Allium cernuum, known as nodding onion or lady's leek, is a perennial plant in the genus Allium. It grows in dry woods, rock outcroppings, prairies, it has been reported from much of the United States and Mexico including in the Appalachian Mountains from Alabama to New York State, the Great Lakes Region, the Ohio and Tennessee River Valleys, the Ozarks of Arkansas and Missouri, the Rocky and Cascade Mountains of the West, from Mexico to Washington. It has not been reported from California, Florida, Mississippi, New Jersey, New England, or much of the Great Plains. In Canada, it grows from Ontario to British Columbia. Allium cernuum has an unsheathed slender conical bulb which tapers directly into several keeled grass-like leaves; each mature bulb bears a single flowering stem, which terminates in a downward nodding umbel of white or rose flowers. Flowers appear in August, they are bell-shaped, about 5 mm across, white with yellow pollen and yellow anthers. This plant does not have bulblets in the inflorescence.
The flowers mature into spherical crested fruits which split open to reveal the dark shiny seeds. Allium cernuum is edible and has a strong onion flavor, has been used in cooking, it is cultivated in many places for its attractive flowers
Red onions are cultivars of the onion with purplish-red skin and white flesh tinged with red. These onions tend to have a mild to sweet flavor, they are consumed raw, grilled or cooked with other foods, or added as a decoration to salads. They tend to lose their colour. Red onions are available throughout the year. Red onions are high in flavonoids, fibre, they can be stored 3 to 4 months at room temperature. Known varieties include'Red Zeppelin'; the skin of the red onion has been used as a dye. The red onion from Turda is a local variety of red onion with light sweeter taste and particular aroma; the area of cultivation encompass the middle Mureş valley. Turda onion bulbs are traditionally intertwined into long strings for marketing purposes and can be found at the traditional markets all over central Romania. "Turda Red Onion" is served fresh, as a salad or part of mixed salads and as a compulsory garnish for the traditional bean-and-smoked ham soups. The red onion from Tropea, Italy, is a particular variety of red onion which grows in a small area of Calabria in southern Italy named Capo Vaticano near the city of Tropea.
This onion has a stronger and sweeter aroma and the inner part is juicier and whiter than other red onions and it is possible to make a jam with it. In March 2008, the European Union registered the Protected Designation of Origin mark for the red onions produced in this particular area. In the United States, one of the most prominent cultivars of red onion was grown in Wethersfield and was a major source of onions for New England until the late 1800s. Onion Cultivation at the World Vegetable Center The red onion of Tropea Vacanze in Calabria: The red onion of Tropea
Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents, it borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state; the area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE.
Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the Bombay State; this state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state. Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover, its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.
In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average. Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era. Painted pottery dated to the mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture and Malwa culture have been discovered in the western part of the state; the city of Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom Tejas. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha and Nishada—have been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the tejas Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.
Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports; the Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE. Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, their southern neighbours, the Vakataka's; the rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states.
The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528. Harsha ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century; when the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand; the Chandellas built the majestic Hindu-Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh at this time, it left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa; the Paramara king Bhoja was a renowned polymath.
The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim
Allium is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, scallion, shallot and chives. The generic name Allium is the Latin word for garlic, the type species for the genus is Allium sativum which means "cultivated garlic". Linnaeus first described the genus Allium in 1753; some sources refer to Greek αλεω by reason of the smell of garlic. Various Allium have been cultivated from the earliest times, about a dozen species are economically important as crops, or garden vegetables, an increasing number of species are important as ornamental plants; the decision to include a species in the genus Allium is taxonomically difficult, species boundaries are unclear. Estimates of the number of species are as low as 260, as high as 979. Allium species occur in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere, except for a few species occurring in Chile and tropical Africa, they vary in height between 150 cm. The flowers form an umbel at the top of a leafless stalk.
The bulbs vary from small to rather large. Some species develop thickened leaf-bases rather than forming bulbs as such. Plants of the genus Allium produce chemical compounds derived from cysteine sulfoxides, that give them a characteristic onion, or garlic and odor. Many are used as food plants, though not all members of the genus are flavorful. In most cases, both bulb and leaves are edible; the cooking and consumption of parts of the plants is due to the large variety of textures, flavours, which may be strong or weak, that they can impart to the dish they are used in. The characteristic Allium flavor depends on the sulfate content of the soil. In the rare occurrence of sulfur-free growth conditions, all Allium species lose their usual pungency. In the APG III classification system, Allium is placed in the family Amaryllidaceae, subfamily Allioideae. In some of the older classification systems, Allium was placed in Liliaceae. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown. Allium is one of about fifty-seven genera of flowering plants with more than 500 species.
It is by far the largest genus in the Amaryllidaceae, in the Alliaceae in classification systems in which that family is recognized as separate. The genus Allium is characterised by herbaceous geophyte perennials with true bulbs, some of which are borne on rhizomes and an onion or garlic odor and flavor; the bulbs are solitary or clustered and tunicate and the plants are perennialized by the bulbs reforming annually from the base of the old bulbs, or are produced on the ends of rhizomes or, in a few species, at the ends of stolons. A small number of species have tuberous roots; the bulbs' outer coats are brown or grey, with a smooth texture, are fibrous, or with cellular reticulation. The inner coats of the bulbs are membranous. Many alliums have basal leaves that wither away from the tips downward before or while the plants flower, but some species have persistent foliage. Plants produce from most species having linear, channeled or flat leaf blades; the leaf blades are straight or variously coiled, but some species have broad leaves, including A. victorialis and A. tricoccum.
The leaves are sessile, rarely narrowed into a petiole. The flowers, which are produced on scapes are erect or in some species pendent, having six petal-like tepals produced in two whorls; the flowers have six epipetalous stamens. The ovaries are superior, three-lobed with three locules; the fruits are capsules that open longitudinally along the capsule wall between the partitions of the locule. The seeds are black, have a rounded shape; the terete or flattened flowering scapes are persistent. The inflorescences are umbels, in which the outside flowers bloom first and flowering progresses to the inside; some species produce bulbils within the umbels, in some species, such as Allium paradoxum, the bulbils replace some or all the flowers. The umbels are subtended by noticeable spathe bracts, which are fused and have around three veins; some bulbous alliums increase by forming little bulbs or "offsets" around the old one, as well as by seed. Several species can form many bulbils in the flowerhead. Many of the species of Allium have been used as food items throughout their ranges.
There are several poisonous species that are somewhat similar in appearance, but none of these has the distinctive scent of onions or garlic. With over 850 species Allium is the sole genus in the Allieae, one of four tribes of subfamily Allioideae. New species continue to be described and Allium is one of the largest monocotyledonous genera, but the precise taxonomy of Allium is poorly understood, with incorrect descriptions being widespread; the difficulties arise from the fact that the genus displays considerable polymorphism and has adapted to a wide variety of habitats. Furthermore, traditional classications had been based on homoplasious characteristics. However, the genus has been shown to be monophyletic, containing three major clades, although some proposed subgenera are not; some progress is being made using molecular phylogenetic methods, the in
Allium crispum is a species of wild onion known by the common name crinkled onion. It is endemic to California, where it grows along the Central Coast in the Coast Ranges and in the Santa Monica Mountains in clays and serpentine soils. Allium crispum grows from a bulb one to one and a half centimeters wide and sends up naked green stems topped with inflorescences of many flowers, each on a short pedicel; the flowers have six triangular tepals. The inner three tepals may curl under. Anthers and pollen are yellow. California montane chaparral and woodlands Jepson Manual Treatment — Allium crispum USDA Plants Profile: Allium crispum Allium crispum - U. C. Photo gallery
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy. A bulb's leaf bases known as scales do not support leaves, but contain food reserves to enable the plant to survive adverse weather conditions. At the center of the bulb is an unexpanded flowering shoot; the base is formed by a reduced stem, plant growth occurs from this basal plate. Roots emerge from the underside of the base, new stems and leaves from the upper side. Tunicate bulbs have dry, membranous outer scales that protect the continuous lamina of fleshy scales. Species in the genera Allium, Hippeastrum and Tulipa all have tunicate bulbs. Non-tunicate bulbs, such as Lilium and Fritillaria species, lack the protective tunic and have looser scales; the technical term geophyte encompasses plants that form underground storage organs, including bulbs as well as tubers and corms. Some epiphytic orchids form above-ground storage organs called pseudobulbs, that superficially resemble bulbs.
Nearly all plants that form true bulbs are monocotyledons, include: Amaryllis, Hippeastrum and several other members of the amaryllis family Amaryllidaceae. This includes onion and other alliums, members of the Amaryllid subfamily Allioideae. Lily and many other members of the lily family Liliaceae. Two groups of Iris species, family Iridaceae: subgenus subgenus Hermodactyloides. Oxalis, in the family Oxalidaceae, is the only dicotyledon genus. Bulbous plant species cycle through vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Certain environmental conditions are needed to trigger the transition from one stage to the next, such as the shift from a cold winter to spring. Once the flowering period is over, the plant enters a foliage period of about six weeks during which time the plant absorbs nutrients from the soil and energy from the sun for setting flowers for the next year. Bulbs dug up before the foliage period is completed will not bloom the following year but should flower in subsequent years.
After the foliage period is completed, bulbs may be dug up for replanting elsewhere. Any surface moisture should be dried the bulbs may be stored up to about 4 months for a fall planting. Storing them much longer than that may cause the bulbs to dry out inside and become nonviable. A bulbil is a small bulb, may be called a bulblet, bulbet, or bulbel. Small bulbs can propagate a large bulb. If one or several moderate-sized bulbs form to replace the original bulb, they are called renewal bulbs. Increase bulbs are small bulbs that develop either on each of the leaves inside a bulb, or else on the end of small underground stems connected to the original bulb; some lilies, such as the tiger lily Lilium lancifolium, form small bulbs, called bulbils, in their leaf axils. Several members of the onion family, including Allium sativum, form bulbils in their flower heads, sometimes as the flowers fade, or instead of the flowers; the so-called tree onion forms small onions. Some ferns, such as the hen-and-chicken fern, produce new plants at the tips of the fronds' pinnae that are sometimes referred to as bulbils.
Coccoris, Patricia The Curious History of the Bulb Vase. Published by Cortex Design. ISBN 978-0956809612
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma