Princess Leia Organa of Alderaan is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise, portrayed in films by Carrie Fisher. Introduced in the original Star Wars film in 1977, Leia is princess of the planet Alderaan, a member of the Imperial Senate and an agent of the Rebel Alliance, she thwarts the sinister Sith Lord Darth Vader and helps bring about the destruction of the Empire's cataclysmic superweapon, the Death Star. In The Empire Strikes Back, Leia commands a Rebel base and evades Vader as she falls in love with the smuggler, Han Solo. In Return of the Jedi, Leia leads the operation to rescue Han from the crime lord Jabba the Hutt, is revealed to be Vader's daughter and the twin sister of Luke Skywalker; the prequel film Revenge of the Sith establishes that the twins' mother is Senator Padmé Amidala of Naboo, who dies after childbirth. Leia is adopted by Queen Breha Organa of Alderaan. In The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi, Leia is the founder and General of the Resistance against the First Order.
She and Han have a son named Ben, who adopted the name Kylo Ren after turning to the dark side of the Force. In the Star Wars Legends series of novels and video games, which are set in an alternate continuity, Leia continues her adventures with Han and Luke after Return of the Jedi, fighting Imperial resurgences and new threats to the galaxy, she becomes the Chief of State of the New Republic and a Jedi Master, is the mother to three children by Han: Jaina and Anakin Solo. One of the more popular Star Wars characters, Leia has been called a 1980s icon, a feminist hero and model for other adventure heroines, she has appeared in many derivative works and merchandising, has been referenced or parodied in several TV shows and films. Her "cinnamon buns" hairstyle from Star Wars and metal bikini from Return of the Jedi have become cultural icons. Leia was created by Star Wars creator George Lucas, who in 1999 explained his early development of the main characters: The first talked about a princess and an old general.
The second version involved a father, his son, his daughter. Now the daughter has become Mark Hamill's character. There was the story of two brothers where I transformed one of them into a sister; the older brother was imprisoned, the young sister had to rescue him and bring him back to their dad. In the rough draft of Star Wars, Leia is the spoiled teenage daughter of King Kayos and Queen Breha of Aquilae, with two brothers and Windy. Leia was at one point "the daughter of Owen Lars and his wife Beru... Luke's cousin–together they visit the grave of his mother, who perished with his father on a planet destroyed by the Death Star." A story synopsis establishes Leia as "Leia Antilles", the daughter of Bail Antilles from the peaceful world of Organa Major. In the fourth draft it was established. Fisher was 19 when she was cast as Princess Leia, with actresses including Amy Irving, Cindy Williams and Jodie Foster up for the role. In 2014, InkTank reported that the extended list of "more than two dozen actresses" who had auditioned for Leia included Glenn Close, Farrah Fawcett, Jessica Lange, Sissy Spacek, Sigourney Weaver, Cybill Shepherd, Jane Seymour, Anjelica Huston, Kim Basinger, Kathleen Turner, Geena Davis and Meryl Streep.
Asked about Streep in 2015, Fisher said, "I've never heard that one. But Jodie Foster was up for it... that one I knew the most. Amy Irving and Jodie, and I got it."The second draft of the Return of the Jedi screenplay contained dialogue in which Obi-Wan tells Luke he has a twin sister. She and their mother were "sent to the protection of friends in a distant system; the mother died shortly thereafter, Luke's sister was adopted by Ben's friends, the governor of Alderaan and his wife." Fisher explained in 1983: "Leia's real father left her mother when she was pregnant, so her mother married this King Organa. I was adopted and grew up set apart from other people because I was a princess."Composer John Williams created a musical leitmotif for Leia which recurs throughout the Star Wars saga. "Princess Leia's Theme" was recorded as a concert suite for the score of the 1977 film. Anthony Breznican of Entertainment Weekly describes Leia as a "diplomat, warrior, undercover agent". Mark Edlitz calls her "a smart, brave diplomat and warrior" in The Huffington Post.
Fisher told Rolling Stone in 1983:There are a lot of people who don't like my character in these movies. She has no family. From the first film, she was just front line and center; the only way they knew to make the character strong was to make her angry. In Return of the Jedi, she gets to be more supportive, more affectionate, she said in 2014: I would rather have played Han Solo. When I first read the script I thought that's the part to be, always sardonic. He's always that. I feel like a lot of the time Leia's either pissed or, thank God, sort of snarky, but I'm much more worried and pissed than Han Solo was, those aren't fun things to play... I had a lot of fun killing Jabba the Hutt, they asked me on the day. No! That's the best time I had as an actor, and the only reason to go into acting is. Introduced in the original 1977 film Star Wars, Princess Leia Organa of Alderaan is a member of the Imperial Senate, she is captured by Darth Vader on board
Star Wars: The Force Awakens
Star Wars: The Force Awakens is a 2015 American epic space-opera film produced, co-written and directed by J. J. Abrams, it is the first installment of the Star Wars sequel trilogy, following Return of the Jedi, the seventh episode of the main Star Wars film franchise. The film stars Harrison Ford, Mark Hamill, Carrie Fisher, Adam Driver, Daisy Ridley, John Boyega, Oscar Isaac, Lupita Nyong'o, Andy Serkis, Domhnall Gleeson, Anthony Daniels, Peter Mayhew, Max von Sydow, was produced by Lucasfilm Ltd. Abrams's production company Bad Robot Productions and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures; the Force Awakens is the first Star Wars film to not involve franchise creator George Lucas. Set 30 years after Return of the Jedi, the film follows Rey and Poe Dameron's search for Luke Skywalker and their fight alongside the Resistance, led by General Leia Organa and veterans of the Rebel Alliance, against Kylo Ren and the First Order, a successor to the Galactic Empire; the Force Awakens was announced after The Walt Disney Company's acquisition of Lucasfilm in October 2012.
The film was produced by Abrams, his longtime collaborator Bryan Burk, Lucasfilm president Kathleen Kennedy. Abrams and Lawrence Kasdan, co-writer of the original trilogy films The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, rewrote an initial script by Michael Arndt. John Williams, the composer for the previous six films, returned to compose the film's score. Lucas served as a creative consultant during the film's early production. Filming began in April 2014 in Abu Dhabi and Iceland, with principal photography taking place in Ireland and Pinewood Studios in the United Kingdom, concluded in November 2014, it was the first live-action Star Wars film released since Revenge of the Sith. Star Wars: The Force Awakens was anticipated, Disney backed the film with extensive marketing campaigns, it premiered in Los Angeles on December 14, 2015, before its wide release in the United States on December 18. The film received positive reviews, with praise for its acting, direction, musical score, visual effects, action sequences, although it received some criticism for being derivative of the original trilogy.
The film broke various box office records and became, unadjusted for inflation, the highest-grossing installment in the franchise, the highest-grossing film in North America, the highest-grossing film of 2015, the third-highest-grossing film of all time, with a worldwide gross of over $2 billion and a net profit of over $780 million. It received five Academy Award nominations and four British Academy Film Award nominations, where it won the award for Best Special Visual Effects, it was followed by The Last Jedi in December 2017 and The Rise of Skywalker, the latter of, scheduled for release in December 2019. Thirty years after the Galactic Civil War, the First Order has risen from the fallen Galactic Empire and seeks to eliminate the New Republic; the Resistance, backed by the Republic and led by General Leia Organa, opposes them while Leia searches for her brother, Luke Skywalker. On the planet Jakku, Resistance pilot Poe Dameron receives a map to Luke's location from Lor San Tekka. Stormtroopers commanded by Kylo Ren capture Poe, while Kylo kills San Tekka.
Poe's droid BB-8 escapes with the map and encounters a scavenger, near a junkyard settlement. Kylo tortures Poe using the Force and learns of BB-8. Stormtrooper FN-2187, unwilling to kill for the First Order, frees Poe, they escape in a stolen TIE fighter; as they turn back to Jakku to retrieve BB-8, they are shot down by a First Order Star Destroyer and crash-land. Finn assumes that Poe died in the crash, he encounters Rey and BB-8. Finn, BB-8 flee the planet in the Millennium Falcon, which they steal from a junkyard; the Falcon is captured by a larger ship piloted by Han Solo and Chewbacca, looking to reclaim their former vessel. The group is attacked by gangs seeking to settle debts with Han, flee in the Falcon. At the First Order's Starkiller Base, a planet converted into a superweapon that harnesses star energy, Supreme Leader Snoke allows General Hux to use the weapon for the first time. Snoke questions Kylo's ability to deal with emotions relating to his father, Han Solo, who Kylo says means nothing to him.
The Falcon crew determines. Han explains that Luke attempted to rebuild the Jedi Order but exiled himself when an apprentice turned to the dark side, destroyed the temple, slaughtered the other apprentices; the crew travels to the planet Takodana and meets with cantina owner Maz Kanata, who offers assistance getting BB-8 to the Resistance. Rey is drawn to a secluded vault and finds the lightsaber that once belonged to Luke and his father, Anakin Skywalker, she experiences disturbing flees into the woods. Maz gives Finn the lightsaber for safekeeping. Starkiller Base destroys a few planets including a portion of its fleet; the First Order attacks Takodana in search of BB-8. Han and Finn are saved by Resistance X-wing fighters led by Poe, revealed to have survived the crash on Jakku. Leia arrives at Takodana with C-3PO and reunites with Chewbacca. Meanwhile, Kylo captures Rey and takes her to Starkiller Base, but she resists his mind-reading attempts. Discovering she can use the Force, Rey escapes by using a Jedi mind trick on a nearby guard.
At the Resistance base on D'Qar, BB-8 finds R2-D2, inactive since Luke's disappearance. As Starkiller Base prepares to fire on D'Qar, the Resistance devises a plan to destroy it by attacking a critical fac
Darth Vader is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise. He is a primary antagonist in the original trilogy, but, as Anakin Skywalker, is the main protagonist of the prequel trilogy. Star Wars creator George Lucas has collectively referred to the first six episodic films of the franchise as "the tragedy of Darth Vader."Originally a Jedi prophesied to bring balance to the Force, Anakin Skywalker is lured to the dark side of the Force by Palpatine, secretly a Sith Lord. After fighting a lightsaber battle with his former mentor Obi-Wan Kenobi in which he is dismembered, Vader is transformed into a cyborg, he serves the Galactic Empire as Darth Vader until he redeems himself by saving his son, Luke Skywalker, from Palpatine, sacrificing his own life in the process. He is the father of Princess Leia, the secret husband of Padmé Amidala, grandfather of Kylo Ren, the main villain of the Star Wars sequel trilogy; the character has been portrayed by numerous actors. His cinematic appearances span the first six Star Wars films, as well as Rogue One, he is referenced in both The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi.
He appears in television series and numerous iterations of the Star Wars Expanded Universe, including video games and comic books. Darth Vader has become one of the most iconic villains in popular culture, has been listed among the greatest villains and fictional characters ever; the American Film Institute listed him as the third greatest movie villain in cinema history on 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains, behind Hannibal Lecter and Norman Bates. His role as a tragic hero in the prequel trilogy was met with positive reviews. Series creator George Lucas wrote the series' main villain as separate from Luke Starkiller's father Annikin. Various combinations of names for the character were built upon the phrase "Dark Water". Lucas "added lots of last names and Wilsons and Smiths, just came up with the combination of Darth and Vader." After the release of The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas said the name Vader was based upon the German/Dutch-language homophone vater or vader, meaning'father', making the name representative of a "Dark Father".
However, there is no evidence that Lucas conceived of Vader as Luke's father before 1978. Other words which may have inspired the name are "death" and "invader"; as no other character with the title "Darth" was introduced until the release of The Phantom Menace, some viewers interpreted it as the character's first name, in part because Obi-Wan Kenobi addresses him as "Darth" in the original film. The moniker is bestowed upon Anakin in Revenge of the Sith upon his turn to the dark side of the Force. Director Ken Annakin's films Swiss Family Robinson and Battle of the Bulge influenced the original trilogy, leading some to believe that Anakin was named after him. Lucas's publicist denied this following Annakin's death in 2009. Anakin and Luke's original surname "Starkiller" remained in the script until a few months into filming Star Wars, when it was dropped due to what Lucas called "unpleasant connotations" with Charles Manson and replaced with "Skywalker". In the first draft of The Star Wars, grim general "Darth Vader" was close in line with his final depiction, the protagonist Annikin Starkiller had a role similar to that of his son Luke's as the 16-year-old son of a respected warrior.
Lucas conceived of the Sith as a group that served the Emperor in the same way that the Schutzstaffel served Adolf Hitler. In developing the backstory for The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas condensed this into one character in the form of Darth Vader. After the success of the original Star Wars, Lucas hired science fiction author Leigh Brackett to write the sequel with him, they held story conferences and, by late November 1977, Lucas had produced a handwritten treatment. The treatment is similar to the final film. In the first draft that Brackett would write from this, Luke's father appears as a ghost to instruct Luke. Lucas was disappointed with the script, but Brackett died of cancer before he could discuss it with her. With no writer available, Lucas had to write the next draft himself. In this draft, he made use of a new plot twist: Vader claiming to be Luke's father. According to Lucas, he found this draft enjoyable to write, as opposed to the year-long struggles writing the first film; the new plot element of Luke's parentage had drastic effects on the series.
Author Michael Kaminski claims and argues in his book that it is unlikely that the plot point had seriously been considered or conceived of before 1978, that the first film was operating under an alternate storyline where Vader was a separate character from Luke's father. After writing the second and third drafts in which the plot point was introduced, Lucas reviewed the new backstory he had created: Anakin had been Obi-Wan Kenobi's brilliant student and had a child named Luke, but was swayed to the dark side by Palpatine. Anakin battled Obi-Wan on the site of a volcano and was badly wounded, but was reborn as Vader. Meanwhile, Obi-Wan hid Luke on Tatooine while the Galactic Republic became the tyrannical Galactic Empire and Vader systematically hunted down and killed the Jedi; this change in character would provide a springboard to the "tragedy of Darth Vader" storyline that underlies the prequel trilogy. After deciding to create the prequel trilogy, Lucas indicated the series would be a tragic one depicting Anakin's fall to the dark side.
He saw that the prequels could form the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death. This was the final step towards turning the film series into a "saga". For the first pr
The Last Command (novel)
The Thrawn trilogy known as the Heir to the Empire trilogy, is a series of science fiction novels written by Timothy Zahn. They are set in the Star Wars Expanded Universe five years after the events depicted in the 1983 Star Wars film Return of the Jedi; the series introduced several notable characters, including Mara Jade, Talon Karrde, Grand Admiral Thrawn, one of the more notable villains in the Expanded Universe. The Thrawn trilogy was followed by The Hand of Thrawn, a two-book series authored by Zahn. Published in 1991, the first book is set five years after the events of Return of the Jedi; the Rebel Alliance, now known as the New Republic, has driven out the remnants of the old Imperial Starfleet to a distant corner of the galaxy, is attempting to set up a functional government. Princess Leia and Han Solo are married and expecting twins. Luke Skywalker has become the first in a long-awaited new line of Jedi Knights. Thousands of light years away, Grand Admiral Thrawn, the last and most brilliant of the 12 Grand Admirals, has taken command of the shattered Imperial Fleet and prepared it to attack the New Republic.
Thrawn is searching for a Dark Jedi to join his side, is confident he can restore the Empire. According to Zahn, Lou Aronica of Bantam Spectra had negotiated the book deal with Lucasfilm in 1989, the publisher put Zahn's name at the top of their list of possible authors, he said, "My original instructions from LucasArts consisted of two rules: the books were to start 3–5 years after Return of the Jedi, I couldn't use anyone who'd been explicitly killed off in the movies." Zahn's working title for the book was Wild Card, which Bantam vetoed this because of its similarity to their other series, Wild Cards. Bantam rejected his second favorite title, The Emperor's Hand. Warlord's Gambit was a potential title, but Heir to the Empire was chosen, which according to Zahn was suggested by Aronica. Zahn used information from the original film trilogy as his primary source, but supplemented that with details from the many sourcebooks created for West End Games' Star Wars: The Roleplaying Game, saying that "the WEG sourcebooks saved me from having to reinvent the wheel many times".
Zahn noted. Published in 1992, the sequel reveals that prior to the Clone Wars, the Old Republic had constructed a fleet of automated heavy cruisers, known as the Katana fleet. A virus drove them insane; the fleet was never seen again until smuggler Talon Karrde discovered it several years before the events of the first book. With access to Palpatine's private storehouse on the planet Wayland, Grand Admiral Thrawn presses his advantage to marshal more forces for the battle against the New Republic. Mara Jade, in an attempt to exonerate the Empire's warrant for Karrde's arrest, goes to Thrawn and offers to reveal the location of the Katana fleet. Instead, he has Karrde is captured. Mara and Luke rescue Karrde from Thrawn's Star Destroyer as Thrawn attempts to capture another man who knows about the Katana fleet. Published in 1993, the third book takes place about a month after the previous volume. Thrawn manned by clones, to launch an offensive against the New Republic. Han Solo and Talon Karrde form an alliance of smugglers to help defend the New Republic.
Mara helps protect Leia from a dark Jedi intent on turning Leia and her newborn twins to the dark side. Mara defeats a clone of Luke named Luuke Skywalker. After Thrawn's defeat and death, Luke gives Mara his old lightsaber and invites her to train as a Jedi. Heir to the Empire reached #1 on the New York Times Best Seller list, the trilogy sold a combined total of 15 million copies; the Thrawn trilogy is credited with revitalizing the Star Wars franchise. In The Secret History of Star Wars, Michael Kaminski suggests that this renewed interest was a factor in George Lucas' decision to create the prequel trilogy; the series introduced the popular Expanded Universe characters Talon Karrde, Grand Admiral Thrawn, Mara Jade, Gilad Pellaeon. It has been called "influential, much-loved, ground breaking". In August 2011, the series was voted into NPR's top 100 science fiction and fantasy books, as voted on by over 60,000 participants. With the 2012 acquisition of Lucasfilm by The Walt Disney Company, most of the licensed Star Wars novels and comics produced since the originating 1977 film Star Wars were rebranded as Star Wars Legends and declared non-canon in April 2014.
At the 2016 Star Wars Celebration in London, it was announced that Thrawn would appear in season three of Star Wars Rebels, his first onscreen appearance. Star Wars: Thrawn, a new book written by Zahn, was published in April 2017. Denis Lawson narrates the abridged audiobook of Heir to the Empire, Anthony Daniels narrates Dark Force Rising and The Last Command. Marc Thompson performs the unabridged 20th Anniversary editions of the Thrawn trilogy audiobooks. Lucasfilm and Varèse Sarabande Records producer Robert Townson discussed the creation a score to promote the trilogy, they collaborated on the Shadows of the Empire soundtrack. All three books were adapted as comic books by Dark Horse Comics; the series was divided into six separate issues per book, re-released in 2009 as a single hardcover graphic novel for the trilogy. Each novel in the trilogy had its own Star Wars role-playing game sourcebook created for it by West End Games; when the rules for the Star Wars RPG changed the three volumes were collected into one book for the entire Thrawn trilogy which served as a second edition to the original three source books.
Supreme Leader Snoke
Supreme Leader Snoke is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise. He is a CGI character performed by Andy Serkis. Introduced in the 2015 film Star Wars: The Force Awakens, Snoke is the Supreme Leader of the First Order, a military junta resurrected from the fallen Galactic Empire, which seeks to reclaim control of the galaxy. Powerful with the Force, he seduces Ben Solo to the dark side. Snoke's appearance changed throughout principal photography and post-production of The Force Awakens. Serkis said, "It's the first time I've been on set not yet knowing what the character's gonna look like. I mean, talk about secrecy!" According to the actor, the character's appearance and movements evolved as he and the film's writer/director J. J. Abrams challenged the visual effects team. According to The Force Awakens senior sculptor Ivan Manzella, "Snoke became a female at one point. J. J. picked out a maquette he liked and we took it to a full-size version, sculpted in plasteline. J. J. and didn't want him to be old and decrepit, like the Emperor."
While Serkis secretly joined the project in February 2014, his casting in The Force Awakens was first announced on April 29, 2014. When asked about his role in July 2014, he joked, "I'm not Yoda." In May 2015, a StarWars.com interview with photographer Annie Leibovitz about her The Force Awakens shoot for Vanity Fair revealed that Serkis would be playing a CGI character named Supreme Leader Snoke, featured an image of the actor in motion capture gear. Serkis had played several CGI characters using motion capture technology, including Gollum in The Lord of the Rings film series, the titular ape in 2005's King Kong, Caesar in the Planet of the Apes reboot series. In November 2015, Serkis said of the process of creating Snoke: When we first started working on it, had some rough notions of how Snoke was gonna look, but it hadn't been fully-formed and it came out of discussion and performance... We shot on set of course, I was in the scenes I have with other actors, but the beauty of this process is you can go back and reiterate, keep informing and honing beats and moments.
So J. J. after we shot last year, we've had a series of sessions where I'd be in London at The Imaginarium, my studio, while he’s been directing from L. A. and we've been creating further additions and iterations to the character. That's been fascinating, and in the meantime I've been able to see the look and design of the character grow and change as the performances change. So it's been exciting in that respect. According to Serkis's costar Lupita Nyong'o, who played the CGI character Maz Kanata in The Force Awakens, the actor coached her on performance-capture work, telling Nyong'o that "a motion-capture character you develop the same way as any other. You have to understand who the character is and what makes them who they are." Serkis said of filming: It was quite an unusual situation. I worked with Domhnall Gleeson and with Adam Driver. My first day was standing on a 25-foot podium doing Lord Snoke without the faintest idea what he looked like... or in fact who he was! I was high up on my own, away from everybody else, but acting with them... we used sort of a "Kongolizer" method of having sound come out of speakers to give a sense of scale and distance for the character.
So it was challenging and scary, in fact one of my most scary film experiences I’ve had. Costume designer Michael Kaplan had the idea to give Snoke gold robes to contrast from his red and black throne room in The Last Jedi. Director Rian Johnson said the red motif was intended to evoke curtains in a nod to The Wizard of Oz, in which the titular character hides behind a curtain; the throne room was designed to look theatrical as opposed to Palpatine's, more utilitarian. The conceptual designers of the set were inspired by unused concept art for Return of the Jedi depicting Palpatine's lava-based lair under the surface of Coruscant. Snoke, whom Abrams called "a powerful figure on the Dark Side of the Force", is the leader of the evil First Order, he is master to Kylo Ren. Serkis described Snoke as "quite an enigmatic character, strangely vulnerable at the same time as being quite powerful, he has a huge agenda. He has suffered a lot of damage." Serkis called Snoke "a new character in this universe", adding "I think it'd be fair to say that he is aware of the past to a great degree."Explaining why CGI was the only way to create Snoke's unique appearance, Serkis said before the film's premiere, "The scale of him, for instance, is one reason.
He is large. He appears tall, and just the facial design—you couldn't have gotten there with prosthetics... he has a distinctive, idiosyncratic bone and facial structure." Chief of creature and droid effects Neal Scanlan said, "This character is much better executed as a CGI character. That's just a practical reality. Snoke's "scarred, cavernous face" was not revealed before the release of the film, in which he appears as a "massive, ominous hologram"; the character's deep voice was first heard in the teaser trailer released on November 28, 2014. Robbie Collin of The Telegraph described the disfigured and skeletal Snoke as a "sepulchral horror", Richard Roeper of the Chicago Sun-Times called him "hissing and grotesque", Andrew O'Hehir of Salon dubbed the character "a spectral demonic figure". Variety's Justin Chang wrote that Snoke resembled "a plus-sized, more articulate Gollum", Chris Nashawaty of Entertainment Weekly described him as "essentially Emperor Palpatine crossed with one of the aliens
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt