweden. The system is an important part of the transport in Stockholm, and is controlled by Stockholm Transport. The tracks are state-owned and administered by the Swedish Transport Administration, in December 2016, MTR Corporation overtook operation of the services. Local trains have operated on the mainline railways around Stockholm since the late nineteenth century. New trains were bought, stations were modernised, and the Stockholm commuter rail network was developed with an aim of making it more metro-like, originally the system was branded as SL förortståg, and as SL lokaltåg. Only in the 1980s did the system became known as Stockholms pendeltåg. In its first year of operation there was one route which went from Södertälje to Kungsängen via Stockholm Central Station. On 1 June 1969 the system was extended to Märsta via a branch located after Karlberg, in 1975 another branch line opened to Västerhaninge, with a single-track shuttle service to Nynäshamn.
Trains on the Kungsängen branch now terminated at Västerhaninge instead of Stockholm C, from 1986 until 1996, important improvements were made to the railways around Stockholm. The service frequency was increased, and from 2001 most stations on the network are served by trains at regular 15-minute intervals. In 2001, the arm of the network was extended from Kungsängen to Bålsta. A southern infill station at Årstaberg was inaugurated in 2006 in order to connect with the new Tvärbanan light rail system, on 18 August 2008 a new station at Gröndalsviken opened on the southeastern Västerhaninge-Nynäshamn shuttle. Since 9 December 2012 it is possible for Stockholm commuter rail trains to stop at Stockholm Arlanda Airport and it takes 38 minutes from Arlanda C station to Stockholm C, and 18 minutes from Arlanda C to Uppsala C. Discussions on the began in December 2007. The airport has had service from Stockholm Central through Arlanda Express since 1999. The implementation required negotiations between Stockholm Transport and Arlanda Express, who had operating rights for the tracks, operation of the Stockholm commuter rail lines has been contracted to private companies since 2000.
The first franchise holder was Citypendeln, which operated the Stockholm commuter rail from 2000 until 17 June 2006, since then, the network is currently operated by Stockholmståg, a subsidiary of SJ AB, the former Swedish State Railways company. On 11 December 2016 MTR Corporation will commence operating the services on a contract with an option to extend for a further four
A parish is a church territorial unit constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates. Historically, a parish often covered the same area as a manor. By extension the term refers not only to the territorial unit. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, the eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, and where minsters catered to the surrounding district. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish comprises a division of a diocese or see, parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest. Some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry, in the Roman Catholic Church, each parish normally has its own parish priest, who has responsibility and canonical authority over the parish.
These are called assistant priests, parochial vicars, curates, or, in the United States, associate pastors, each diocese is divided into parishes, each with their own central church called the parish church, where religious services take place. An example is that of personal parishes established in accordance with the 7 July 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum for those attached to the form of the Roman Rite. Most Catholic parishes are part of Latin Rite dioceses, which cover the whole territory of a country. There can be overlapping parishes of eparchies of Eastern Catholic Churches, the Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Churchs secession from Rome remaining largely untouched, Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury,30 and York,14. A chapelry was a subdivision of a parish in England. It had a status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church.
In England civil parishes and their parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities. Thus their boundaries began to diverge, the word parish acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council. The parish is the level of church administration in the Church of Scotland
1995 FIFA Women's World Cup
The 1995 FIFA Womens World Cup, the second edition of the FIFA Womens World Cup, was held in Sweden and won by Norway. The tournament featured 12 womens national teams from six continental confederations, the 12 teams were drawn into three groups of four and each group played a round-robin tournament. As in the edition of the FIFA Womens World cup. The teams were, For a list of the squads that disputed the final tournament, see 1995 FIFA Womens World Cup squads
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
The Karolinska Institute is a medical university in Solna within the Stockholm urban area and one of the largest and most prestigious medical universities in the world. The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and it consists of fifty professors from various medical disciplines at the university. In 2017 Ole Petter Ottersen was nominated to become rector of the university, the Karolinska Institute was founded in 1810 on Kungsholmen on the west side of Stockholm, the main campus was relocated decades to Solna, just outside Stockholm. A second campus was established recently in Flemingsberg, Huddinge. The Karolinska Institute is Swedens third oldest medical school, after Uppsala University, Research at the Karolinska Institute accounts for more than 40% of all academic medical research in Sweden. The Karolinska University Hospital, located in Solna and Huddinge, is associated with the university as a research, together they form an academic health science centre.
It is one of Swedens largest centres for training and research, while most of the medical programs are taught in Swedish, the bulk of the Ph. D. projects are conducted in English. The institutes name is a reference to the Caroleans, the medical skills of the army barber-surgeons are manifestly inadequate, so Sweden needs to train surgeons in order to better prepare the country for future wars. 1811 The Karolinska Institute is licensed to train not only surgeons,1813 As one of KIs first professors, Jöns Jacob Berzelius lays the foundations of KIs scientific orientation. 1816 The newly inaugurated institute is named Carolinska Institutet, a title that never makes an impact. Carolinska Medico Chirurgiska institutet, proves more popular, especially when preceded by the epithet Kongliga and it is in connection with the student revolt of 1968 that the name is shortened to Karolinska Institutet, or KI as it is now commonly known. Anders Johan Hagströmer is appointed the institutes first inspector, a post equivalent to todays president, Hagströmer is a professor of anatomy and surgery, with a background from the Collegium Medicum, the National Board of Health and Welfare of its day.
This same year, the moves to the old Glasbruk quarter on Norr Mälarstrand. The move across the waters of Riddarfjärden is made on barges, one of which is said to have capsized and his library survives intact and today forms part of the KI-Swedish Society of Medicine book museum at KIs Hagströmer Library. 1861 The institute is awarded the right to confer degrees and is granted an equal to that of a university. 1866 The old building on the Glasbruk plot is torn down and replaced by a new, the new institute is built in stages, mostly during the 1880s and into the first decade of the 20th century. The building stands to day, and has remained largely unchanged since its erection. 1874 KI is licensed to confer medical degrees, even though the institute could run courses in medicine, the right to confer medical degrees was almost exclusively that of Uppsala University
The city is spread across 14 islands on the coast in the southeast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago and the Baltic Sea. The area has settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC. It is the capital of Stockholm County, Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the countrys GDP and it is an important global city, and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some of Europes top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and it hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the citys most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited museum in Scandinavia. The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is known for its decoration of the stations. Swedens national football arena is located north of the city centre, Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city.
The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Ministers residence is adjacent at the Sager House. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BCE, there were already a number of people living in the present-day Stockholm area. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable, at the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholms location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne, the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade.
The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification, the second part of the name means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. Stockholms core, the present Old Town was built on the island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid 13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League, Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time
Statistics Sweden is the Swedish government agency responsible for producing official statistics regarding Sweden. National statistics in Sweden date back to 1686 when the parishes of the Church of Sweden were ordered to start keeping records on the population, sCBs predecessor, the Tabellverket, was set up in 1749, and the current name was adopted in 1858. As of 2015, the agency had approximately 1,350 employees, the offices of the agency are located in Stockholm and Örebro. Statistics Sweden publishes the Journal of Official Statistics, demographics of Sweden Eurostat Government agencies in Sweden List of national and international statistical services Official website